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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319494/risk-of-tumor-progression-in-colon-carcinoma-resection-and-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-polyvalent-immunoglobulins-per-aspera-ad-astra
#1
Reinhard Lissner, Martin Gasser, Anna M Waaga-Gasser, Barry G Woodcock
There is strong evidence that tumor progression in the postoperative period is attributable to the influx of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the blood from the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen. Although several research groups have emphasized the need to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract to prevent tumor progression and reduce the inflammatory response, a therapeutic option to achieve this has not been put forward hitherto. Enterally applied immunoglobulins (IgG) in the form of colostrum concentrates are able to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract and to reduce the inflammatory response during abdominal surgery...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290912/lumen-apposing-metal-stents-for-benign-gastrointestinal-tract-strictures-an-international-multicenter-experience
#2
Javier Santos-Fernandez, Christopher Paiji, Mohammad Shakhatreh, Irene Becerro-Gonzalez, Ramon Sanchez-Ocana, Paul Yeaton, Jason Samarasena, Manuel Perez-Miranda
AIM: To investigate technical feasibility, outcomes and adverse events of the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) for benign gastrointestinal (GI) tract strictures. METHODS: Between July 2015 and January 2017, patients undergoing treatment by LAMS for benign GI strictures at three tertiary referral centers were included in this study. Primary outcomes included technical success, short-term clinical success, long-term clinical success, and adverse events. Short-term clinical success was defined as symptom resolution at 30 d after stent placement...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195256/increased-postprandial-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-production-after-endoscopic-gastrointestinal-bypass-using-the-cousin-lumen-apposing-stent-in-a-porcine-model
#3
Robert Caiazzo, Julien Branche, Mehdi Daoudi, Gilles Solecki, Thomas Hubert, Audrey Quenon, Violeta Raverdy, François Cousin, François Henin, Valery Dalle, Stéphane Noel, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Marc Barthet, François Pattou
Background and study aims Endoscopic techniques have demonstrated their effectiveness in metabolic surgery, notably through a gastrointestinal (GI) liner, with a less invasive approach than conventional surgery. Our study evaluates the safety and efficacy of endoscopic GI anastomosis (EGIA) using a lumen-apposing stent to secure the anastomosis. Materials and methods EGIA was performed using the transgastric approach with a two-channel endoscope with a novel stent (Cousin Biotech). First, a safety study with a follow-up of 12 months was performed on five piglets...
December 1, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184902/vertebrate-food-products-as-a-potential-source-of-prion-like-%C3%AE-synuclein
#4
REVIEW
Bryan Andrew Killinger, Viviane Labrie
The aberrant aggregation of the protein α-synuclein is thought to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factors that lead to initiation and propagation of α-synuclein aggregation are not clearly understood. Recently, the hypothesis that α-synuclein aggregation spreads via a prion-like mechanism originating in the gut has gained much scientific attention. If α-synuclein spreads via a prion-like mechanism, then an important question becomes, what are the origins of this prion-like species? Here we review the possibility that α-synuclein aggregation could be seeded via the ingestion of a prion-like α-synuclein species contained within food products originating from vertebrates...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164508/eus-guided-transrectal-evacuation-of-organized-pelvic-collection-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-after-failure-of-radiological-and-surgical-approach
#5
Gianfranco Donatelli, Jean-Loup Dumont, Fabrizio Cereatti, Bruto Randone, Bruno Meduri, Panagiotis Lainas, Hadrien Tranchart, Ibrahim Dagher
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative collections are an important cause of morbidity following obesity surgery. Surgical revision is most often required if general sepsis is present. Conservative treatment consists of broad spectrum antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of any collection. EUS drainage is a new technique that is gaining momentum allowing an easy access to collections close to the GI tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the case report of a 39-year-old woman who underwent to robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity...
November 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127880/effects-of-flavonoids-on-microrna-145-regulation-through-klf4-and-myocardin-in-neointimal-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Chiu-Mei Lin, Bao-Wei Wang, Chun-Ming Pan, Wei-Jen Fang, Su-Kiat Chua, Sheng-Wen Hou, Hang Chang, Kou-Gi Shyu
MicroRNA 145 (miR-145) is a critical modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotyping and proliferation. Flavonoids have been studied extensively due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory effects. The aims of this study is designed to evaluate the atheroprotective effects on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced miR-145 and Klf4/myocardin expression in vitro and in vivo of flavonoids, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), chrysin, wogonin, silibinin, and ferulic acid...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122749/frontline-defenders-goblet-cell-mediators-dictate-host-microbe-interactions-in-the-intestinal-tract-during-health-and-disease
#7
Joannie M Allaire, Vijay Morampudi, Shauna Mary Crowley, Martin Stahl, Hongbing Yu, Kirandeep Bhullar, Leigh A Knodler, Brian Bressler, Kevan Jacobson, Bruce A Vallance
Goblet cells (GC)s are the predominant secretory epithelial cells lining the luminal surface of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Best known for their apical release of the mucin Muc2, which is critical in the formation of the intestinal mucus barrier, GCs have often been overlooked for their active contributions to intestinal protection and host defense. In part, this oversight reflects the limited tools available to study their function, but also because GCs have long been viewed as relatively passive players in promoting intestinal homeostasis and host defense...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075825/effective-communication-of-cross-sectional-imaging-findings-in-crohn-s-disease-comparing-conventional-emr-reporting-to-a-published-scoring-system
#8
Andrew Flint, Naueen A Chaudhry, Michael Riverso, Angela Pham, Patricia P Moser, Lazarus K Mramba, Ellen M Zimmermann, Joseph R Grajo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to compare information regarding small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients communicated by a published scoring system and radiology reports from electronic medical record (EMR) of cross-sectional abdominal imaging. METHODS: Two gastrointestinal radiologists (reference readers) blinded to EMR reports scored cross-sectional imaging exams using a published scoring system. Investigators compared EMR and radiologist scores based on the mentioned findings and severity documentation of each variable...
October 26, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971865/the-gastrointestinal-tract-is-a-major-source-of-echinocandin-drug-resistance-in-a-murine-model-of-candida-glabrata-colonization-and-systemic-dissemination
#9
Kelley R Healey, Yoji Nagasaki, Matthew Zimmerman, Milena Kordalewska, Steven Park, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Candida species are a part of the human microbiome and can cause systemic infection upon immune suppression. C. glabrata infections are increasing and have greater rates of antifungal resistance compared to other species. Here, we present a C. glabrata gastrointestinal (GI) colonization model to explore whether colonized yeast exposed to caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, develop characteristic resistance mutations, and upon immunosuppression, breakthrough causing systemic infection. Daily therapeutic dosing (5 mg/kg) of caspofungin resulted in no reduction in fecal burdens, organ breakthrough rates similar to control groups, and resistance rates (0-10%) similar to those reported clinically...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937221/in-vivo-dissolution-and-systemic-absorption-of-immediate-release-ibuprofen-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract-under-fed-and-fasted-conditions
#10
Duxin Sun, Jason R Baker, Bo Wen, Ann Frances, Huixia Zhang, Alex Yu, Ting Zhao, Yasuhiro Tsume, Manjunath Pai, Barry Bleske, Xinyuan Zhang, R Lionberger, Allen Lee, Gordon Amidon, William L Hasler, Mark Koenigsknecht
PURPOSE: In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS Class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. METHODS: A multi-lumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924591/safety-and-efficacy-of-coaxial-lumen-apposing-metal-stents-in-the-management-of-refractory-gastrointestinal-luminal-strictures-a-multicenter-study
#11
Fateh Bazerbachi, Jason D Heffley, Barham K Abu Dayyeh, Jose Nieto, Eric J Vargas, Tarek Sawas, Raja Zaghlol, Navtej S Buttar, Mark D Topazian, Louis M Wong Kee Song, Michael Levy, Steve Keilin, Qiang Cai, Field F Willingham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  Benign gastrointestinal (GI) strictures are often refractory to standard endoscopic interventions. Fully covered coaxial lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) have emerged as a novel therapy for these strictures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LAMS for refractory GI strictures. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  A retrospective analysis was performed for patients who underwent LAMS placement for benign luminal strictures in three US centers between January 2014 and December 2016...
September 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886480/intelligent-visual-localization-of-wireless-capsule-endoscopes-enhanced-by-color-information
#12
George Dimas, Evaggelos Spyrou, Dimitris K Iakovidis, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is performed with a miniature swallowable endoscope enabling the visualization of the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract. One of the most challenging problems in WCE is the localization of the capsule endoscope (CE) within the GI lumen. Contemporary, radiation-free localization approaches are mainly based on the use of external sensors and transit time estimation techniques, with practically low localization accuracy. Latest advances for the solution of this problem include localization approaches based solely on visual information from the CE camera...
September 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#13
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755970/differences-of-first-pass-effect-in-the-liver-and-intestine-contribute-to-the-stereoselective-pharmacokinetics-of-rhynchophylline-and-isorhynchophylline-epimers-in-rats
#14
Xin Wang, Mei Zheng, Jia Liu, Zhifeng Huang, Yidan Bai, Zhuoying Ren, Ziwen Wang, Yangli Tian, Zhou Qiao, Wenyuan Liu, Feng Feng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil., is a plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN), a pair of epimers, are major alkaloids isolated from U. rhynchophylla and exhibit diverse pharmacological effects. Our previous study demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of these epimers existed stereoselectivity after oral administration; however, the specific mechanism remains unknown and merits investigation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685396/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-bupropion-in-three-different-formulations-with-different-release-kinetics-in-healthy-human-volunteers
#15
Jamie N Connarn, Stephanie Flowers, Marisa Kelly, Ruijuan Luo, Kristen M Ward, Gloria Harrington, Ila Moncion, Masoud Kamali, Melivin McInnis, Meihua R Feng, Vicki Ellingrod, Andrew Babiskin, Xinyuan Zhang, Duxin Sun
The purpose of this pharmacokinetics (PK) study was to investigate whether different release kinetics from bupropion hydrochloride (HCl) immediate release (IR), sustained release (SR), and extended release (ER) formulations alter its metabolism and to test the hypothesis that the unsuccessful bioequivalence (BE) study of the higher strength (300 mg) of bupropion HCl ER tablets based on the successful BE study of the lower strength (150 mg) was due to metabolic saturation in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen...
July 6, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648835/effect-of-glp-1-receptor-agonist-on-gastrointestinal-tract-motility-and-residue-rates-as-evaluated-by-capsule-endoscopy
#16
Y Nakatani, M Maeda, M Matsumura, R Shimizu, N Banba, Y Aso, T Yasu, H Harasawa
AIM: This study evaluated the effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility and residue rates by examining GI transit time and lumen using capsule endoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GI motility and lumen were assessed by capsule endoscopy before and after liraglutide administration in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESULTS: Gastric transit time in the group with diabetic neuropathy (DN) was 1:12:36±1:04:30h before liraglutide administration and 0:48:40±0:32:52h after administration (nonsignificant difference, P=0...
June 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579349/electromagnetic-guided-placement-of-nasoduodenal-feeding%C3%A2-tubes-versus-endoscopic-placement-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#17
Wouter F W Kappelle, Daisy Walter, Paul H Stadhouders, Hendrik J A Jebbink, Frank P Vleggaar, Peter J van der Schaar, Jan Willem Kappelle, Ingeborg van der Tweel, Medard F M Van den Broek, Frank J Wessels, Peter D Siersema, Jan F Monkelbaan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electromagnetic-guided placement (EMP) of a nasoduodenal feeding tube by trained nurses is an attractive alternative to EGD-guided placement (EGDP). We aimed to compare EMP and EGDP in outpatients, ward patients, and critically ill patients with normal upper GI anatomy. METHODS: In 3 centers with no prior experience in EMP, patients were randomized to placement of a single-lumen nasoduodenal feeding tube either with EGDP or EMP. The primary endpoint was post-pyloric position of the tube on abdominal radiography...
June 1, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475050/development-of-a-mechanical-scanning-device-with-high-frequency-ultrasound-transducer-for-ultrasonic-capsule-endoscopy
#18
Xingying Wang, Vipin Seetohul, Ruimin Chen, Zhiqiang Zhang, Ming Qian, Zhehao Shi, Ge Yang, Peitian Mu, Congzhi Wang, Zhihong Huang, Qifa Zhou, Hairong Zheng, Sandy Cochran, Weibao Qiu
Wireless capsule endoscopy has opened a new era by enabling remote diagnostic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract in a painless procedure. Video capsule endoscopy is currently commercially available worldwide. However, it is limited to visualization of superficial tissue. Ultrasound (US) imaging is a complementary solution as it is capable of acquiring transmural information from the tissue wall. This paper presents a mechanical scanning device incorporating a high-frequency transducer specifically as a proof of concept for US capsule endoscopy (USCE), providing information that may usefully assist future research...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385693/expression-and-localization-of-vpac1-the-major-receptor-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-along-the-length-of-the-intestine
#19
Dulari Jayawardena, Grace Guzman, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Hayat Onyuksel, Pradeep K Dudeja
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an endogenous neuropeptide with a broad array of physiological functions in many organs including the intestine. Its actions are mediated via G protein-coupled receptors, and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VPAC1) is the key receptor responsible for majority of VIP's biological activity. The distribution of VPAC1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract and its subcellular localization in intestinal epithelial cells have not been fully characterized. The current studies were undertaken to determine VPAC1 distribution and localization so that VIP-based therapies can be targeted to specific regions of the intestine...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241955/clinical-issues-march-2017
#20
Sharon A Van Wicklin
Using one flexible endoscope for an upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedure Key words: flexible endoscope, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscope, risk assessment. Enhanced methods for processing flexible duodenoscopes Key words: flexible duodenoscopes, liquid chemical sterilization, ethylene oxide sterilization, low-temperature sterilization, risk assessment. Modification of the Spaulding classification Key words: Spaulding classification, critical items, semicritical items, mucous membranes, risk assessment...
March 2017: AORN Journal
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