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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914761/lactobacillus-iners-friend-or-foe
#1
REVIEW
Mariya I Petrova, Gregor Reid, Mario Vaneechoutte, Sarah Lebeer
The vaginal microbial community is typically characterized by abundant lactobacilli. Lactobacillus iners, a fairly recently detected species, is frequently present in the vaginal niche. However, the role of this species in vaginal health is unclear, since it can be detected in normal conditions as well as during vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in bacterial diversity and lack of typical lactobacilli. Compared to other Lactobacillus species, L...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#3
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#4
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909431/the-microbiota-of-recreational-freshwaters-and-the-implications-for-environmental-and-public-health
#5
Chang Soo Lee, Minseok Kim, Cheonghoon Lee, Zhongtang Yu, Jiyoung Lee
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#6
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#7
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#8
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903909/the-5-utr-of-the-type-i-toxin-zoro-can-both-inhibit-and-enhance-translation
#9
Jia Wen, John R Harp, Elizabeth M Fozo
Many bacterial type I toxin mRNAs possess a long 5' untranslated region (UTR) that serves as the target site of the corresponding antitoxin sRNA. This is the case for the zorO-orzO type I system where the OrzO antitoxin base pairs to the 174-nucleotide zorO 5' UTR. Here, we demonstrate that the full-length 5' UTR of the zorO type I toxin hinders its own translation independent of the sRNA whereas a processed 5' UTR (zorO Δ28) promotes translation. The full-length zorO 5' UTR folds into an extensive secondary structure sequestering the ribosome binding site (RBS)...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900629/dracorhodin-perochlorate-attenuates-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-virulence-by-decreasing-%C3%AE-toxin-expression
#10
Yumin Liu, Dongxue Shi, Yan Guo, Meng Li, Yonghong Zha, Quankai Wang, Jianfeng Wang
α-Toxin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus, plays critical role in the pathogenesis associated with various infectious diseases. The USA300 which is a major international epidemic methicilin-resisrant S. aureus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and become an emerging public health concern. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of Dracorhodin Perochlorate (DP) against USA300 virulence was evaluated. Using susceptibility testing, immunoblots, rabbit blood haemolytic assay and real-time RT-PCR, we observed that the α-toxin production was decreased when USA300 was co-cultured with different sub-inhibitory concentration of DP...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892542/streptococcus-pneumoniae-disrupts-pulmonary-immune-defence-via-elastase-release-following-pneumolysin-dependent-neutrophil-lysis
#11
Hisanori Domon, Masataka Oda, Tomoki Maekawa, Kosuke Nagai, Wataru Takeda, Yutaka Terao
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous studies suggested that excessive activation of neutrophils results in the release of neutrophil elastase, which contributes to lung injury in severe pneumonia. Although both pneumococcal virulence factors and neutrophil elastase contribute to the development and progression of pneumonia, there are no studies analysing relationships between these factors. Here, we showed that pneumolysin, a pneumococcal pore-forming toxin, induced cell lysis in primary isolated human neutrophils, leading to the release of neutrophil elastase...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891500/interspecies-communication-between-pathogens-and-immune-cells-via-bacterial-membrane-vesicles
#12
Katerina S Jurkoshek, Ying Wang, Jaffre J Athman, Marian R Barton, Pamela A Wearsch
The production of extracellular vesicles is a universal mechanism for intercellular communication that is conserved across kingdoms. Prokaryotes secrete 50-250 nm membrane vesicles (MVs) in a manner that is regulated by environmental stress and is thought to promote survival. Since many types of host-derived stress are encountered during infection, this implies an important role for MV secretion in bacterial pathogenesis. Accordingly, MVs produced by gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens contain toxins, virulence factors, and other molecules that promote survival in the host...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888131/hsp70-and-hsp90-are-involved-in-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-tolerance-to-ahpnd-causing-strain-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-after-non-lethal-heat-shock
#13
Wisarut Junprung, Premruethai Supungul, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin-producing plasmid, has led to severe mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp throughout Asia. Previous studies reported that a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) could enhance disease tolerance in aquatic animals. Here, we investigate whether the NLHS could enhance the survival of shrimp Peneaus vannamei upon challenge with an AHPND-causing strain of V. Parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Two NLHS conditions, acute and chronic NLHSs, were used...
November 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887025/design-and-expression-of-a-chimeric-vaccine-candidate-for-avian-necrotic-enteritis
#14
Amin Rostami, Fatemeh Goshadrou, Reza Pilehchian Langroudi, S Zahra Bathaie, Ali Riazi, Jafar Amani, Gholamreza Ahmadian
Necrotic enteritis is an economically important disease of poultry mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens The bacteria release multiple toxins of which NetB, alpha toxin and TpeL have been reported to play important roles in pathogenicity and/or severity of the disease. In this study, the sequence of clostridial toxins NetB, alpha toxin and TpeL were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to determine protein domains with high immunogenicity factor. Several chimeric trivalent proteins consisting of the immunogenic regions of the three toxins were designed and evaluated...
November 24, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886237/lukmf-is-the-major-secreted-leukocidin-of-bovine-staphylococcus-aureus-and-is-produced-in-vivo-during-bovine-mastitis
#15
Manouk Vrieling, Eveline M Boerhout, Glenn F van Wigcheren, Kirsten J Koymans, Tanja G Mols-Vorstermans, Carla J C de Haas, Piet C Aerts, Ineke J J M Daemen, Kok P M van Kessel, Ad P Koets, Victor P M G Rutten, Piet J M Nuijten, Jos A G van Strijp, Lindert Benedictus
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF', was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884120/removal-of-free-light-chains-in-hemodialysis-patients-without-multiple-myeloma-a-crossover-comparison-of-three-different-dialyzers
#16
Gabriele Donati, Maria Ilaria Moretti, Olga Baraldi, Alessandra Spazzoli, Irene Capelli, Giorgia Comai, Antonio Marchetti, Maria Sarma, Rita Mancini, Gaetano La Manna
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin light chains are classified as middle molecule uremic toxins able to interact with B lymphocyte membranes leading to the activation of transmembrane signaling. The ensuing impairment of neutrophil function can contribute to the chronic inflammation state of uremic patients, and the increased risk of bacterial infections or vascular calcifications. The aim of this crossover observational study was to assess the difference in free light chain removal by three different hemodialysis filters in patients not affected by multiple myeloma...
November 25, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882443/gut-microbiota-and-autism-key-concepts-and-findings
#17
Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875098/hlh-30-tfeb-mediated-autophagy-functions-in-a-cell-autonomous-manner-for-epithelium-intrinsic-cellular-defense-against-bacterial-pore-forming-toxin-in-c-elegans
#18
Huan-Da Chen, Cheng-Yuan Kao, Bang-Yu Liu, Shin-Whei Huang, Cheng-Ju Kuo, Jhen-Wei Ruan, Yen-Hung Lin, Cheng-Rung Huang, Yu-Hung Chen, Horng-Dar Wang, Raffi V Aroian, Chang-Shi Chen
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular system that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading and recycling damaged cellular components. The transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy has been reported to regulate tolerance to bacterial infection, but less is known about the bona fide bacterial effector that activates HLH-30 and autophagy. Here, we unveil that bacterial membrane pore-forming toxin (PFT) induces autophagy in an HLH-30-dependent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, autophagy controls the susceptibility of animals to PFT toxicity through xenophagic degradation of PFT and repair of membrane-pore cell-autonomously in the PFT-targeted intestinal cells in C...
November 22, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#19
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871750/biogeochemical-and-hydrological-drivers-of-the-dynamics-of-vibrio-species-in-two-patagonian-estuaries
#20
Germán A Kopprio, M Eugenia Streitenberger, Kentaro Okuno, Mónica Baldini, Florencia Biancalana, Anna Fricke, Ana Martínez, Sucharit B Neogi, Boris P Koch, Shinji Yamasaki, Rubén J Lara
The ecology of the most relevant Vibrio species for human health and their relation to water quality and biogeochemistry were studied in two estuaries in Argentinian Patagonia. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were reported in >29% of cases at the Río Colorado and Río Negro estuaries. Neither the pandemic serogroups of Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae O139 nor the cholera toxin gene were detected in this study. However, several strains of V. cholerae (not O1 or O139) are able to cause human disease or acquire pathogenic genes by horizontal transfer...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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