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Daniela Droppa-Almeida, Elton Franceschi, Francine Ferreira Padilha
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacteria that affects sheep and goats. The absence of a serologic diagnose is a factor that contributes for the disease dissemination, and due to the formation of granuloma, the treatment is very expensive. Therefore, prophylaxis is the approach with best cost-benefit relation; however, it still lacks an effective vaccine. In this sense, this work seeks to apply bioinformatic tools to design an effective vaccine against CLA, using CP40 protein as standard for the design of immunodominant epitopes, from which a total of 6 sequences were obtained, varying from 10 to 16 amino acid residues...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Rafael Caputo Oliveira, Ryan S Pralle, Lucas C de Resende, Carlos Henrique P C Nova, Valentina Caprarulo, Joshua A Jendza, Arnulf Troescher, Heather M White
Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN)...
2018: PloS One
Somaieh Matin, Ali Nemati, Hassan Ghobadi, Reza Alipanah-Moghadam, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh
Background: Natural antioxidants in foods may be used in prevention and treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplement as natural antioxidants on oxidative stress levels, and MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels in COPD patients. Materials and methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 90 (supplement group=45 and control group=45) COPD patients in Ardabil city, Iran, in 2015...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
B K Chai, Y S Lau, B J Loong, M M Rais, K N Ting, D M Dharmani, M S Kumar
The cis(c)-9, trans(t)-11 (c9,t11) and t10,c12 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have been reported as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and beneficial in lipidemia and glycaemia. However, it is unclear whether CLA isomers enhance or antagonize effects of conventional drugs targeting PPAR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and treated without or with CLA, rosiglitazone or both for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and surrogate markers of insulin resistance were not significantly different for all treatments compared to untreated normal diet (ND) or HFD group, except lipoprotein levels...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Naveed Ahmad, M Saleem
Characterisation and thermal deterioration of desi ghee obtained from buffalo milk is presented for the first time using the potential of Fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission bands in non-heated desi ghee centred at 375 nm is labelled for vitamin D, 390 nm for vitamin K, 440-460 nm for isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 490 nm for vitamin A and the region 620-700 nm is assigned to chlorophyll contents. Fluorescence emission spectra from all the heated and non-heated ghee samples were recorded using excitation wavelengths at 280, and 410 nm which were found best for getting maximum spectral signatures...
2018: PloS One
C Enerbäck, C Sandin, S Lambert, M Zawistowski, P E Stuart, D Verma, L C Tsoi, R P Nair, A Johnston, J T Elder
Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) belongs to the Janus kinase (JAK) family of tyrosine kinases, which transmit signals from activated cytokine receptors. GWAS have consistently implicated TYK2 in psoriasis susceptibility. We performed an in-depth association analysis of TYK2 using GWAS and resequencing data. Strong genetic association of three nonsynonymous variants in the exonic regions of the TYK2 gene (rs34536443, rs12720356, and rs2304256) were found. rs12720356 encoding I684S is predicted to be deleterious based on its location in the pseudokinase domain...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohamed Bourmoum, Ricardo Charles, Audrey Claing
Sister chromatid cohesion, ensured by the protein complex, cohesin, is crucial for the establishment of stable bipolar attachments of chromosomes to the spindle microtubules and their faithful segregation. Here, we demonstrate that the GTPase ARF6 prevents the premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion. During mitosis, ARF6 depleted cells normally completed chromosome congression. However, at the metaphase plate, chromosomes failed to establish stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments because of the impaired cohesion at centromeres...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Peter S Hsu, Catherine L Lai, Mingjing Hu, Brigitte Santner-Nanan, Jane E Dahlstrom, Cheng Hiang Lee, Ayesha Ajmal, Amanda Bullman, Susan Arbuckle, Ahmed Al Saedi, Lou Gacis, Reta Nambiar, Andrew Williams, Melanie Wong, Dianne E Campbell, Ralph Nanan
Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin+ Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA+ ) Treg cells later in life...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mayara Queiroga Barbosa, Rita de Cássia Ramos Egypto Queiroga, Camila Carolina de Menezes Santos Bertozzo, Daline Fernandes de Souza Araújo, Louise Iara Gomes Oliveira, Jaielison Yandro Pereira Silva, Marco Aurélio Delmondes Bomfim, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo Guerra, Suedna Costa, Rui Bessa, Susana Alves, Juliana Kessia Barbosa Soares
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a diet with goat milk fat supplemented with physical training on markers of oxidative stress in the brain and anxiety behavior in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10 per group): control sedentary (CON) and exercised (CON-EX) groups, goat milk fat sedentary (GM) and exercised (GM-EX) groups, goat milk fat enriched with CLA sedentary (GM-CLA) and exercised (GM-CLA-EX) groups. The exercised groups were submitted to treadmill running during four weeks...
May 2, 2018: Food & Function
Aneta A Koronowicz, Mariola Drozdowska, Paula Banks, Ewelina Piasna-Słupecka, Dominik Domagała, Teresa Leszczyńska
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids from conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched egg yolk suppressed the viability of the MCF-7 cancer line more effectively than non-enriched egg yolk. Herein we aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms by analysing the expression and activation of proteins involved in cellular stress and apoptosis signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight Isa Brown laying hens (26-week-old) were fed a fortified (0.75% CLA) or a control diet (0% CLA) for 4 months...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
P Frutos, P G Toral, A Belenguer, G Hervás
Dairy ewes show large individual variation in the extent of diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) but reasons behind this variability remain uncertain. Previous results offered no convincing support for these differences being related to relevant changes in the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, including potentially antilipogenic FA, or in the transcript abundance of candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that alterations in the processes of rumen biohydrogenation and fermentation, as well as in the bacterial community structure, might account for individual variation in fish oil-induced MFD severity...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ye Fan, Jie Ma, Yun Fang, Tingting Liu, Xueyi Hu, Yongmei Xia
FAVs (fatty acid vesicles), originated from natural biomass and created available biointerface, have advantages of biocompatibility, low-cost, and easy self-assembly in aqueous solution due to their dynamic feature. However, there is no example of applying FAVs in contact with human body since they are inherently alkaline-adapted and pH windows for the FAV formation and application are very narrow and far away from the physiological pH range. In this work an attempt to turn the alkaline-adapted FAVs into neutral and acid-adapted ones was made by fabricating the amphiphile-hybrid vesicles of CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) with a typical cosmetic emulsifier SDS (sodium dodecylsulfate) and/or a co-emulsifier DA (dodecyl alcohol)...
April 20, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Aneta A Koronowicz, Paula Banks
In this manuscript, we reviewed the available literature on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched food products, including meat, dairy products, and eggs on cancer, both in vivo and in vitro. Based on our own studies on CLA-enriched eggs, we also identified potential molecular mechanisms by which such products may act on cancer cells. We propose the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway as mainly accountable for the reduction of cancer cells viability. Our hypothesis is supported by observed changes in expression of genes associated with downregulation of AKT/mTOR signalling pathway...
May 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Anne Harrison-Marchand, Mathieu Rouen, Pauline Chaumont, Gabriella Barozzino-Consiglio, Jacques Maddaluno
A methodology consisting in carrying out enantioselective nucleophilic 1,2-additions (ees up to 97%) from cheap, easily accessible, and never described before, chiral lithium amido zincates is presented. These multicomponent reactants auto-assemble when mixing, in a 1 : 1 ratio, a homoleptic diorganozinc (R2Zn) with a chiral lithium amide (CLA). The latter, obtained after a single reductive amination, plays the role of the chiral inductor and is fully recoverable thanks to a simple acid-base wash, allowing being recycled and re-use without loss of stereochemical information...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
A Białek, M Białek, T Lepionka, K Kaszperuk, T Banaszkiewicz, A Tokarz
The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
F R Grassi, B Rapone, F Scarano Catanzaro, M Corsalini, Z Kalemaj
Objectives: This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate effectiveness of Computerized Local Anesthesia (CLA) on oral implantology through estimation of pain and discomfort and total quantity of injected anesthetic. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients whose treatment plan included immediate or late dental implants were included in this study. The main inclusion criteria comprised: previous implant intervention under conventional anesthesia (CA) during the past 3 years and no previous treatment of pain relief...
October 2017: Oral & Implantology
Junsong Pan, Junyi Tan, Yuhui Wang, Xiangyang Zheng, Ken Owens, Dawei Li, Yuhong Li, Yiqun Weng
Map-based cloning identified a candidate gene for resistance to the anthracnose fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, which reveals a novel function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN family genes for host disease resistance in plants. Colletotrichum orbiculare is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. No host resistance genes against the anthracnose pathogens have been cloned in crop plants. Here, we reported fine mapping and cloning of a resistance gene to the race 1 anthracnose pathogen in cucumber inbred lines Gy14 and WI 2757...
April 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
A Bougouin, A Ferlay, M Doreau, C Martin
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of fiber- or starch-rich diets based on grass silage, supplemented or not with bicarbonate, on CH4 emissions and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: carbohydrate type [starch- or fiber-rich diets with dietary starch level of 23.1 and 5.9% on a dry matter basis, respectively], without or with bicarbonate addition [0 and 1% of the dry matter intake, respectively]...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Nazli Namazi, Pardis Irandoost, Bagher Larijani, Leila Azadbakht
Clinical trials have indicated conflicting results on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on obesity. The present study aimed to systematically review controlled clinical trials examining the effects of CLA on anthropometric indices and body composition in overweight and obese subjects. Pubmed, Scopus, Web of science, and Cochrane databases were searched between 2000 and December 2017 with no language restriction. Placebo-controlled clinical trials that reported anthropometric indices and body composition in overweight and obese subjects were included...
April 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Susana M Gesteira, Ronaldo L Oliveira, Thadeu M Silva, Rebeca D X Ribeiro, Cláudio V D M Ribeiro, Elzania S Pereira, Dante P D Lanna, Luis F B Pinto, Tiago C Rocha, Jusaline F Vieira, Leilson R Bezerra
This study was conducted to test the effect of dietary tannin on the fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat from Nellore steers. Thirty-two Nellore bull male were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with condensed tannin extract as follows: 0, 10, 30, and 50 g/kg total DM basis. The physicochemical composition of the meat, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile, flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptance were evaluated. There was a linear decrease (P ≤ 0.05) on lipid content, tenderness, cooking weight loss, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in meat as tannin increased in the diets...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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