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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904625/an-intriguing-case-of-gallstone-ileus-after-hepaticojejunostomy-caused-by-a-stone-on-a-suture
#1
Mahir Gachabayov, Petr Mityushin
Gallstone ileus (GI) is a mechanical obstruction of small or large bowel caused by gallstone passed to the intestinal lumen through spontaneous or postoperative biliodigestive fistula. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted with the clinical presentation of small bowel obstruction. She underwent hepaticojejunostomy 4 years prior to admission for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Barium meal follows through revealed Rigler's triad. The patient underwent laparotomy which revealed GI. A "stone on a suture" was removed through enterotomy...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849324/pre-operative-stool-analysis-for-intestinal-parasites-and-fecal-occult-blood-in-patients-with-acute-appendicitis
#2
Sinan Hatipoğlu, Uğur Lök, Umut Gülaçtı, Tuncay Çelik
BACKGROUND: Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy...
September 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785331/congenital-esophageal-duplication-cyst-a-rare-cause-of-dysphagia-in-an-adult
#3
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Ashok R Mohite, Pravin M Rathi
Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital embryonal gastrointestinal (GI) malformation which is diagnosed most commonly in childhood. In adults, they can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from dysphagia, chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting to more serious complications including infections, hemorrhage, and ulcerations. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressive dysphagia to solids for 4 months without significant weight loss. Clinical examination and routine laboratory examination were unrevealing...
October 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755100/the-gut-microbiome-and-hiv-1-pathogenesis-a-two-way-street
#4
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687211/tissue-metabolism-and-host-microbial-interactions-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#5
Carlene Chun, Leon Zheng, Sean P Colgan
In recent years, studies in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa have taught us a number of important lessons related to tissue oxygenation and metabolism in health and disease. The highly vascularized mucosa lies immediately adjacent to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active microbes (i.e. the microbiome) that results in one of the more austere tissue microenvironments in the body. These studies have also implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in inflammation, so called "inflammatory hypoxia", that results from the activation of multiple oxygen consuming enzymes...
September 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651814/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-complex-forming-ability-of-hydroxypyranones-and-hydroxypyridinones-with-ni-ii-as-possible-inhibitors-for-urease-enzyme-in-helicobacter-pylori
#6
Abbasali Palizban, Lotfollah Saghaie
The complex-forming ability of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-one (1a), 2-ethyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-one (1b), 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (4a) and 1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (4b) with nickel(Ni(II)) were characterized by infrared, ultraviolet, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and melting point. The mole-ratio of nickel:ligands was analyzed by atomic-absorption-spectrometry. The partition-coefficients (KOW) of the compounds were also determined. The binding of ligands with Ni(II) are through deprotonated hydroxyl group (-O(-), disapeared at 3259 cm(-1)) and ioan-pairs of carbonyl group (=CO(...
July 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633158/use-of-a-lumen-apposing-metal-stent-to-treat-gi-strictures-with-videos
#7
Shayan Irani, Sujai Jalaj, Andrew Ross, Michael Larsen, Ian S Grimm, Todd H Baron
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Benign gastrointestinal strictures occur typically in the esophagus and pyloric channel, but can occur anywhere in the GI tract and at anastomotic sites. Such strictures can be treated with dilation, incisional therapy, steroid injection and stents. Our aim was to describe the use of a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) to treat short, benign gastrointestinal strictures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent LAMS placement for various benign strictures at 2 tertiary care centers from August 2014 to November 2015...
September 12, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598592/ingested-intraabdominal-foreign-bodies-that-require-surgical-intervention
#8
Remzi Kızıltan, Özkan Yılmaz, Abbas Aras, Osman Toktaş, Abdulsamet Batur, Fatma Ağar, Şehmus Ölmez, Çetin Kotan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to review cases that required surgical intervention to remove ingested foreign bodies. METHODS: Medical records of 7 patients who underwent surgical intervention at the Yüzüncü Yıl University Department of General Surgery between 2009 and 2014 after ingesting foreign bodies were reviewed. RESULTS: Female:male ratio was 5:2; mean age was 25 (16-35). Four patients had swallowed pins, 1 patient had swallowed a sewing pin, 1 patient had swallowed a safety pin, and 1 patient had swallowed a wristwatch...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590517/blunted-dynamics-of-adenosine-a2a-receptors-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-infection-in-the-elderly
#9
Lisa Rodrigues, Isabel M Miranda, Geanne M Andrade, Marta Mota, Luísa Cortes, Acácio G Rodrigues, Rodrigo A Cunha, Teresa Gonçalves
Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496048/biopharmaceutic-classification-of-drugs-revisited
#10
Chrysa Daousani, Panos Macheras
The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) was based on the tube model of the intestinal lumen. This model considers constant drug permeability along the intestines, a plug flow fluid with the suspended drug particles moving with the fluid, and dissolution in the small particle limit. Since then the research work focusing on drug gastrointestinal (GI) absorption phenomena and processes rely on the classical laws of transport, diffusion and kinetics; however, the homogeneous assumptions associated with the well-stirred Euclidean media, where the classical laws of diffusion and kinetics apply, have been questioned in the past...
August 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396605/malondialdehyde-and-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-are-formed-during-dynamic-gastrointestinal-in-vitro-digestion-of-cod-liver-oils
#11
Karin Larsson, Cecilia Tullberg, Marie Alminger, Robert Havenaar, Ingrid Undeland
Marine long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are associated with reduced risk for inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. These fatty acids, however, are rapidly oxidized, generating highly reactive malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). These oxidation products may interact with DNA and proteins, thus possibly leading to impaired cell functions. Little is known about the formation of MDA, HHE and HNE in fish oil in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370138/endoluminal-ultrasound-applicators-for-mr-guided-thermal-ablation-of-pancreatic-tumors-preliminary-design-and-evaluation-in-a-porcine-pancreas-model
#12
Matthew S Adams, Vasant A Salgaonkar, Juan Plata-Camargo, Peter D Jones, Aurea Pascal-Tenorio, Hsin-Yu Chen, Donna M Bouley, Graham Sommer, Kim Butts Pauly, Chris J Diederich
PURPOSE: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. METHODS: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3...
July 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208775/a-bitter-pill-for-type-2-diabetes-the-activation-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r38-can-stimulate-glp-1-release-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#13
Hung Pham, Hongxiang Hui, Susan Morvaridi, Jiena Cai, Sanqi Zhang, Jun Tan, Vincent Wu, Nancy Levin, Beatrice Knudsen, William A Goddard, Stephen J Pandol, Ravinder Abrol
The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al...
July 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196587/protease-inhibition-as-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-gi-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Nathalie Vergnolle
The GI tract is the most exposed organ to proteases, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. For digestive purposes, the lumen of the upper GI tract contains large amounts of pancreatic proteases, but studies have also demonstrated increased proteolytic activity into mucosal tissues (both in the upper and lower GI tract), associated with pathological conditions. This review aims at outlining the evidences for dysregulated proteolytic homeostasis in GI diseases and the pathogenic mechanisms of increased proteolytic activity...
July 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100715/a-novel-occluder-for-endoscopic-closure-of-gastrotomy-an-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-animal-study
#15
Ji Hee Kim, Bo-In Lee, Sung Hak Lee, Joon Sung Kim, Myong Ki Baeg, Jae Myung Park, In-Seok Lee, Byung-Wook Kim, Sang Woo Kim, Hwang Choi, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We evaluated the feasibility of a novel occluder for endoscopic closure of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) gastrotomy. METHODS: The occluder is a self-expandable, membrane-covered, metal structure for endoscopic delivery through gastrointestinal (GI) wall defects. The procedure time and air-tightness of endoscopic closure for a 12-mm perforation were compared for a through-the-scope clip group and an occluder group in an ex vivo animal study...
August 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100453/clinical-outcomes-of-anticoagulation-therapy-in-patients-with-symptomatic-spontaneous-isolated-dissection-of-the-superior-mesenteric-artery
#16
Youngjin Han, Yong-Pil Cho, Gi-Young Ko, Dong Wan Seo, Min-Ju Kim, Hyunwook Kwon, Hyangkyoung Kim, Tae-Won Kwon
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of long-term anticoagulation therapy in patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) and to evaluate whether conservative treatment with anticoagulation therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for these patients.In this single center, observational cohort study, data from a prospectively recruiting symptomatic SIDSMA registry, including demographics, risk factors of interest, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and initial and follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings, were analyzed retrospectively...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097663/thermal-therapy-of-pancreatic-tumours-using-endoluminal-ultrasound-parametric-and-patient-specific-modelling
#17
Matthew S Adams, Serena J Scott, Vasant A Salgaonkar, Graham Sommer, Chris J Diederich
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate endoluminal ultrasound applicator configurations for volumetric thermal ablation and hyperthermia of pancreatic tumours using 3D acoustic and biothermal finite element models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parametric studies compared endoluminal heating performance for varying applicator transducer configurations (planar, curvilinear-focused, or radial-diverging), frequencies (1-5 MHz), and anatomical conditions. Patient-specific pancreatic head and body tumour models were used to evaluate feasibility of generating hyperthermia and thermal ablation using an applicator positioned in the duodenal or stomach lumen...
2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052647/viable-cancer-cells-in-the-remnant-stomach-are-a-potential-source-of-peritoneal-metastasis-after-curative-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#18
Satoshi Murata, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Sachiko Kaida, Mitsuaki Ishida, Hirokazu Kodama, Katsushi Takebayashi, Tomoharu Shimizu, Toru Miyake, Tohru Tani, Ryoji Kushima, Masaji Tani
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying peritoneal metastasis (PM) after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) are not well elucidated. This study assessed whether viable cancer cells, including cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), were present in the remnant stomach immediately before gastrointestinal (GI) tract reconstruction because these could be a source of PM after gastrectomy. METHODS: Saline fluid used for remnant stomach lumen irrigation before GI reconstruction was prospectively collected from 142 consecutive patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for GC and cytologically examined...
September 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037063/navigating-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-for-oral-drug-delivery-uncharted-waters-and-new-frontiers
#19
REVIEW
Mirko Koziolek, Michael Grimm, Felix Schneider, Philipp Jedamzik, Maximilian Sager, Jens-Peter Kühn, Werner Siegmund, Werner Weitschies
Many concepts of oral drug delivery are based on our comprehension of human gastrointestinal physiology. Unfortunately, we tend to oversimplify the complex interplay between the various physiological factors in the human gut and, in particular, the dynamics of these transit conditions to which oral dosage forms are exposed. Recent advances in spatial and temporal resolution of medical instrumentation as well as improved access to these technologies have facilitated clinical trials to characterize the dynamic processes within the human gastrointestinal tract...
June 1, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992388/update-on-enteral-stents
#20
REVIEW
Emanuele Dabizzi, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono
The recent advances in enteral stents design and composition introduced novel usage and indications, heading to a continuous addition of prostheses application in clinical practice. Since the first use to palliate malignant diseases, improving patient's quality of life, in the last decades we assisted to a large spread, often becoming a first choice treatment in GI disorders. Indeed, the clinical indication of gastrointestinal stents includes endoscopic treatment of fistula and leaks besides the well-established role of restoring lumen patency in benign and malignant conditions...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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