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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554509/low-and-high-dose-rate-heavy-ion-radiation-induced-intestinal-and-colonic-tumorigenesis-in-apc-1638n-mice
#1
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC(1638N/+)) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537495/remotely-guided-breast-sonography-for-long-term-space-missions-a-case-report-and-discussion
#2
Jackelynne P Silva-Martinez, Andreia Sorice Genaro, Hui Annie Wen, Naama Glauber, Thais Russomano
BACKGROUND: Space radiation can cause different types of cancers in crewmembers, especially during long-term space missions. INTRODUCTION: To date, a complete bilateral breast ultrasound has not been performed at the International Space Station (ISS). A breast screening imaging technique could be a useful tool for early identification of breast cancer in astronauts. We hypothesized that breast ultrasound performed by a crewmember while being remotely guided by a specialist from the ground could be an essential tool for medical diagnosis in space...
May 24, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528322/very-low-doses-of-heavy-oxygen-ion-radiation-induce-premature-ovarian-failure
#3
Birendra Mishra, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts are exposed to charged particles during space travel, and charged particles are also used for cancer radiotherapy. Premature ovarian failure is a well-known side effect of conventional, low linear energy transfer (LET) cancer radiotherapy, but little is known about the effects of high LET charged particles on the ovary. We hypothesized that lower LET (16.5 keV/µm) oxygen particles would be less damaging to the ovary than we previously found for iron (LET = 179 keV/µm). Adult female mice were irradiated with 0, 5, 30 or 50 cGy oxygen ions or 50 cGy oxygen plus dietary supplementation with the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA)...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#4
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538114/simulating-the-lunar-environment-partial-weightbearing-and-high-let-radiation-induce-bone-loss-and-increase-sclerostin-positive-osteocytes
#5
B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441231/adjustment-of-lifetime-risks-of-space-radiation-induced-cancer-by-the-healthy-worker-effect-and-cancer-misclassification
#6
Leif E Peterson, Tatiana Kovyrshina
Background. The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a source of bias in occupational studies of mortality among workers caused by use of comparative disease rates based on public data, which include mortality of unhealthy members of the public who are screened out of the workplace. For the US astronaut corp, the HWE is assumed to be strong due to the rigorous medical selection and surveillance. This investigation focused on the effect of correcting for HWE on projected lifetime risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence...
December 2015: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345201/sex-and-dose-dependent-effects-of-calcium-ion-irradiation-on-behavioral-performance-of-b6d2f1-mice-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-training
#7
Jacob Raber, Sydney J Weber, Amy Kronenberg, Mitchell S Turker
The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to (28)Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET=78keV/μm; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to (48)Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET=107keV/μm; 0...
June 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251203/charged-iron-particles-components-of-space-radiation-destroy-ovarian-follicles
#8
Birendra Mishra, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
STUDY QUESTION: Do charged iron particles, components of space radiation, cause premature ovarian failure? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to charged iron particles causes ovarian DNA damage, oxidative damage and apoptosis, resulting in premature ovarian failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ovary is very sensitive to follicle destruction by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as X-rays and γ-rays. However, it is completely unknown whether high-LET radiation, such as charged iron particles, also destroys ovarian follicles...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243749/simulated-microgravity-and-low-dose-low-dose-rate-radiation-induces-oxidative-damage-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Xiao Wen Mao, Nina C Nishiyama, Michael J Pecaut, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Peter Gifford, Kristine E Haynes, Caroline Becronis, Daila S Gridley
Microgravity and radiation are stressors unique to the spaceflight environment that can have an impact on the central nervous system (CNS). These stressors could potentially lead to significant health risks to astronauts, both acutely during the course of a mission or chronically, leading to long-term, post-mission decrements in quality of life. The CNS is sensitive to oxidative injury due to high concentrations of oxidizable, unsaturated lipids and low levels of antioxidant defenses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative damage in the brain cortex and hippocampus in a ground-based model for spaceflight, which includes prolonged unloading and low-dose radiation...
June 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013781/combined-effects-of-soy-isoflavones-and-milk-basic-protein-on-bone-mineral-density-in-hind-limb-unloaded-mice
#10
Yu Matsumoto, Yuko Tousen, Yoriko Nishide, Miki Tadaishi, Ken Kato, Yoshiko Ishimi
We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901697/the-potential-influence-of-the-microbiota-and-probiotics-on-women-during-long-spaceflights
#11
Camilla Urbaniak, Gregor Reid
Humans have been exploring space for almost 55 years but space travel comes with many psychological and physiological changes that astronauts have to adapt to, both during and post flight missions. Now, with the reality of such missions lasting years, maintaining proper health of the flight crew is a high priority. While conditions such as nausea, bone loss, renal calculi and depression have been recognized, and approaches to medical and surgical care in space considered, the influence of the microbiota could be of added significance in maintaining astronaut health...
2016: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747504/increased-postflight-carotid-artery-stiffness-and-inflight-insulin-resistance-resulting-from-6-mo-spaceflight-in-male-and-female-astronauts
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725728/relative-biological-effectiveness-of-energetic-heavy-ions-for-intestinal-tumorigenesis-shows-male-preponderance-and-radiation-type-and-energy-dependence-in-apc-1638n-mice
#13
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steve J Strawn, Hemang Thakor, Ziling Fan, Jerry W Shay, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
PURPOSE: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662601/-formula-see-text-o2-and-hr-kinetics-before-and-after-international-space-station-missions
#14
U Hoffmann, A D Moore, J Koschate, U Drescher
PURPOSE: Heart rate (HR), pulmonary and muscle oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2pulm, [Formula: see text]O2musc) kinetics after changes of work rate (WR) indicate regulatory characteristics related to aerobic metabolism. We analysed whether the kinetics of HR, [Formula: see text]O2pulm and [Formula: see text]O2musc are slowed after missions to the International Space Station (ISS). The changes of the kinetics were correlated with [Formula: see text]O2peak data. METHODS: 10 astronauts [4 females, 6 males, age: 48...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630198/the-first-10-years-of-aerobic-exercise-responses-to-long-duration-iss-flights
#15
Alan D Moore, Peggy A Lynn, Alan H Feiveson
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic deconditioning may occur during International Space Station (ISS) flights. This paper documents findings from exercise testing conducted before, during, and after ISS expeditions. METHODS: There were 30 male and 7 female astronauts on ISS missions (48 to 219 d, mean 163 d) who performed cycle exercise protocols consisting of 5-min stages eliciting 25%, 50%, and 75% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)). Tests were conducted 30 to 90 d before missions, on flight day 15 and every 30 flight days thereafter, and on recovery (R) days +5 and +30...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26427061/histological-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-adult-japanese-medaka-sampled-onboard-the-international-space-station
#16
Yasuhiko Murata, Takako Yasuda, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Shoji Oda, Akiko Mantoku, Kazuhiro Takeyama, Masahiro Chatani, Akira Kudo, Satoko Uchida, Hiromi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Masaki Shirakawa, Koichi Fujisawa, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Shuji Terai, Hiroshi Mitani
To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26083373/space-environmental-factor-impacts-upon-murine-colon-microbiota-and-mucosal-homeostasis
#17
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Florence Lima, Susan A Bloomfield, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith, Nancy D Turner
Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25635344/relative-effectiveness-at-1-gy-after-acute-and-fractionated-exposures-of-heavy-ions-with-different-linear-energy-transfer-for-lung-tumorigenesis
#18
Xiang Wang, Alton B Farris Iii, Ping Wang, Xiangming Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Ya Wang
Space radiation, which is comprised of high-energy charged (HZE) particles with different high-linear energy transfer (LET), induces more severe biological effects than the Earth's radiation. NASA has mandated that risk estimates of carcinogenesis induced by exposure to HZE particles with different LET be determined before conducting human explorations of Mars. Because lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in humans, it is critical the risk of that radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis be included when estimating the risks of space radiation to astronauts...
February 2015: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25568077/spaceflight-and-simulated-microgravity-cause-a-significant-reduction-of-key-gene-expression-in-early-t-cell-activation
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Emily M Martinez, Miya C Yoshida, Tara Lynne T Candelario, Millie Hughes-Fulford
Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS)...
March 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25565526/intraocular-and-intracranial-pressures-during-head-down-tilt-with-lower-body-negative-pressure
#20
Brandon R Macias, John H K Liu, Noelia Grande-Gutierrez, Alan R Hargens
BACKGROUND: Seven astronauts after 6-mo missions to the International Space Station showed unexpected vision problems. Lumbar punctures performed in the four astronauts with optic disc edema showed moderate elevations of cerebral spinal fluid pressure after returning to Earth. We hypothesized that lower body negative pressure (LBNP) imposed during head-down tilt (HDT) would reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and transcranial ultrasound pulse amplitude, a noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) surrogate...
January 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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