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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#1
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114688/lumen-apposing-covered-self-expandable-metal-stents-for-short-benign-gastrointestinal-strictures-a-multicenter-study
#2
Dennis Yang, Jose M Nieto, Ali Siddiqui, Brian P Riff, Christopher J DiMaio, Satish Nagula, Amr M Ismail, Saowanee Ngamreungphong, Mouen A Khashab, Mihir S Wagh, Demetrios Tzimas, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Daniel S Strand, Andrew Y Wang, Shailendra S Chauhan, Christopher E Forsmark, Peter V Draganov
Background and study aim Use of the fully covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) for benign luminal gastrointestinal (GI) stricture (BLGS) has been limited by the migration rate. The role of the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) for BLGS is not well defined. We assessed the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of LAMS for the treatment of BLGS.  Patients and methods This was an observational, open-label, retrospective, single-arm, multicenter consecutive case series of patients undergoing LAMS placement for BLGS...
January 23, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097745/immature-core-protein-of-hepatitis-c-virus-induces-an-unfolded-protein-response-through-inhibition-of-erad-l-in-a-yeast-model-system
#3
Shota Takahashi, Naoko Sato, Junichi Kikuchi, Hideaki Kakinuma, Jun Okawa, Yukiko Masuyama, Singo Iwasa, Hayato Irokawa, Gi-Wook Hwang, Akira Naganuma, Michinori Kohara, Shusuke Kuge
The structural protein Core of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a cytosolic protein, induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in hepatocytes, and is responsible for the pathogenesis of persistent HCV infection. Using yeast as a model system, we evaluated mechanisms underlying Core-induced interference of ER homeostasis and UPR, and found that UPR is induced by the immature Core (aa 1-191, Core191) but not by the mature Core (aa 1-177, Core177). Interestingly, Core191 inhibits both ERAD-L, a degradation system responsible for misfolded/unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, and ERAD-M, a degradation system responsible for proteins carrying a misfolded/unfolded region in the ER membrane...
January 18, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088292/human-fetal-intestinal-epithelial-cells-metabolize-and-incorporate-branched-chain-fatty-acids-in-a-structure-specific-manner
#4
Lei Liu, Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Chuang Xu, Peter Lawrence, Xueli Su, Vasuki Wijendran, W Allan Walker, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
BACKGROUND: Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are constituents of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in healthy newborn human infants, reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a neonatal rat model, and are incorporated into small intestine cellular lipids in vivo. We hypothesize that BCFA are taken up, metabolized and incorporated into human fetal cells in vitro. METHODS: Human H4 cells, a fetal non-transformed primary small intestine cell line, were incubated with albumin-bound non-esterified anteiso-17:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0 and/or iso-20:0, and FA profiles in lipid fractions were analyzed...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074953/gastrointestinal-interactions-absorption-splanchnic-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-ingested-phenolic-compounds
#5
REVIEW
J Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Gustavo R Velderrain-Rodríguez, C-Y Oliver Chen, Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Maribel Robles-Sánchez, Gustavo A González-Aguilar
The positive health effects of phenolic compounds (PCs) have been extensively reported in the literature. An understanding of their bioaccessibility and bioavailability is essential for the elucidation of their health benefits. Before reaching circulation and exerting bioactions in target tissues, numerous interactions take place before and during digestion with either the plant or host's macromolecules that directly impact the organism and modulate their own bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present work is focused on the gastrointestinal (GI) interactions that are relevant to the absorption and metabolism of PCs and how these interactions impact their pharmacokinetic profiles...
January 11, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018454/idiopathic-midaortic-syndrome-with-malignant-hypertension-in-3-year-old-boy
#6
Kyung Jin Ahn, Ja Kyoung Yoon, Gi Beom Kim, Bo Sang Kwon, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh
Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare vascular disease that commonly causes renovascular hypertension. The lumen of the abdominal aorta narrows and the ostia of the branches show stenosis. MAS is associated with diminished pulses in the lower extremities compared with the upper extremities, severe hypertension with higher blood pressure in the upper rather than lower extremities, and an abdominal bruit. The clinical symptoms are variable, and recognition in children with hypertension can aid early diagnosis and optimal treatment...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936778/computational-and-experimental-models-of-the-gastrointestinal-environment-2-phase-behavior-and-drug-solubilisation-capacity-of-a-type-i-lipid-based-drug-formulation-after-digestion
#7
Woldeamanuel A Birru, Dallas B Warren, Sifei Han, Hassan Benameur, Christopher J H Porter, Colin W Pouton, David K Chalmers
Lipid based drug formulations can greatly enhance the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Following the oral administration of formulations containing tri- or diglycerides, the digestive processes occurring within the GI tract hydrolyze the glycerides to mixtures of free fatty acids and monoglycerides that are, in turn, solubilized by bile. The behavior of drugs within the resulting colloidal mixtures is currently not well characterized. This work presents matched in vitro experimental and molecular dynamics (MD) theoretical models of the gastrointestinal microenvironment containing a digested triglyceride-based (Type I) drug formulation...
December 12, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904625/an-intriguing-case-of-gallstone-ileus-after-hepaticojejunostomy-caused-by-a-stone-on-a-suture
#8
Mahir Gachabayov, Petr Mityushin
Gallstone ileus (GI) is a mechanical obstruction of small or large bowel caused by gallstone passed to the intestinal lumen through spontaneous or postoperative biliodigestive fistula. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted with the clinical presentation of small bowel obstruction. She underwent hepaticojejunostomy 4 years prior to admission for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Barium meal follows through revealed Rigler's triad. The patient underwent laparotomy which revealed GI. A "stone on a suture" was removed through enterotomy...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849324/pre-operative-stool-analysis-for-intestinal-parasites-and-fecal-occult-blood-in-patients-with-acute-appendicitis
#9
Sinan Hatipoğlu, Uğur Lök, Umut Gülaçtı, Tuncay Çelik
BACKGROUND: Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy...
September 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785331/congenital-esophageal-duplication-cyst-a-rare-cause-of-dysphagia-in-an-adult
#10
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Ashok R Mohite, Pravin M Rathi
Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital embryonal gastrointestinal (GI) malformation which is diagnosed most commonly in childhood. In adults, they can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from dysphagia, chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting to more serious complications including infections, hemorrhage, and ulcerations. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressive dysphagia to solids for 4 months without significant weight loss. Clinical examination and routine laboratory examination were unrevealing...
October 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755100/the-gut-microbiome-and-hiv-1-pathogenesis-a-two-way-street
#11
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687211/tissue-metabolism-and-host-microbial-interactions-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#12
Carlene Chun, Leon Zheng, Sean P Colgan
In recent years, studies in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa have taught us a number of important lessons related to tissue oxygenation and metabolism in health and disease. The highly vascularized mucosa lies immediately adjacent to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active microbes (i.e. the microbiome) that results in one of the more austere tissue microenvironments in the body. These studies have also implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in inflammation, so called "inflammatory hypoxia", that results from the activation of multiple oxygen consuming enzymes...
September 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651814/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-complex-forming-ability-of-hydroxypyranones-and-hydroxypyridinones-with-ni-ii-as-possible-inhibitors-for-urease-enzyme-in-helicobacter-pylori
#13
Abbasali Palizban, Lotfollah Saghaie
The complex-forming ability of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-one (1a), 2-ethyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-one (1b), 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (4a) and 1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (4b) with nickel(Ni(II)) were characterized by infrared, ultraviolet, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and melting point. The mole-ratio of nickel:ligands was analyzed by atomic-absorption-spectrometry. The partition-coefficients (KOW) of the compounds were also determined. The binding of ligands with Ni(II) are through deprotonated hydroxyl group (-O(-), disapeared at 3259 cm(-1)) and ioan-pairs of carbonyl group (=CO(...
July 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633158/use-of-a-lumen-apposing-metal-stent-to-treat-gi-strictures-with-videos
#14
Shayan Irani, Sujai Jalaj, Andrew Ross, Michael Larsen, Ian S Grimm, Todd H Baron
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Benign gastrointestinal strictures occur typically in the esophagus and pyloric channel, but can occur anywhere in the GI tract and at anastomotic sites. Such strictures can be treated with dilation, incisional therapy, steroid injection and stents. Our aim was to describe the use of a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) to treat short, benign gastrointestinal strictures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent LAMS placement for various benign strictures at 2 tertiary care centers from August 2014 to November 2015...
September 12, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598592/ingested-intraabdominal-foreign-bodies-that-require-surgical-intervention
#15
Remzi Kızıltan, Özkan Yılmaz, Abbas Aras, Osman Toktaş, Abdulsamet Batur, Fatma Ağar, Şehmus Ölmez, Çetin Kotan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to review cases that required surgical intervention to remove ingested foreign bodies. METHODS: Medical records of 7 patients who underwent surgical intervention at the Yüzüncü Yıl University Department of General Surgery between 2009 and 2014 after ingesting foreign bodies were reviewed. RESULTS: Female:male ratio was 5:2; mean age was 25 (16-35). Four patients had swallowed pins, 1 patient had swallowed a sewing pin, 1 patient had swallowed a safety pin, and 1 patient had swallowed a wristwatch...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590517/blunted-dynamics-of-adenosine-a2a-receptors-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-infection-in-the-elderly
#16
Lisa Rodrigues, Isabel M Miranda, Geanne M Andrade, Marta Mota, Luísa Cortes, Acácio G Rodrigues, Rodrigo A Cunha, Teresa Gonçalves
Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496048/biopharmaceutic-classification-of-drugs-revisited
#17
Chrysa Daousani, Panos Macheras
The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) was based on the tube model of the intestinal lumen. This model considers constant drug permeability along the intestines, a plug flow fluid with the suspended drug particles moving with the fluid, and dissolution in the small particle limit. Since then the research work focusing on drug gastrointestinal (GI) absorption phenomena and processes rely on the classical laws of transport, diffusion and kinetics; however, the homogeneous assumptions associated with the well-stirred Euclidean media, where the classical laws of diffusion and kinetics apply, have been questioned in the past...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396605/malondialdehyde-and-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-are-formed-during-dynamic-gastrointestinal-in-vitro-digestion-of-cod-liver-oils
#18
Karin Larsson, Cecilia Tullberg, Marie Alminger, Robert Havenaar, Ingrid Undeland
Marine long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are associated with reduced risk for inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. These fatty acids, however, are rapidly oxidized, generating highly reactive malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). These oxidation products may interact with DNA and proteins, thus possibly leading to impaired cell functions. Little is known about the formation of MDA, HHE and HNE in fish oil in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370138/endoluminal-ultrasound-applicators-for-mr-guided-thermal-ablation-of-pancreatic-tumors-preliminary-design-and-evaluation-in-a-porcine-pancreas-model
#19
Matthew S Adams, Vasant A Salgaonkar, Juan Plata-Camargo, Peter D Jones, Aurea Pascal-Tenorio, Hsin-Yu Chen, Donna M Bouley, Graham Sommer, Kim Butts Pauly, Chris J Diederich
PURPOSE: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. METHODS: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3...
July 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208775/a-bitter-pill-for-type-2-diabetes-the-activation-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r38-can-stimulate-glp-1-release-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#20
Hung Pham, Hongxiang Hui, Susan Morvaridi, Jiena Cai, Sanqi Zhang, Jun Tan, Vincent Wu, Nancy Levin, Beatrice Knudsen, William A Goddard, Stephen J Pandol, Ravinder Abrol
The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al...
July 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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