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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164170/impact-of-procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-management-on-antibiotic-exposure-and-outcomes-real-world-evidence
#1
Michael R Broyles
Background: Delayed pathogen identification and nonspecific clinical findings make definitive decisions regarding antibiotics challenging. The stimuli of bacterial toxins and inflammation make procalcitonin (PCT) unique in its ability to differentiate bacterial infection from other causes of inflammation, and thus it is useful for antibiotic management. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of a PCT algorithm (PCT-A) on current practice. Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of adding PCT-A to stewardship practices...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162845/helicobacter-pylori-targets-mitochondrial-import-and-components-of-mitochondrial-dna-replication-machinery-through-an-alternative-vaca-dependent-and-a-vaca-independent-mechanisms
#2
Laurent Chatre, Julien Fernandes, Valérie Michel, Laurence Fiette, Patrick Avé, Giuseppe Arena, Utkarsh Jain, Rainer Haas, Timothy C Wang, Miria Ricchetti, Eliette Touati
Targeting mitochondria is a powerful strategy for pathogens to subvert cell physiology and establish infection. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen associated with gastric cancer development that is known to target mitochondria directly and exclusively through its pro-apoptotic and vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. By in vitro infection of gastric epithelial cells with wild-type and VacA-deficient H. pylori strains, treatment of cells with purified VacA proteins and infection of a mouse model, we show that H...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158275/a-simplified-derivative-of-human-defensin-5-with-potent-efficiency-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
Cheng Wang, Gaomei Zhao, Song Wang, Yin Chen, Yali Gong, Shilei Chen, Yang Xu, Mengjia Hu, Xinmiao Wang, Hao Zeng, Aiping Wang, Dengqun Liu, Yongping Su, Tianmin Cheng, Fang Chen, Junping Wang
The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) infections worldwide has necessitated the development of novel antibiotics. Human defensin 5 (HD5) is an endogenous peptide with a complex architecture and antibacterial activity against MDRAb In the present study, we attempted to simplify the structure of HD5 by removing disulfide bonds. We found that the Cys2-4 bond was most indispensable for HD5 to inactivate MDRAb, although the antibacterial activity of the derivative was significantly attenuated...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156138/plasmonic-sensing-with-3d-printed-optics
#4
Samuel S Hinman, Kristy S McKeating, Quan Cheng
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has undergone an exponential growth in popularity due to its revolutionary and near limitless manufacturing capabilities. Recent trends have seen this technology utilized across a variety of scientific disciplines, including the measurement sciences, but precise fabrication of optical components for high-performance biosensing has not yet been demonstrated. We report here 3D printing of high-quality, custom prisms by stereolithography that enable Kretschmann-configured plasmonic sensing of bacterial toxins...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154537/tools-for-pathogen-proteomics-fishing-with-biomimetic-nanosponges
#5
Ute Distler, Stefan Tenzer
The identification of the major virulence factors that drive pathogenicity is critical for gaining insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases. Although genetic approaches combined with functional analyses have markedly increased the rate of virulence factor discovery, the divergence between genome and proteome can impair the identification of important markers, in particular, of those that act in concert or depend on specific environmental factors. Recently, membrane-coated nanomaterials mimicking source cells of interest have emerged as powerful tools that can be used for improved tumor targeting and as "nanotraps" to capture chemokines and bacterial toxins...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152577/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-plays-dual-role-in-host-pathogen-interactions
#6
Jeffrey A Melvin, Jordan R Gaston, Shawn N Phillips, Michael J Springer, Christopher W Marshall, Robert M Q Shanks, Jennifer M Bomberger
Microorganisms exist in a diverse ecosystem and have evolved many different mechanisms for sensing and influencing the polymicrobial environment around them, utilizing both diffusible and contact-dependent signals. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is one such communication system employed by Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to CDI mediation of growth inhibition, recent studies have demonstrated CDI-mediated control of communal behaviors such as biofilm formation. We postulated that CDI may therefore play an active role in host-pathogen interactions, allowing invading strains to establish themselves at polymicrobial mucosal interfaces through competitive interactions while simultaneously facilitating pathogenic capabilities via CDI-mediated signaling...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152087/specific-role-of-rhoc-in-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis
#7
Sarah Lang, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Tilman Brummer, Sylvia Timme, Silke Lassmann, Klaus Aktories, Gudula Schmidt
Rho GTPases are regulators of many cellular functions and are often dysregulated in cancer. However, the precise role of Rho proteins for tumor development is not well understood. In breast cancer, overexpression of RhoC is linked with poor prognosis. Here, we aim to compare the function of RhoC and its homolog family member RhoA in breast cancer progression. We established stable breast epithelial cell lines with inducible expression of RhoA and RhoC, respectively. Moreover, we made use of Rho-activating bacterial toxins (Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors) to stimulate the endogenous pool of Rho GTPases in benign breast epithelial cells and simultaneously knocked down specific Rho proteins...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#8
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149330/s101-an-inhibitor-of-proliferating-t-cells-rescues-mice-from-superantigen-induced-shock
#9
Alexei Shir, Shoshana Klein, Idit Sagiv-Barfi, Tamar Geiger, Maya Zigler, Yael Langut, Nufar Edinger, Alexander Levitzki
Superantigens (SAg) are extremely potent bacterial toxins, which evoke a virulent immune response, inducing non-specific T-cell proliferation, rapid cytokine release and lethal toxic shock, for which there is no effective treatment. We previously developed a small molecule, S101, which potently inhibits proliferating T-cells (Sagiv-Barfi et al, Bioorg Med Chem (2010) 18:6404-6413). In a severe mouse model of toxic shock, a single injection of S101 given together with superantigen challenge, rescued 100% of the mice...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148251/the-enzymatic-detoxification-of-the-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-identification-of-depa-from-the-don-epimerization-pathway
#10
Jason Carere, Yousef I Hassan, Dion Lepp, Ting Zhou
The biological detoxification of mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), represents a very promising approach to address the challenging problem of cereal grain contamination. The recent discovery of Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8 (Devosia spp. 17-2-E-8), a bacterial isolate capable of transforming DON to the non-toxic stereoisomer 3-epi-deoxynivalenol, along with earlier reports of bacterial species capable of oxidizing DON to 3-keto-DON, has generated interest in the possible mechanism and enzyme(s) involved...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145477/the-abundance-of-health-associated-bacteria-is-altered-in-pah-polluted-soils-implications-for-health-in-urban-areas
#11
Anirudra Parajuli, Mira Grönroos, Sari Kauppi, Tomasz Płociniczak, Marja I Roslund, Polina Galitskaya, Olli H Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Ari Jumpponen, Rauni Strömmer, Martin Romantschuk, Nan Hui, Aki Sinkkonen
Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i) PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii) human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii) alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140786/selection-of-an-anticalin%C3%A2-against-the-membrane-form-of-hsp70-via-bacterial-surface-display-and-its-theranostic-application-in-tumour-models
#12
Lars Friedrich, Petra Kornberger, Claudia T Mendler, Gabriele Multhoff, Markus Schwaiger, Arne Skerra
We describe the selection of Anticalins against a common tumour surface antigen, human Hsp70, using functional display on live E. coli cells as fusion with a truncated EspP autotransporter. While found intracellularly in normal cells, Hsp70 is frequently exposed in a membrane-bound state on the surface of tumour cells and, even more pronounced, in metastases or after radiochemotherapy. Employing a recombinant Hsp70 fragment comprising residues 383-548 as target, Anticalins were selected from a naive bacterial library...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131683/persistence-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-dairy-compost-during-storage
#13
Hongye Wang, Muthu Dharmasena, Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Dairy compost with 20, 30, or 40% moisture content (MC) was inoculated with a mixture of six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serovars at a final concentration of 5.1 log CFU/g and then stored at 22 and 4°C for 125 days. Six storage conditions-4°C and 20% MC, 4°C and 30% MC, 4°C and 40% MC, 22°C and 20% MC, 22°C and 30% MC, and 22°C and 40% MC-were investigated for the persistence of non-O157 STEC in the dairy compost. During the entire storage, fluctuations in indigenous mesophilic bacterial levels were observed within the first 28 days of storage...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130764/efficacy-of-a-blend-of-sulfuric-acid-and-sodium-sulfate-against-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-salmonella-and-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli-biotype-i-on-inoculated-prerigor-beef-surface-tissue
#14
Britteny R Scott-Bullard, Ifigenia Geornaras, Robert J Delmore, Dale R Woerner, James O Reagan, J Bred Morgan, Keith E Belk
A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124866/characterization-of-the-toxin-plx2a-a-rhoa-targeting-adp-ribosyltransferase-produced-by-the-honey-bee-pathogen-paenibacillus-larvae
#15
Julia Ebeling, Anne Fünfhaus, Henriette Knispel, Dan Krska, Ravikiran Ravulapalli, Kayla A Heney, Miguel R Lugo, A Rod Merrill, Elke Genersch
The toxin Plx2A is an important virulence factor of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood, the most destructive bacterial disease of honey bees. Biochemical and functional analyses as well as the crystal structure of Plx2A revealed that it belongs to the C3 mono-ADP-ribosylating toxin subgroup. RhoA was identified as the cellular target of Plx2A activity. The kinetic parameters (KM, kcat) were established for both the transferase and glycohydrolase (GH) reactions. When expressed in yeast, Plx2A was cytotoxic for eukaryotic cells and catalytic variants confirmed that the cytotoxicity of Plx2A depends on its enzymatic activity...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123973/cholera-toxin-b-subunit-induces-local-curvature-on-lipid-bilayers
#16
Weria Pezeshkian, Lina J Nåbo, John H Ipsen
The B subunit of the bacterial cholera toxin (CTxB) is responsible for the toxin binding to the cell membrane and its intracellular trafficking. CTxB binds to the monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside at the plasma membrane of the target cell and mediates toxin internalization by endocytosis. CTxB induces a local membrane curvature that is essential for its clathrin-independent uptake. Using all-atom molecular dynamics, we show that CTxB induces local curvature, with the radius of curvature around 36 nm. The main feature of the CTxB molecular structure that causes membrane bending is the protruding alpha helices in the middle of the protein...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#17
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120743/staphylococcus-aureus-epicutaneous-exposure-drives-skin-inflammation-via-il-36-mediated-t-cell-responses
#18
Haiyun Liu, Nathan K Archer, Carly A Dillen, Yu Wang, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Roger V Ortines, Tracy Kao, Steven K Lee, Shuting S Cai, Robert J Miller, Mark C Marchitto, Emily Zhang, Daniel P Riggins, Roger D Plaut, Scott Stibitz, Raif S Geha, Lloyd S Miller
Staphylococcus aureus colonization contributes to skin inflammation in diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but the signaling pathways involved are unclear. Herein, epicutaneous S. aureus exposure to mouse skin promoted MyD88-dependent skin inflammation initiated by IL-36, but not IL-1α/β, IL-18, or IL-33. By contrast, an intradermal S. aureus challenge promoted MyD88-dependent host defense initiated by IL-1β rather than IL-36, suggesting that different IL-1 cytokines trigger MyD88 signaling depending on the anatomical depth of S...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120408/exolysin-shapes-the-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clonal-outliers
#19
REVIEW
Emeline Reboud, Pauline Basso, Antoine P Maillard, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée
Bacterial toxins are important weapons of toxicogenic pathogens. Depending on their origin, structure and targets, they show diverse mechanisms of action and effects on eukaryotic cells. Exolysin is a secreted 170 kDa pore-forming toxin employed by clonal outliers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa providing to some strains a hyper-virulent behaviour. This group of strains lacks the major virulence factor used by classical strains, the Type III secretion system. Here, we review the structural features of the toxin, the mechanism of its secretion and the effects of the pore formation on eukaryotic cells...
November 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117270/screening-for-the-presence-of-mcr-1-mcr-2-genes-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-recovered-from-a-major-produce-production-region-in-california
#20
Daniela Mavrici, Jaszemyn C Yambao, Bertram G Lee, Beatriz Quiñones, Xiaohua He
The rapid spreading of polymyxin E (colistin) resistance among bacterial strains through the horizontally transmissible mcr-1 and mcr-2 plasmids has become a serious concern. The emergence of these genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a group of human pathogenic bacteria was even more worrisome, urging us to investigate the prevalence of mcr genes among STEC isolates. A total of 1000 STEC isolates, recovered from livestock, wildlife, produce and other environmental sources in a major production region for leafy vegetables in California during 2006-2014, were screened by PCR for the presence of plasmid-borne mcr-1 and mcr-2...
2017: PloS One
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