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B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Leif E Peterson, Tatiana Kovyrshina
Background. The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a source of bias in occupational studies of mortality among workers caused by use of comparative disease rates based on public data, which include mortality of unhealthy members of the public who are screened out of the workplace. For the US astronaut corp, the HWE is assumed to be strong due to the rigorous medical selection and surveillance. This investigation focused on the effect of correcting for HWE on projected lifetime risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence...
December 2015: Heliyon
Jacob Raber, Sydney J Weber, Amy Kronenberg, Mitchell S Turker
The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to (28)Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET=78keV/μm; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to (48)Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET=107keV/μm; 0...
June 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
Birendra Mishra, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
STUDY QUESTION: Do charged iron particles, components of space radiation, cause premature ovarian failure? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to charged iron particles causes ovarian DNA damage, oxidative damage and apoptosis, resulting in premature ovarian failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ovary is very sensitive to follicle destruction by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as X-rays and γ-rays. However, it is completely unknown whether high-LET radiation, such as charged iron particles, also destroys ovarian follicles...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
Xiao Wen Mao, Nina C Nishiyama, Michael J Pecaut, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Peter Gifford, Kristine E Haynes, Caroline Becronis, Daila S Gridley
Microgravity and radiation are stressors unique to the spaceflight environment that can have an impact on the central nervous system (CNS). These stressors could potentially lead to significant health risks to astronauts, both acutely during the course of a mission or chronically, leading to long-term, post-mission decrements in quality of life. The CNS is sensitive to oxidative injury due to high concentrations of oxidizable, unsaturated lipids and low levels of antioxidant defenses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative damage in the brain cortex and hippocampus in a ground-based model for spaceflight, which includes prolonged unloading and low-dose radiation...
June 2016: Radiation Research
Yu Matsumoto, Yuko Tousen, Yoriko Nishide, Miki Tadaishi, Ken Kato, Yoshiko Ishimi
We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Camilla Urbaniak, Gregor Reid
Humans have been exploring space for almost 55 years but space travel comes with many psychological and physiological changes that astronauts have to adapt to, both during and post flight missions. Now, with the reality of such missions lasting years, maintaining proper health of the flight crew is a high priority. While conditions such as nausea, bone loss, renal calculi and depression have been recognized, and approaches to medical and surgical care in space considered, the influence of the microbiota could be of added significance in maintaining astronaut health...
2016: Women's Health
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steve J Strawn, Hemang Thakor, Ziling Fan, Jerry W Shay, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
PURPOSE: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
U Hoffmann, A D Moore, J Koschate, U Drescher
PURPOSE: Heart rate (HR), pulmonary and muscle oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2pulm, [Formula: see text]O2musc) kinetics after changes of work rate (WR) indicate regulatory characteristics related to aerobic metabolism. We analysed whether the kinetics of HR, [Formula: see text]O2pulm and [Formula: see text]O2musc are slowed after missions to the International Space Station (ISS). The changes of the kinetics were correlated with [Formula: see text]O2peak data. METHODS: 10 astronauts [4 females, 6 males, age: 48...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alan D Moore, Peggy A Lynn, Alan H Feiveson
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic deconditioning may occur during International Space Station (ISS) flights. This paper documents findings from exercise testing conducted before, during, and after ISS expeditions. METHODS: There were 30 male and 7 female astronauts on ISS missions (48 to 219 d, mean 163 d) who performed cycle exercise protocols consisting of 5-min stages eliciting 25%, 50%, and 75% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)). Tests were conducted 30 to 90 d before missions, on flight day 15 and every 30 flight days thereafter, and on recovery (R) days +5 and +30...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yasuhiko Murata, Takako Yasuda, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Shoji Oda, Akiko Mantoku, Kazuhiro Takeyama, Masahiro Chatani, Akira Kudo, Satoko Uchida, Hiromi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Masaki Shirakawa, Koichi Fujisawa, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Shuji Terai, Hiroshi Mitani
To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994...
2015: PloS One
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Florence Lima, Susan A Bloomfield, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith, Nancy D Turner
Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0...
2015: PloS One
Xiang Wang, Alton B Farris Iii, Ping Wang, Xiangming Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Ya Wang
Space radiation, which is comprised of high-energy charged (HZE) particles with different high-linear energy transfer (LET), induces more severe biological effects than the Earth's radiation. NASA has mandated that risk estimates of carcinogenesis induced by exposure to HZE particles with different LET be determined before conducting human explorations of Mars. Because lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in humans, it is critical the risk of that radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis be included when estimating the risks of space radiation to astronauts...
February 2015: Radiation Research
Emily M Martinez, Miya C Yoshida, Tara Lynne T Candelario, Millie Hughes-Fulford
Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS)...
March 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Brandon R Macias, John H K Liu, Noelia Grande-Gutierrez, Alan R Hargens
BACKGROUND: Seven astronauts after 6-mo missions to the International Space Station showed unexpected vision problems. Lumbar punctures performed in the four astronauts with optic disc edema showed moderate elevations of cerebral spinal fluid pressure after returning to Earth. We hypothesized that lower body negative pressure (LBNP) imposed during head-down tilt (HDT) would reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and transcranial ultrasound pulse amplitude, a noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) surrogate...
January 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Francis A Cucinotta
Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions...
February 2015: Health Physics
April E Ronca, Ellen S Baker, Tamara G Bavendam, Kevin D Beck, Virginia M Miller, Joseph S Tash, Marjorie Jenkins
In this report, sex/gender research relevant to reproduction on Earth, in conjunction with the extant human and animal observations in space, was used to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize recommendations for future sex- and gender-specific surveillance and monitoring of male and female astronauts. With overall increased durations of contemporary space missions, a deeper understanding of sex/gender effects on reproduction-related responses and adaptations to the space environment is warranted to minimize risks and insure healthy aging of the men and women who travel into space...
November 2014: Journal of Women's Health
Millard F Reschke, Helen S Cohen, Jody M Cerisano, Janine A Clayton, Ronita Cromwell, Richard W Danielson, Emma Y Hwang, Candace Tingen, John R Allen, David L Tomko
Sex and gender differences have long been a research topic of interest, yet few studies have explored the specific differences in neurological responses between men and women during and after spaceflight. Knowledge in this field is limited due to the significant disproportion of sexes enrolled in the astronaut corps. Research indicates that general neurological and sensory differences exist between the sexes, such as those in laterality of amygdala activity, sensitivity and discrimination in vision processing, and neuronal cell death (apoptosis) pathways...
November 2014: Journal of Women's Health
Ann R Kennedy, Brian Crucian, Janice L Huff, Sabra L Klein, David Morens, Donna Murasko, Cheryl A Nickerson, Gerald Sonnenfeld
This review is focused on sex and gender effects on immunological alterations occurring during space flight. Sex differences in immune function and the outcome of inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases are well documented. The work of the Immunology Workgroup identified numerous reasons why there could be sex and/or gender differences observed during and after spaceflight, but thus far, there has been very little investigation in this area of research. In most cases, this is due to either a low total number of subjects or the minimal number of female flight crew members available for these studies...
November 2014: Journal of Women's Health
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