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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223936/two-pore-channels-catalyzers-of-endolysosomal-transport-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
Two-pore channels (TPCs) have recently emerged as a novel class of non-selective cation channels in the endolysosomal system. There are two members in the human genome, TPC1 and TPC2. Studies with TPC knockout and knockdown models have revealed that these channels participate in the regulation of multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways which when dysregulated can lead to or influence the development of a range of different diseases such as lysosomal storage, metabolic, or infectious diseases. TPCs have been demonstrated to be activated by different endogenous stimuli, PI(3,5)P2 and NAADP, and ATP has been found to block TPC activation via mTOR...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223456/a-natural-chimeric-pseudomonas-bacteriocin-with-novel-pore-forming-activity-parasitizes-the-ferrichrome-transporter
#2
Maarten G K Ghequire, Lieselore Kemland, Ernesto Anoz-Carbonell, Susan K Buchanan, René De Mot
Modular bacteriocins represent a major group of secreted protein toxins with a narrow spectrum of activity, involved in interference competition between Gram-negative bacteria. These antibacterial proteins include a domain for binding to the target cell and a toxin module at the carboxy terminus. Self-inhibition of producers is provided by coexpression of linked immunity genes that transiently inhibit the toxin's activity through formation of bacteriocin-immunity complexes or by insertion in the inner membrane, depending on the type of toxin module...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220514/randomised-clinical-trial-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridum-difficile-infection-fresh-or-frozen-or-lyophilised-microbiota-from-a-small-pool-of-healthy-donors-delivered-by-colonoscopy
#3
Z D Jiang, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, G Jun, C L Hanis, M Shah, L Hochman, V Ankoma-Sey, A W DuPont, M C Wong, A Alexander, S Ke, H L DuPont
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become routine in managing recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics. AIM: To compare clinical response and improvements in colonic microbiota diversity in subjects with recurrent CDI using different donor product. METHODS: Seventy-two subjects with ≥3 bouts of CDI were randomised in a double-blind study to receive fresh, frozen or lyophilised FMT product via colonoscopy from 50 g of stool per treatment from eight healthy donors...
February 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218576/microbe-profile-escherichia-coli-o157%C3%A2-%C3%A2-h7-notorious-relative-of-the-microbiologist-s-workhorse
#4
David L Gally, Mark P Stevens
of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 pathogenesis using basic symbols. The right-hand illustration shows enterohaemorrhagic E. coli interactions with an epithelial cell.Escherichia coli O157 : H7 is a zoonotic diarrhoeal pathogen of worldwide importance. It belongs to a subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli that can form attaching and effacing lesions on intestinal epithelia via the action of a type 3 secretion system that injects bacterial effectors into enterocytes. Infections in humans often arise from contaminated food or direct environmental exposure and can involve life-threatening Shiga toxin-dependent sequelae...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217744/effect-of-tcdr-mutation-on-sporulation-in-the-epidemic-clostridium-difficile-strain-r20291
#5
Brintha P Girinathan, Marc Monot, Daniel Boyle, Kathleen N McAllister, Joseph A Sorg, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is an important nosocomial pathogen and the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Antibiotic use is the primary risk factor for the development of C. difficile-associated disease because it disrupts normally protective gut flora and enables C. difficile to colonize the colon. C. difficile damages host tissue by secreting toxins and disseminates by forming spores. The toxin-encoding genes, tcdA and tcdB, are part of a pathogenicity locus, which also includes the tcdR gene that codes for TcdR, an alternate sigma factor that initiates transcription of tcdA and tcdB genes...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217741/transcriptome-level-signatures-in-gene-expression-and-gene-expression-variability-during-bacterial-adaptive-evolution
#6
Keesha E Erickson, Peter B Otoupal, Anushree Chatterjee
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#7
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#8
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#9
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207867/thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#10
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207308/prevalence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-retail-lightly-pickled-vegetables-and-its-successful-control-at-processing-plants
#11
Masumi Taguchi, Masashi Kanki, Yuko Yamaguchi, Hideichi Inamura, Yosuke Koganei, Tetsuya Sano, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Asakura
Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206693/plasmid-and-clonal-interference-during-post-horizontal-gene-transfer-evolution
#12
S Bedhomme, D Perez Pantoja, I G Bravo
Plasmids are nucleic acid molecules that can drive their own replication in a living cell. They can be transmitted horizontally and can thrive in the host cell to high copy numbers. Plasmid replication and gene expression consume cellular resources and cells carrying plasmids incur fitness costs. But many plasmids carry genes that can be beneficial under certain conditions, allowing the cell to endure in the presence of antibiotics, toxins, competitors or parasites. Horizontal transfer of plasmid-encoded genes can thus instantaneously confer differential adaptation to local or transient selection conditions...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202229/requirement-of-the-rna-binding-protein-smpb-during-intracellular-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#13
Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Renate Frantz, Lisa Teubner, Heiko Wendt, Uwe Linne, Jessica Wingerath, Thomas Wirth, Trinad Chakraborty
Bacterial trans-translation is the main quality control mechanism employed to relieve stalled ribosomes. Trans-translation is mediated by the small protein B (SmpB) and transfer-mRNA (tmRNA) ribonucleoprotein complex, which interacts with translational complexes stalled at the 3' end of non-stop mRNAs to release the stalled ribosomes thereby targeting the nascent polypeptides and truncated mRNAs for degradation. The trans-translation system exists with a few exceptions in all bacteria. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of SmpB to the growth and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, a human intracellular food-borne pathogen that colonizes host tissues to cause severe invasive infections...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196960/repair-of-a-bacterial-small-%C3%AE-barrel-toxin-pore-depends-on-channel-width
#14
Gisela von Hoven, Amable J Rivas, Claudia Neukirch, Martina Meyenburg, Qianqian Qin, Sapun Parekh, Nadja Hellmann, Matthias Husmann
Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca(2+)-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca(2+) influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193447/identification-and-bacterial-characteristics-of-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-from-an-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema-monticolum
#15
Youngjin Park, Sangjin Kang, Md Sadekuzzaman, Hyeonghwan Kim, Jin-Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum, was collected in Korea. Its identity was confirmed by morphological and molecular characters. Its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated and assessed in terms of bacterial characteristics. Sixty-eight different carbon sources were utilized by X. hominickii ANU101 out of 95 different sources from a Biolog assay. Compared to other Xenorhabdus species, X. hominickii ANU101 was relatively susceptible to high temperatures and did not grow above 34°C...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193196/rapid-eradication-of-colon-carcinoma-by-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin-suicidal-gene-therapy
#16
Jessica Pahle, Lutz Menzel, Nicole Niesler, Dennis Kobelt, Jutta Aumann, Maria Rivera, Wolfgang Walther
BACKGROUND: Bacterial toxins have evolved to an effective therapeutic option for cancer therapy. The Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin with selective cytotoxicity. The transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin-3 and -4 are known high affinity CPE receptors. Their expression is highly upregulated in human cancers, including breast, ovarian and colon carcinoma. CPE binding to claudins triggers membrane pore complex formation, which leads to rapid cell death...
February 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182850/conjugate-vaccines-from-bacterial-antigens-by-squaric-acid-chemistry-a-closer-look
#17
Peng Xu, Meagan Kelly, Willie F Vann, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan, Paul Kovac
Using O-SP-core (O-SPcNH2) polysaccharide, isolated from Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and related synthetic substances, a detailed study of factors that affect conjugation of bacterial polysaccharides to protein carriers by squaric acid chemistry to form conjugate vaccines has been carried out. Several processes previously unrecognized, which take place during the squarate labelling of the O-SPcNH2 and subsequent conjugation of the squarate (O-SPcNH-SqOMe) formed, have been identified. The efficiency of conjugation at pH 8...
February 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#18
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177843/estimation-of-long-terminal-repeat-element-content-in-the-i-helicoverpa-zea-i-genome-from-high-throughput-sequencing-of-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-bac-pools
#19
Brad Coates, Craig A Abel, Omaththage P Perera
The lepidopteran pest insect <i>Helicoverpa zea</i> feeds on cultivated corn and cotton across the Americas where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic insecticidal toxins, yet genomic resources remain scarce for this species. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library having a mean genomic insert size of 145±20 kb was created from a laboratory strain of <i>H. zea</i>, which provides ~12.9-fold coverage of a 362.8±8.8 Mb (0.37±0...
November 15, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173991/damage-of-eukaryotic-cells-by-the-pore-forming-toxin-sticholysin-ii-consequences-of-the-potassium-efflux
#20
Sheila Cabezas, Sylvia Ho, Uris Ros, María E Lanio, Carlos Alvarez, F Gisou van der Goot
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) form holes in membranes causing one of the most catastrophic damages to a target cell. Target organisms have evolved a regulated response against PFTs damage including cell membrane repair. This ability of cells strongly depends on the toxin concentration and the properties of the pores. It has been hypothesized that there is an inverse correlation between the size of the pores and the time required to repair the membrane, which has been for long a non-intuitive concept and far to be completely understood...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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