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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527491/development-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-targeting-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-and-heat-stable-enterotoxins
#1
Chengru Zhu, Prashanth Setty, Edgar C Boedeker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by the production of heat labile (LT) and/or heat stable (ST) toxins, are major causes of diarrhea in animals, children in developing countries and to travelers. No broadly protective ETEC vaccine is available, largely because of the difficulty in inducing immunity to the small ST molecule. To take advantage of the demonstration (Liu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2013, 2010) that genetically produced fusions of mutant ST with LT subunits can induce effective immunity against both toxins, we engineered a live attenuated vaccine vector strain of E...
April 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#2
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524869/characterising-and-predicting-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-an-8-year-amplicon-sequencing-time-course
#3
Nicolas Tromas, Nathalie Fortin, Larbi Bedrani, Yves Terrat, Pedro Cardoso, David Bird, Charles W Greer, B Jesse Shapiro
Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522850/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exolysin-promotes-bacterial-growth-in-lungs-alveolar-damage-and-bacterial-dissemination
#4
Stéphanie Bouillot, Patrick Munro, Benoit Gallet, Emeline Reboud, François Cretin, Guillaume Golovkine, Guy Schoehn, Ina Attrée, Emmanuel Lemichez, Philippe Huber
Exolysin (ExlA) is a recently-identified pore-forming toxin secreted by a subset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains identified worldwide and devoid of Type III secretion system (T3SS), a major virulence factor. Here, we characterized at the ultrastructural level the lesions caused by an ExlA-secreting strain, CLJ1, in mouse infected lungs. CLJ1 induced necrotic lesions in pneumocytes and endothelial cells, resulting in alveolo-vascular barrier breakdown. Ectopic expression of ExlA in an exlA-negative strain induced similar tissue injuries...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522038/injectable-and-topical-neurotoxins-in-dermatology-basic-science-anatomy-and-therapeutic-agents
#5
REVIEW
Cerrene N Giordano, Seth L Matarasso, David M Ozog
Botulinum toxin is a potentially deadly anaerobic bacterial toxin that acts by inhibiting release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting contraction of the exposed striated muscle. There are currently 4 botulinum toxin preparations approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): onabotulinumtoxin, abobotulinumtoxin, incobotulinumtoxin and rimabotulinumtoxin. While significant overlap exists, each product has unique properties and specifications, including dosing, diffusion, and storage...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516064/a-novel-role-of-listeria-monocytogenes-membrane-vesicles-in-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-cell-death
#6
Svitlana Vdovikova, Morten Luhr, Paula Szalai, Lars Nygård Skalman, Monika K Francis, Richard Lundmark, Nikolai Engedal, Jörgen Johansson, Sun N Wai
Bacterial membrane vesicle (MV) production has been mainly studied in Gram-negative species. In this study, we show that Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes the food-borne illness listeriosis, produces MVs both in vitro and in vivo. We found that a major virulence factor, the pore-forming hemolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), is tightly associated with the MVs, where it resides in an oxidized, inactive state. Previous studies have shown that LLO may induce cell death and autophagy. To monitor possible effects of LLO and MVs on autophagy, we performed assays for LC3 lipidation and LDH sequestration as well as analysis by confocal microscopy of HEK293 cells expressing GFP-LC3...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513564/tetrodotoxin-producing-bacteria-detection-distribution-and-migration-of-the-toxin-in-aquatic-systems
#7
REVIEW
Timur Yu Magarlamov, Daria I Melnikova, Alexey V Chernyshev
This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism...
May 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#8
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494244/quorum-sensing-attenuates-virulence-in-sodalis-praecaptivus
#9
Shinichiro Enomoto, Abhishek Chari, Adam Larsen Clayton, Colin Dale
Sodalis praecaptivus is a close relative and putative environmental progenitor of the widely distributed, insect-associated, Sodalis-allied symbionts. Here we show that mutant strains of S. praecaptivus that lack genetic components of a quorum-sensing (QS) apparatus have a rapid and potent killing phenotype following microinjection into an insect host. Transcriptomic and genetic analyses indicate that insect killing occurs as a consequence of virulence factors, including insecticidal toxins and enzymes that degrade the insect integument, which are normally repressed by QS at high infection densities...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493685/selective-detection-of-shiga-like-toxin-1-from-complex-samples-using-pigeon-ovalbumin-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-affinity-probes
#10
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Karuppuchamy Selvaprakash, Kwok-Kong Tony Mong, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen. This bacterial strain can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs), which can cause serious sickness and even death. Thus, it is important to develop effective and sensitive methods that can be used to rapidly identify the presence of SLTs from complex samples. Pigeon egg white (PEW) contains abundant glycoproteins, including pigeon ovalbumin (POA) (∼60%). POA possesses Gal-α(1→4)-Gal-β(1→4)-GlcNAc termini, which can recognize the B subunits in SLT type 1 (SLT-1B)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492500/an-introduction-to-the-toxins-special-issue-on-novel-pharmacological-inhibitors-for-bacterial-protein-toxins
#11
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491244/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-frequency-in-khuzestan-province-of-iran
#12
Atieh Darbandi, Parviz Owlia, Saeid Bouzari, Horieh Saderi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that causes diarrhea. Studies showed that diarrheagenic E. coli such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains are among the most frequent causative agents in acute diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of DEC pathotypes in Khuzestan province...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491053/hydrophobicity-of-residue-128-of-the-stress-inducible-sigma-factor-rpos-is-critical-for-its-activity
#13
Tadayuki Iwase, Takashi Matsuo, Saiko Nishioka, Akiko Tajima, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
RpoS is a key stress-inducible sigma factor that regulates stress resistance genes in Escherichia coli, such as the katE gene encoding catalase HPII and the glg genes encoding glycogen synthesis proteins. Monitoring RpoS activity can provide information on the stress sensitivity of E. coli isolates in clinical settings because the RpoS in these isolates is often mutated. In the present study, we found a novel, missense point mutation at RpoS residue 128 in a clinical Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487683/trans-cinnamaldehyde-carvacrol-and-eugenol-reduce-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-factors-and-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-vitro
#14
Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Basanta R Wagle, Indu Upadhyaya, Sandip Shrestha, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484467/immunogenic-domains-and-secondary-structure-of-escherichia-coli-recombinant-secreted-protein-escherichia-coli-secreted-protein-b
#15
Bruna Alves Caetano, Letícia Barboza Rocha, Eneas Carvalho, Roxane Maria Fontes Piazza, Daniela Luz
Several pathogenic bacteria are able to induce the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion. The A/E lesion is caused by effector proteins, such as Escherichia coli-secreted protein B (EspB), responsible together with Escherichia coli-secreted protein D for forming a pore structure on the host cell, which allows the translocation of effector proteins. Different variants of this protein can be found in E. coli strains, and during natural infection or when this protein is injected, this leads to variant-specific production of antibodies, which may not be able to recognize other variants of this bacterial protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475359/assessment-of-consumer-exposure-to-salmonella-spp-campylobacter-spp-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-meat-products-at-retail-in-the-city-of-sao-paulo-brazil
#16
Christiane Asturiano Ristori, Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands, Cecília Geraldes Martins, Maria Luisa Barbosa, Luis Fernando Dos Santos, Miyoko Jakabi, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco
Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37...
May 5, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474628/protection-against-osteoarthritis-in-experimental-animals-by-nanogold-conjugated-snake-venom-protein-toxin-gold-nanoparticle-naja-kaouthia-cytotoxin-1
#17
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta, Subir Chandra Dasgupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Increased severity of osteoarthritis (OA) and adverse side effects of its treatment led to the search for alternative therapies. It was previously reported that snake venom protein toxin Naja kaouthia cytotoxin 1 (NKCT1) and gold nanoparticle (GNP) individually have potential against excremental arthritis. In this study, we analyzed the protective activity of GNP conjugated protein toxin NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) against experimental OA. METHODS: Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) was done and its physiochemical properties were studied...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473713/structure-aided-design-of-a-neu5gc-specific-lectin
#18
Christopher J Day, Adrienne W Paton, Melanie A Higgins, Lucy K Shewell, Freda E-C Jen, Benjamin L Schulz, Brock P Herdman, James C Paton, Michael P Jennings
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) of Escherichia coli is an AB5 class bacterial toxin. The pentameric B subunit (SubB) binds the cellular carbohydrate receptor, α2-3-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is not expressed on normal human cells, but is expressed by cancer cells. Elevated Neu5Gc has been observed in breast, ovarian, prostate, colon and lung cancer. The presence of Neu5Gc is prognostically important, and correlates with invasiveness, metastasis and tumour grade. Neu5Gc binding by SubB suggests that it may have utility as a diagnostic tool for the detection Neu5Gc tumor antigens...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473665/anti-tumor-activity-of-an-immunotoxin-tgf%C3%AE-pe38-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium
#19
Daejin Lim, Kwang Soo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Kyong-Cheol Ko, Jae Jun Song, Jong Hyun Choi, Minsang Shin, Jung-Joon Min, Jae-Ho Jeong, Hyon E Choy
The anticancer strategy underlying the use of immunotoxins is as follows: the cancer-binding domain delivers the toxin to a cancer cell, after which the toxin enters and kills the cell. TGFα-PE38 is an immunotoxin comprising transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), a natural ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a modified Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) lacking N terminal cell-binding domain, a highly potent cytotoxic protein moiety. Tumor cells with high level of EGFR undergo apoptosis upon treatment with TGFα-PE38...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472674/saccharin-induced-liver-inflammation-in-mice-by-altering-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-functions
#20
Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Maintaining the balance of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions is vital for human health, however, this balance can be disrupted by various external factors including food additives. A range of food and beverages are sweetened by saccharin, which is generally considered to be safe despite controversial debates. However, recent studies indicated that saccharin perturbed the gut microbiota. Inflammation is frequently associated with disruptions of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between host inflammation and perturbed gut microbiome by saccharin...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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