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GI lumen

Yu Meng, FangGen Lu, Lin Shi, MeiChu Cheng, Jie Zhang
RATIONALE: The use of anticoagulants is a contributor to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Most bleeding patients on anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin commonly have basic lesions existing in their GI mucosa. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of major GI bleeding following the use of anticoagulants in a patient with hookworm infection. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with pulmonary embolism. INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with anticoagulants and suffered from acute major GI bleeding during the treatment...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ashley K McGrew, Todd M O'Hara, Craig A Stricker, Mo D Salman, William Van Bonn, Frances M D Gulland, Alex Whiting, Lora R Ballweber
Acanthocephalans, cestodes, and some species of nematodes acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of their definitive host. These parasites are exposed to toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), through passive or active feeding mechanisms; therefore, the focus of this study was to determine if there is an effect of parasites on the dietary availability of total mercury (THg) within piscivorous pinniped hosts. THg concentrations ([THg]) in selected host tissues, parasites, and GI lumen contents from 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and 4 spotted seals (Phoca largha) were determined...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
G Mulkerrin, N M Hogan, M Sheehan, M R Joyce
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are a rare slow growing malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. These tumors are usually discovered incidentally by endoscopy, surgery or radiology. However on occasions they may present with significant symptoms including GI blood loss. This case report discusses an atypical presentation of a GIST in a 57-year-old female. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following one episode of melena...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jaehoon Cho, Ara B Sahakian
The development of new endoscopic techniques, such as gastrointestinal (GI) stenting, full-thickness suturing, clip application, and use of tissue adhesives, has had a significant impact on management of GI fistulae. These techniques have shown promising results, but further study is needed to optimize the efficacy of long-term closure. The advancement of endoscopic techniques, including the use of the lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS), has allowed for the deliberate creation of fistula tracts to apply endoscopic therapy that previously could not be achieved...
April 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Francisco Javier Garcia-Alonso, Ramón Sanchez-Ocana, Irene Peñas-Herrero, Ryan Law, Sergio Sevilla-Ribota, Raúl Torres-Yuste, Paula Gil-Simón, Carlos de la Serna Higuera, Manuel Perez-Miranda
BACKGROUND:  Delayed gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and stent migration are known adverse events which may occur following placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs). METHODS:  All consecutive patients who underwent LAMS placement between May 2011 and June 2017 at a single tertiary medical center were included. Demographics and procedural details were prospectively collected. Post-procedure follow-up and outcome measures were retrospectively collected...
March 7, 2018: Endoscopy
Valérie Fonteyne, Camille Sarrazyn, Martijn Swimberghe, Gert De Meerleer, Elke Rammant, Barbara Vanderstraeten, Frank Vanpachtenbeke, Nicolaas Lumen, Karel Decaestecker, Roos Colman, Geert Villeirs, Piet Ost
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) for localized prostate cancer is safe and effective. The question that remains is which hypofractionation schedule to implement. We compared 2 different HFRT regimens in the present study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From June 2013 to July 2016, 160 patients with prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1), within this single-center phase III trial, to 56 Gy (16 fractions of 3.5 Gy; arm A) or 67 Gy (25 fractions of 2...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Patricia Guzman Rojas, Chirin Orabi, Glenn Speth
Barolith is a mixture of firm feces with barium sulfate, and a frequent cause of obstruction of the appendiceal lumen that can result in appendicitis. Nonetheless, some other complications like aspiration, allergic reaction, and bowel obstruction have also been reported.  We present the case of a 71-year-old man with a history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), who came to the gastroenterology clinic complaining of intermittent loose stools and dysphagia to solids for the past months. The patient underwent a barium swallow study six days prior and was completely normal...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
Panos Macheras, Athanassios Iliadis, Georgia Melagraki
The aim of this work is to develop a gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption model based on a reaction limited model of dissolution and consider its impact on the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs. Estimates for the fraction of dose absorbed as a function of dose, solubility, reaction/dissolution rate constant and the stoichiometry of drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution were derived by numerical solution of the model equations. The undissolved drug dose and the reaction/dissolution rate constant drive the dissolution rate and determine the extent of absorption when high-constant drug permeability throughout the gastrointestinal tract is assumed...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Binata Joddar, Nishat Tasnim, Vikram Thakur, Alok Kumar, Richard W McCallum, Munmun Chattopadhyay
Gastroparesis (GP) is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. MSCs have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals...
February 7, 2018: Bioengineering
Marco De Monti, Giovanni Cestaro, Suleiman Alkayyali, Jacopo Galafassi, Fabrizio Fasolini
INTRODUCTION: Gallstone ileus (GI) is characterized by a mechanical occlusion of the ileal lumen as a result of migration of one or more gallstones in the intestinal tract. Less than 1-4% of all cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology (1,2,3). CASE REPORT: We present a case of small intestinal obstruction owing to a large gallstone in lower ileum in a 66 years old woman. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography, and treated successfully with an enterotomy, with a removal of a 5 cm gallstone, carried out through a longitudinal incision on the antimesenteric border...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Reinhard Lissner, Martin Gasser, Anna M Waaga-Gasser, Barry G Woodcock
There is strong evidence that tumor progression in the postoperative period is attributable to the influx of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the blood from the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen. Although several research groups have emphasized the need to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract to prevent tumor progression and reduce the inflammatory response, a therapeutic option to achieve this has not been put forward hitherto. Enterally applied immunoglobulins (IgG) in the form of colostrum concentrates are able to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract and to reduce the inflammatory response during abdominal surgery...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Javier Santos-Fernandez, Christopher Paiji, Mohammad Shakhatreh, Irene Becerro-Gonzalez, Ramon Sanchez-Ocana, Paul Yeaton, Jason Samarasena, Manuel Perez-Miranda
AIM: To investigate technical feasibility, outcomes and adverse events of the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) for benign gastrointestinal (GI) tract strictures. METHODS: Between July 2015 and January 2017, patients undergoing treatment by LAMS for benign GI strictures at three tertiary referral centers were included in this study. Primary outcomes included technical success, short-term clinical success, long-term clinical success, and adverse events. Short-term clinical success was defined as symptom resolution at 30 d after stent placement...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Robert Caiazzo, Julien Branche, Mehdi Daoudi, Gilles Solecki, Thomas Hubert, Audrey Quenon, Violeta Raverdy, François Cousin, François Henin, Valery Dalle, Stéphane Noel, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Marc Barthet, François Pattou
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Endoscopic techniques have demonstrated their effectiveness in metabolic surgery, notably through a gastrointestinal (GI) liner, with a less invasive approach than conventional surgery. Our study evaluates the safety and efficacy of endoscopic GI anastomosis (EGIA) using a lumen-apposing stent to secure the anastomosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS : EGIA was performed using the transgastric approach with a two-channel endoscope with a novel stent (Cousin Biotech). First, a safety study with a follow-up of 12 months was performed on five piglets...
January 2018: Endoscopy
Bryan Andrew Killinger, Viviane Labrie
The aberrant aggregation of the protein α-synuclein is thought to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factors that lead to initiation and propagation of α-synuclein aggregation are not clearly understood. Recently, the hypothesis that α-synuclein aggregation spreads via a prion-like mechanism originating in the gut has gained much scientific attention. If α-synuclein spreads via a prion-like mechanism, then an important question becomes, what are the origins of this prion-like species? Here we review the possibility that α-synuclein aggregation could be seeded via the ingestion of a prion-like α-synuclein species contained within food products originating from vertebrates...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Gianfranco Donatelli, Jean-Loup Dumont, Fabrizio Cereatti, Bruto Randone, Bruno Meduri, Panagiotis Lainas, Hadrien Tranchart, Ibrahim Dagher
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative collections are an important cause of morbidity following obesity surgery. Surgical revision is most often required if general sepsis is present. Conservative treatment consists of broad spectrum antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of any collection. EUS drainage is a new technique that is gaining momentum allowing an easy access to collections close to the GI tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the case report of a 39-year-old woman who underwent to robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity...
November 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Chiu-Mei Lin, Bao-Wei Wang, Chun-Ming Pan, Wei-Jen Fang, Su-Kiat Chua, Sheng-Wen Hou, Hang Chang, Kou-Gi Shyu
MicroRNA 145 (miR-145) is a critical modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotyping and proliferation. Flavonoids have been studied extensively due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory effects. The aims of this study is designed to evaluate the atheroprotective effects on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced miR-145 and Klf4/myocardin expression in vitro and in vivo of flavonoids, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), chrysin, wogonin, silibinin, and ferulic acid...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Joannie M Allaire, Vijay Morampudi, Shauna Mary Crowley, Martin Stahl, Hongbing Yu, Kirandeep Bhullar, Leigh A Knodler, Brian Bressler, Kevan Jacobson, Bruce A Vallance
Goblet cells (GC)s are the predominant secretory epithelial cells lining the luminal surface of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Best known for their apical release of the mucin Muc2, which is critical in the formation of the intestinal mucus barrier, GCs have often been overlooked for their active contributions to intestinal protection and host defense. In part, this oversight reflects the limited tools available to study their function, but also because GCs have long been viewed as relatively passive players in promoting intestinal homeostasis and host defense...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Andrew Flint, Naueen A Chaudhry, Michael Riverso, Angela Pham, Patricia P Moser, Lazarus K Mramba, Ellen M Zimmermann, Joseph R Grajo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to compare information regarding small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients communicated by a published scoring system and radiology reports from electronic medical record (EMR) of cross-sectional abdominal imaging. METHODS: Two gastrointestinal radiologists (reference readers) blinded to EMR reports scored cross-sectional imaging exams using a published scoring system. Investigators compared EMR and radiologist scores based on the mentioned findings and severity documentation of each variable...
October 26, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Kelley R Healey, Yoji Nagasaki, Matthew Zimmerman, Milena Kordalewska, Steven Park, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Candida species are a part of the human microbiome and can cause systemic infection upon immune suppression. Candida glabrata infections are increasing and have greater rates of antifungal resistance than other species. Here, we present a C. glabrata gastrointestinal (GI) colonization model to explore whether colonized yeast exposed to caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, develop characteristic resistance mutations and, upon immunosuppression, breakthrough causing systemic infection. Daily therapeutic dosing (5 mg/kg of body weight) of caspofungin resulted in no reduction in fecal burdens, organ breakthrough rates similar to control groups, and resistance rates (0 to 10%) similar to those reported clinically...
December 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mark J Koenigsknecht, Jason R Baker, Bo Wen, Ann Frances, Huixia Zhang, Alex Yu, Ting Zhao, Yasuhiro Tsume, Manjunath P Pai, Barry E Bleske, Xinyuan Zhang, Robert Lionberger, Allen Lee, Gordon L Amidon, William L Hasler, Duxin Sun
In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. A multilumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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