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Laura-Isobel McCall, Anupriya Tripathi, Fernando Vargas, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nina V Palkola, Sari H Pakkanen, Oskari Heikinheimo, Jussi M Kantele, Anu Kantele
Mucosal antibodies constitute the first line of adaptive immune defence against invaders in the female genital tract (FGT), yet the sequence of events leading to their production is surprisingly poorly characterized. We explored the induction of pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) as a response to an acute infection in the upper FGT. We recruited 12 patients undergoing surgery due to an upper FGT infection (7/12 blood culture positive, 5/12 negative) and six healthy controls. Pathogens were sampled during surgery and PBMC collected in the acute phase of the disease (days 7-10)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
T Y Zhang, J T Huang, H B Tian, Y Ma, Z Chen, J J Wang, H P Shi, J Luo
The trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is a biohydrogenation intermediate in the rumen and has been shown to cause milk fat depression in dairy goats. However, few studies have focused on the in vitro molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the goat mammary gland to t10c12-CLA. In the present study, RNA sequencing technology was used to investigate the effects of t10c12-CLA on goat mammary epithelial cells. From the data, 25,153 annotated transcripts were obtained, and differentially expressed genes were selected based on a false discovery rate <0...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Katarzyna Turek, Jacek Domagała, Monika Wszołek
BACKGROUND: Yogurt is a dairy product with a high nutritional value. However, like all milk products, it contains milk fat and is rich in saturated fatty acids. It would be desirable to enrich dairy products in poly- unsaturated fatty acids to increase dietary intake amongst consumers and improve their health. Also, some LAB bacteria are able to produce CLA and CLnA isomers from linoleic and linolenic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical properties and fatty acid profile of yogurt with the addition of 3...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
M J Sylte, M H Inbody, T A Johnson, T Looft, J E Line
Consumption of contaminated poultry products is the main source of human campylobacteriosis, for which Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for 90% of human cases. Although chickens are believed to be a main source of human exposure to C. jejuni, turkeys also contribute to cases of human infection. Little is known about the kinetics of C. jejuni intestinal colonization in turkeys, or best selective media for their recovery. Enumeration of C. jejuni from intestinal samples can be challenging because most selective Campylobacter media support the growth of non-Campylobacter organisms...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Sathiyamoorthy Selladurai, Arun Kumar Thittai
In elastography, conventional linear array (CLA)-based RF data acquisition provides more accurate displacement measurements in the direction of beam propagation (axial direction) when compared to the perpendicular direction (lateral). Obtaining good quality lateral displacement estimates in ultrasound (US) elastography will lead to several benefits such as obtaining accurate inverse solutions, improving shear strain elastogram quality, getting good quality poroelastograms, and obtaining reliable rotation elastograms...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ricardo Charles, Mohamed Bourmoum, Audrey Claing
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) can exhibit a contractile or a synthetic phenotype depending on the extracellular stimuli present and the composition of the extracellular matrix. Uncontrolled activation of the synthetic VSMC phenotype is however associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of the ARF GTPases in the regulation of VSMC dedifferentiation. First, we observed that the inhibition of the activation of ARF proteins with SecinH3, a blocker of the cytohesin ARF GEF family, reduced the ability of the cells to migrate and proliferate...
February 27, 2018: Cellular Signalling
M N Odhah, F F A Jesse, A Lawan, U H Idris, A D Marza, Z K Mahmood, A Yusuf, M Arsalan, A H Wahid, M L Mohd-Azmi, M Zamri-Saad
Haptoglobin (Hp) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) are a group of blood proteins whose concentrations in animals can be influenced by infection, inflammation, surgical trauma or stress. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), and Mycolic acid is a virulent factor extracted from C. pseudotuberculosis. There is a dearth of sufficient evidence on the clinical implication of MAs on the responses of Hp and SAA in goats. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential effects of Mycolic acid (MAs) and C...
February 23, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kaori Yoneyama, Narumi Mori, Tomoyasu Sato, Akiyoshi Yoda, Xiaonan Xie, Masanori Okamoto, Masashi Iwanaga, Toshiyuki Ohnishi, Hisashi Nishiwaki, Tadao Asami, Takao Yokota, Kohki Akiyama, Koichi Yoneyama, Takahito Nomura
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones which regulate shoot branching and function as host recognition signals for symbionts and parasites in the rhizosphere. However, steps in SL biosynthesis after carlactone (CL) formation remain elusive. This study elucidated the common and diverse functions of MAX1 homologs which catalyze CL oxidation. We have reported previously that ArabidopsisMAX1 converts CL to carlactonoic acid (CLA), whereas a rice MAX1 homolog has been shown to catalyze the conversion of CL to 4-deoxyorobanchol (4DO)...
February 26, 2018: New Phytologist
Tarek A Morsy, Ahmed E Kholif, Osama H Matloup, Amgad Abu Elella, Uchenna Y Anele, Joel S Caton
The experiments reported in this Research Paper aimed to study the effects of mustard and cumin seeds inclusion on feed utilisation, milk production, composition, and profile of milk fatty acids in lactating Damascus goats. The study was a completely randomised design with repeated measurements in time using fifteen goats (6 ± 2 d of lactation) divided into 3 treatments (5 goats per treatment). Goats were offered a control diet of berseem clover and concentrates (1 : 1 dry matter (DM) basis) or the control diet supplemented with either 10 g/d of dried mustard seeds (mustard treatment) or 10 g/d of cumin seeds (cumin treatment) for 12 weeks...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Shengdi Li, Ziyi Chang, Tianqing Zhu, Yixue Li, Bruce A Freeman, Y Eugene Chen, Jifeng Zhang
Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2 -CLA) is formed by metabolic and inflammatory reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite, and represents the most abundant nitro-fatty acid species in humans. These electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives mediate pleiotropic cell signaling responses. Here, we report a systematic approach to investigate the effect of NO2 -CLA on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMC), based on the RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis. There were extensive differentially expressed genes in NO2 -CLA vs...
February 23, 2018: Physiological Genomics
C Fernández, J V Marti, I Pérez-Baena, J L Palomares, C Ibáñez, J V Segarra
The objective of this experiment was to find out the effect of lemon leaves on energy and C-N balances, methane emission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Lemon leaves were used to replace alfalfa as forage in a diet for Murciano-Granadina goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (44.1 ± 4.47 kg of BW) in late lactation (185 ± 7.2 d) were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. One group was fed a mixed ration with 450 g of pelleted alfalfa/kg of DM (ALF diet) and, the other group replaced alfalfa with 450 g of pelleted lemon leaves/kg DM (LEM diet)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M van Splunter, E van Hoffen, E G Floris-Vollenbroek, H Timmerman, E Lucas-van de Bos, B Meijer, L H Ulfman, B Witteman, J M Wells, S Brugman, H F J Savelkoul, R J J van Neerven
Oral cholera vaccination is used to induce immune responses in the intestines to protect against cholera infection. However, oral vaccination may also affect immune responses in other mucosal tissues. To study this, tissue-specific homing potential and kinetics of B-cell responses were characterized after oral cholera vaccination. Healthy adult volunteers received two doses of Dukoral® and blood, saliva, nasal wash, and fecal samples were collected over time to detect vaccine-specific antibodies. Additionally, homing potential of lymphocytes to small intestine, colon, airways, skin, and periphery was measured by expression of Integrin β1 and β7, CCR9, CCR10, CCR7, and CLA...
February 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
C Forte, R Branciari, D Pacetti, D Miraglia, D Ranucci, G Acuti, M Balzano, N G Frega, M Trabalza-Marinucci
The effect of a dietary oregano aqueous extract on meat fatty acid profile, quality, and consumer acceptance in chickens fed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was evaluated in 3 consecutive trials.For each trial, 171 day-old Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided in replicates of 19 birds each and assigned to one of 3 experimental diets: 1) basal control diet, 2) basal diet supplemented with 0.2 g/kg of oregano aqueous extract, and 3) basal diet supplemented with 150 ppm of vitamin E (as positive control)...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Vishwanath M Pattanshetti, Kanyadhara L Krishna
INTRODUCTION: Management of appendicitis has evolved dramatically in the last 120 years, from McBurney's large incision to minimally invasive laparoscopic appendectomy to hardly noticeable incisions with SILS. As a bridge between conventional laparoscopic surgery and SILS, double-incision laparoscopic surgery further minimizes the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery by reducing the number of incisions. This study aimed to establish the efficacy of double-incision, three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (DILA) as an alternative to conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy...
February 19, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Khairia M Al-Ahmary, Moustafa M Habeeb, Areej H Al-Obidan
New charge transfer complex (CTC) between the electron donor 2,3-diaminopyridine (DAP) with the electron acceptor chloranilic (CLA) acid has been synthesized and characterized experimentally and theoretically using a variety of physicochemical techniques. The experimental work included the use of elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and 1 H NMR studies to characterize the complex. Electronic spectra have been carried out in different hydrogen bonded solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and 1:1 mixture from AN-MeOH...
February 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Katherine A Weissler, Marjohn Rasooly, Tom DiMaggio, Hyejeong Bolan, Daly Cantave, David Martino, Melanie R Neeland, Mimi Lk Tang, Thanh D Dang, Katrina J Allen, Pamela A Frischmeyer-Guerrerio
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is potentially life-threatening and generally persists lifelong. Recent data suggests the skin may be an important route of initial sensitization to peanut, while early oral exposure to peanut is protective. In mice, T regulatory cells (Tregs) are central to development of tolerance to food, but their contribution to the pathogenesis of food allergy in humans is less clear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify and phenotype peanut-specific CD4+ T effector (ps-Teff) and ps-Tregs in children with and without peanut allergy or sensitization...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
Sitan Wang, Xiaona Li, Huimin Zhao, Xie Quan, Shuo Chen, Hongtao Yu
Ionizable antibiotics have attracted serious concerns because of their variable dissociation forms and thereby rendering unique toxicity and microorganism resistance. Developing an efficient and environmentally friendly method for removing these micropollutants from environmental media remains very challenging. Here, electro-assisted adsorption onto activated carbon fiber in continuous-flow mode was used to remove three ionizable antibiotics, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and clarithromycin (CLA), from water...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
Ángel Cañete Ruiz, Jose Ramón Foruny Olcina, Fernando González-Panizo, Alejandra Caminoa, Antonia Navarro, Diego Juzgado Lucas, Agustín Albillos Martínez, Enrique Vázquez Sequeiros
INTRODUCTION: endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a highly useful technique for the diagnosis and management of different gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions. OBJECTIVE: to prospectively assess the clinical usefulness of a novel forward-viewing echoendoscope (FV-CLA). METHODS: this was a cross-sectional observational study. All patients that underwent EUS over a two-month period were considered for the study. All mediastinal, perigastric and periduodenal stations were consistently assessed with a rating from 0 to 10 points with regard to the ease to obtain ultrasonographic sections and the quality of ultrasound images...
February 9, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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