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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788125/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-regulatory-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Richard A Slayden, Clinton C Dawson, Jason E Cummings
There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784845/interaction-of-bacterial-phenazines-with-colistimethate-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#2
Valeri V Mossine, Deborah L Chance, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are being increasingly treated in clinics with polymyxins, a class of antibiotics associated with adverse effects in the kidney, nervous system, or airways of a significant proportion of human and animal patients. Although many of the resistant pathogens display enhanced virulence, a hazard of cytotoxic interactions between polymyxin antibiotics and bacterial virulence factors (VFs) has not been assessed, to date. We report here on testing paired combinations of four Pseudomonas aeruginosa VF phenazine toxins, pyocyanin (PYO), 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), and two commonly prescribed polymyxin drugs, colistimethate (CMS)/colistin and polymyxin B, in three human airway cell lines, BEAS-2B, HBE-1, and CFT-1...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783632/effects-of-dietary-arginine-ornithine-and-zeolite-supplementation-on-uremic-toxins-in-cats
#3
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#4
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781799/an-outbreak-of-a-rare-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotype-o117-h7-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nicholas R Thomson, Claire Jenkins
Sexually transmissible enteric infections (STEIs) are commonly associated with transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In the past decade, the UK has experienced multiple parallel STEI emergences in MSM caused by a range of bacterial species of the genus Shigella, and an outbreak of an uncommon serotype (O117 : H7) of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Here, we used microbial genomics on 6 outbreak and 30 sporadic STEC O117 : H7 isolates to explore the origins and pathogenic drivers of the STEC O117 : H7 emergence in MSM...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778224/allelopathic-interactions-between-the-benthic-toxic-dinoflagellate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-and-a-co-occurring-diatom
#6
Eva Ternon, Anne-Sophie Pavaux, Sophie Marro, Olivier P Thomas, Rodolphe Lemée
For decades the microphytobenthos assemblage in the coastal Mediterranean Sea has been regularly colonized by the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata. This harmful algal species is a toxin producer and occupies the same ecological niche as various diatoms. Surprisingly, there are only few insights reported on the physiological responses of diatoms to blooms of O. cf. ovata The chemical interactions of O. cf. ovata with the co-occurring diatom Licmophora paradoxa was studied using a bioassay (measuring impact of cell-free culture filtrate) and a co-culture approach (separate by a membrane) to investigate the effects of the exometabolome and its mode of action...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#7
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771685/enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-blood-group-a-interactions-intensify-diarrheal-severity
#8
Pardeep Kumar, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Subhra Chakroborty, A Louis Bourgeois, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Brunda Tumala, Tim J Vickers, David A Sack, Barbara DeNearing, Clayton D Harro, W Shea Wright, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve, Matthew A Ciorba, Srikanth Santhanam, Chad K Porter, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Michael G Prouty, Mark S Riddle, Alexander Polino, Alaullah Sheikh, Mark Donowitz, James M Fleckenstein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, that may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, have not been elucidated. We demonstrate that when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770061/canadian-public-health-laboratory-network-position-statement-non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-gastroenteritis-and-implications-for-public-health-investigations
#9
B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767133/intestinal-challenge-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-pigs-and-nutritional-intervention-to-prevent-postweaning-diarrhea
#10
REVIEW
Yawang Sun, Sung Woo Kim
Gut health of nursery pigs immediately after weaning is tightly associated with their growth performance and economic values. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the major concerns related to gut health of nursery pigs which often is caused by infections of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), mainly including F4 (K88)+ and F18+ E. coli. The main virulence factors of ETEC are adhesins (fimbriae or pili) and enterotoxins. The common types of fimbriae on ETEC from PWD pigs are F18+ and F4+ . Typically, PWD in pigs is associated with both F18+ and F4+ ETEC infections whereas pre-weaning diarrhea in pigs is associated with F4+ ETEC infection...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765373/compartmentalized-cyclic-amp-production-by-the-bordetella-pertussis-and-bacillus-anthracis-adenylate-cyclase-toxins-differentially-affects-the-immune-synapse-in-t-lymphocytes
#11
Vijay B Arumugham, Cristina Ulivieri, Anna Onnis, Francesca Finetti, Fiorella Tonello, Daniel Ladant, Cosima T Baldari
A central feature of the immune synapse (IS) is the tight compartmentalization of membrane receptors and signaling mediators that is functional for its ability to coordinate T cell activation. Second messengers centrally implicated in this process, such as Ca2+ and diacyl glycerol, also undergo compartmentalization at the IS. Current evidence suggests a more complex scenario for cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts both as positive and as negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling and which, as such, must be subjected to a tight spatiotemporal control to allow for signaling at the IS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762733/the-effect-of-vaginal-microbial-communities-on-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-with-the-gene-for-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-tsst-1-a-case-control-study
#12
Jacob D Pierson, Melanie A Hansmann, Catherine C Davis, Larry J Forney
Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus strains that encode toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst+). Interestingly, a small proportion of women are colonized by S. aureus tst+ but do not have symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Here we sought to determine if differences in the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities reflect a differential risk of colonization by S. aureus capable of producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). The composition of vaginal communities of women that were or were not colonized with S...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761785/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-prevalent-human-gut-bacterial-enzyme-sufficient-for-the-inactivation-of-a-family-of-plant-toxins
#13
Nitzan Koppel, Jordan E Bisanz, Maria-Eirini Pandelia, Peter J Turnbaugh, Emily P Balskus
Although the human gut microbiome plays a prominent role in xenobiotic transformation, most of the genes and enzymes responsible for this metabolism are unknown. Recently, we linked the two-gene 'cardiac glycoside reductase' ( cgr ) operon encoded by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta to inactivation of the cardiac medication and plant natural product digoxin. Here, we compared the genomes of 25 E. lenta strains and close relatives, revealing an expanded 8-gene cgr -associated gene cluster present in all digoxin metabolizers and absent in non-metabolizers...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757011/thermal-inactivation-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-ground-beef-with-varying-fat-content
#14
Jagpinder S Brar, Jolena N Waddell, Matthew Bailey, Sydney Corkran, Carmen Velasquez, Vijay K Juneja, Manpreet Singh
Decimal reduction time ( D-value) was calculated for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in a laboratory medium and ground beef. For the laboratory medium, an overnight culture of each strain of STEC was divided into 10-mL sample bags and heated in a water bath for a specific time on the basis of the temperatures. Survival curves were generated by plotting the surviving bacterial population against time, and a linear-log primary model was used to estimate the D-values from survival curves...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756447/electrochemical-methodologies-for-the-detection-of-pathogens
#15
Mandana Amiri, Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Hamed Jafari, Rabah Boukherroub, Sabine Szunerits
Bacterial infections remain of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of death due to infections is declining every year by only 1% with a forecast of 13 million deaths in 2050. Among the 1400 recognized human pathogens, the majority of infectious diseases is caused by just a few, about 20 pathogens only. While the development of vaccinations and novel anti-bacterial drugs and treatments are at the forefront of research, and strongly financially supported by policy makers, another manner to limit and control infectious outbreaks is targeting the development and implementation of early warning systems, which indicate qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of a pathogen...
May 14, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753714/survey-of-brevibacillus-laterosporus-insecticidal-protein-genes-and-virulence-factors
#16
Maria Giovanna Marche, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Luca Ruiu
The pathogenic action of the bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus against invertebrates involves a toxin-mediated mechanism. Several studies, conducted with specific strains against diverse targets, suggested the implication of different toxins. Recent genome sequencing and annotation of some insecticidal strains revealed several putative virulence factors highly conserved in this species. After determining the pathogenicity of strain UNISS 18 against different Lepidopteran and Dipteran larvae, in this study we have investigated the actual expression of genes encoding for enzymes (i...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752379/rapid-remodeling-of-the-host-epithelial-cell-proteome-by-the-listeriolysin-o-pore-forming-toxin
#17
Julien Karim Malet, Francis Impens, Filipe Carvalho, Mélanie Anne Hamon, Pascale Cossart, David Ribet
Bacterial pathogens use various strategies to interfere with host cell functions. Among these strategies, bacteria modulate host gene transcription, thereby modifying the set of proteins synthetized by the infected cell. Bacteria can also target pre-existing host proteins and modulate their post-translational modifications or trigger their degradation. Analysis of protein levels variations in host cells during infection allows to integrate both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations induced by pathogens...
May 11, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750783/engineering-bacterial-motility-towards-hydrogen-peroxide
#18
Chelsea Virgile, Pricila Hauk, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749721/characterization-of-novel-piperidine-based-inhibitor-of-cathepsin-b-dependent-bacterial-toxins-and-viruses
#19
Stella Hartmann, Renae Lopez Cruz, Saleem Alameh, Chi-Lee C Ho, Amy Rabideau, Bradley L Pentelute, Kenneth A Bradley, Mikhail Martchenko
Exploiting the host endocytic trafficking pathway is a common mechanism by which bacterial exotoxins gain entry to exert virulent effects upon the host cells. A previous study identified a small-molecule, 1-(2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)-3-[(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl)oxy]-2-propanol, that blocks the process of anthrax lethal toxin (LT) cytotoxicity. Here, we report the characterization of the bioactivity of this compound, which we named RC1. We found that RC1 protected host cells independently of LT concentration and also blocked intoxication by other bacterial exotoxins, suggesting that the target of the compound is a host factor...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747819/protein-toxins-that-utilize-gangliosides-as-host-receptors
#20
Madison Zuverink, Joseph T Barbieri
Subsets of protein toxins utilize gangliosides as host receptors. Gangliosides are preferred receptors due to their extracellular localization on the eukaryotic cell and due to their essential nature in host physiology. Glycosphingolipids, including gangliosides, are mediators of signal transduction within and between eukaryotic cells. Protein toxins possess AB structure-function organization, where the A domain encodes a catalytic function for the posttranslational modification of a host macromolecule, including proteins and nucleic acids, and a B domain, which encodes host receptor recognition, including proteins and glycosphingolipids, alone or in combination...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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