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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919737/bacterial-membrane-vesicles-as-novel-nanosystems-for-drug-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Sapna Jain, Jonathan Pillai
Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) are closed spherical nanostructures that are shed naturally and ubiquitously by most bacterial species both in vivo and in vitro. Researchers have elucidated their roles in long-distance transport of a wide array of cargoes, such as proteins, toxins, antigens, virulence factors, microbicidal agents and antibiotics. Given that these natural carriers are important players in intercellular communication, it has been hypothesized that they are equally well attuned for transport and delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911869/degradation-of-nuclear-ubc9-induced-by-listeriolysin-o-is-dependent-on-k-efflux
#2
Jiexin Li, Wendy Wai-Ling Lam, Tsz-Wah Lai, Shannon Wing-Ngor Au
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming toxin produced by L. monocytogenes, and is belonged to a protein family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs). Previous studies have demonstrated that LLO triggers Ubc9 degradation and disrupts host SUMOylation to facilitate bacterial infection. However, the underlying mechanism of Ubc9 degradation is unclear. Here we show that LLO-induced down-regulation of Ubc9 is independent of Ubc9-SUMO interaction, however, it may involve phosphorylation signaling. Additionally, LLO exerts its effects primarily on nuclear Ubc9 and this process is mediated by K(+) efflux...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910800/the-place-of-large-pore-membranes-in-the-treatment-portfolio-of-patients-on-hemodialysis
#3
Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder, Eva Schepers, Griet Glorieux, Annemieke Dhondt, Sunny Eloot
Cardiovascular disease is a major concern in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Inflammation induced by retention of uremic toxins, of which a substantial fraction has a molecular weight in the middle molecular range, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In an attempt to reduce inflammation and thus cardiovascular toxicity in patients with ESKD, hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been promoted to enhance the clearance of middle molecular weight substances during dialysis. However, HDF increases the technical complexity and costs, and requires ultrapure dialysis fluid...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904264/zoonotic-potential-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-neonatal-calves-in-uruguay
#4
Ana Umpiérrez, Inés Bado, Martín Oliver, Sofía Acquistapace, Analía Etcheverría, Nora Lía Padola, Rafael Vignoli, Pablo Zunino
Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901253/bacterial-toxins-a-hope-towards-angiogenic-ailments
#5
Rekha Khandia, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Angiogenesis is a vital physiological process essential for growth and maintenance of the body. It plays an important role during embryonic development and generally absent in adults with some exceptions like during wound repair and menstrual cycle in women. Excess as well as deficiency in angiogenesis, result in pathological conditions. It is a tightly regulated process; rely on cascade of several molecular signalling pathways involving many effectors like VEGF, FGF, PDGF, IGF etc. Excessive angiogenesis is associated with disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, adiposity...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894985/virulence-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-rabbit-model-of-infected-full-thickness-wound-under-negative-pressure-wound-therapy
#6
Daohong Liu, Zhirui Li, Guoqi Wang, Tongtong Li, Lihai Zhang, Peifu Tang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in a controlled animal study using the standard sterile gauze and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), including activation of agr, gene expression and production of virulence foctors and depth of bacterial invasion. The tissue specimens were harvested on days 0 (6 h after bacterial inoculation), 2, 4, 6, and 8 at the center of wound beds. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to obtain bioluminescent images which were used to measure the depth of bacterial invasion...
September 11, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894448/sirtuin-2-deficiency-increases-bacterial-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-and-protects-from-chronic-staphylococcal-infection
#7
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Charlotte Théroude, Jacobus Herderschee, Matteo Mombelli, Jérôme Lugrin, Marc Pfefferlé, Beatrice Tyrrell, Sarah Lensch, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the seven members of the family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuins target histones and non-histone proteins according to their subcellular localization, influencing various biological processes. SIRT2 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle, and metabolic pathways. As such, SIRT2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, metabolic, oncologic, and chronic inflammatory disorders. This motivated the development of SIRT2-directed therapies for clinical purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893374/cell-differentiation-defines-acute-and-chronic-infection-cell-types-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Juan-Carlos García-Betancur, Angel Goñi-Moreno, Thomas Horger, Melanie Schott, Malvika Sharan, Julian Eikmeier, Barbara Wohlmuth, Alma Zernecke, Knut Ohlsen, Christina Kuttler, Daniel Lopez
A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890882/neutrophils-to-the-roscue-mechanisms-of-nadph-oxidase-activation-and-bacterial-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Giang T Nguyen, Erin R Green, Joan Mecsas
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#10
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterised by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we study the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model, and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887436/when-escherichia-coli-doesn-t-fit-the-mold-a-pertussis-like-toxin-with-altered-specificity
#11
Chen Chen, Joseph T Barbieri
Bacterial toxins introduce protein modifications such as ADP-ribosylation to manipulate host cell signaling and physiology. Several general mechanisms for toxin function have been established, but the extent to which previously uncharacterized toxins utilize these mechanisms is unknown. A study of an Escherichia coli pertussis-like toxin demonstrates that this protein acts on a known toxin substrate but displays distinct and dual chemoselectivity, suggesting this E. coli pertussis-like toxin may serve as a unique tool to study G-protein signaling in eukaryotic cells...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885612/understanding-cd30-biology-and-therapeutic-targeting-a-historical-perspective-providing-insight-into-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
C A van der Weyden, S A Pileri, A L Feldman, J Whisstock, H M Prince
CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It is characteristically expressed in certain hematopoietic malignancies, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, among others. The variable expression of CD30 on both normal and malignant lymphoid cells has focused research efforts on understanding the pathogenesis of CD30 upregulation, its contribution to lymphomagenesis through anti-apoptotic mechanisms, and its effect on cell survival. Given the restriction of CD30 to certain tumor types, the logical extension of this has been to attempt to exploit it as a therapeutic target...
September 8, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882889/the-rho-adp-ribosylating-c3-exoenzyme-binds-cells-via-an-arg-gly-asp-motif
#13
Astrid Rohrbeck, Markus Höltje, Andrej Adolf, Elisabeth Oms, Sandra Hagemann, Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger, Ingo Just
The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme (C3bot) is a bacterial protein toxin devoid of a cell-binding or -translocation domain. Nevertheless, C3 can efficiently enter intact cells, including neurons, but the mechanism of C3 binding and uptake is not yet understood. Previously, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as an extracellular membranous interaction partner of C3. However, uptake of C3 into cells still occurs (although reduced) in the absence of vimentin, indicating involvement of an additional host cell receptor...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880925/similar-levels-of-gene-content-variation-observed-for-pseudomonas-syringae-populations-extracted-from-single-and-multiple-host-species
#14
Talia L Karasov, Luke Barrett, Ruth Hershberg, Joy Bergelson
Bacterial strains of the same species collected from different hosts frequently exhibit differences in gene content. In the ubiquitous plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, more than 30% of genes encoded by each strain are not conserved among strains colonizing other host species. Although they are often implicated in host specificity, the role of this large fraction of the genome in host-specific adaptation is largely unexplored. Here, we sought to relate variation in gene content between strains infecting different species to variation that persists between strains on the same host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880920/the-staphylococcus-aureus-superantigen-selx-is-a-bifunctional-toxin-that-inhibits-neutrophil-function
#15
Stephen W Tuffs, David B A James, Jovanka Bestebroer, Amy C Richards, Mariya I Goncheva, Marie O'Shea, Bryan A Wee, Keun Seok Seo, Patrick M Schlievert, Andreas Lengeling, Jos A van Strijp, Victor J Torres, J Ross Fitzgerald
Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) cause Vβ-dependent T-cell proliferation leading to immune dysregulation associated with the pathogenesis of life-threatening infections such as toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing pneumonia. Previously, we demonstrated that staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) from Staphylococcus aureus is a classical superantigen that exhibits T-cell activation in a Vβ-specific manner, and contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia. Here, we discovered that SElX can also bind to neutrophils from human and other mammalian species and disrupt IgG-mediated phagocytosis...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875940/subversion-of-macrophage-functions-by-bacterial-protein-toxins-and-effectors
#16
Muyang Wan, Yan Zhou, Yongqun Zhu
Macrophages represent one of the first lines of host immune defenses against the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. Many receptors, immune signaling pathways and cellular processes in macrophages, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, phagocytosis, autophagy and programmed cell death, are involved in combating the infection of bacterial pathogens. For efficient colonization in the host, bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse mechanisms to interfere with macrophage functions to evade host defenses...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875177/the-potential-therapeutic-agent-mepacrine-protects-caco-2-cells-against-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin-action
#17
John C Freedman, Matthew R Hendricks, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the diarrhea associated with a common bacterial food poisoning and many antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases. The severity of some CPE-mediated disease cases warrants the development of potential therapeutics. A previous study showed that the presence of mepacrine inhibited CPE-induced electrophysiology effects in artificial lipid bilayers lacking CPE receptors. However, that study did not assess whether mepacrine inactivates CPE or, instead, inhibits a step in CPE action...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873053/c-elegans-avoids-toxin-producing-streptomyces-using-a-seven-transmembrane-domain-chemosensory-receptor
#18
Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T O'Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K Eggers, Noelle L'Etoile, Laura C Miller Conrad, Miri K VanHoven
Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator-prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872615/listeriolysin-o-regulates-the-expression-of-optineurin-an-autophagy-adaptor-that-inhibits-the-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#19
Madhu Puri, Luigi La Pietra, Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Rudolf Lucas, Trinad Chakraborty, Helena Pillich
Autophagy, a well-established defense mechanism, enables the elimination of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes. Host cell recognition results in ubiquitination of L. monocytogenes and interaction with autophagy adaptors p62/SQSTM1 and NDP52, which target bacteria to autophagosomes by binding to microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). Although studies have indicated that L. monocytogenes induces autophagy, the significance of this process in the infectious cycle and the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood...
September 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871242/concurrent-detection-of-human-norovirus-and-bacterial-pathogens-in-water-samples-from-an-agricultural-region-in-central-california-coast
#20
Peng Tian, David Yang, Lei Shan, Dapeng Wang, Qianqian Li, Lisa Gorski, Bertram G Lee, Beatriz Quiñones, Michael B Cooley
Bacterial pathogens and human norovirus (HuNoV) are major cause for acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated food and water. Public waterways can become contaminated from a variety of sources and flood after heavy rain events, leading to pathogen contamination of produce fields. We initiated a survey of several public watersheds in a major leafy green produce production region of the Central California Coast to determine the prevalence of HuNoV as well as bacterial pathogens. Moore swabs were used to collect environmental samples bi-monthly at over 30 sampling sites in the region...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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