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David R Temple, Yiri E De Dios, Charles S Layne, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle M Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R Maynard, Amir A Bahadori, Wesley E Bolch
One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Cody W Whoolery, Angela K Walker, Devon R Richardson, Melanie J Lucero, Ryan P Reynolds, David H Beddow, K Lyles Clark, Hung-Ying Shih, Junie A LeBlanc, Mara G Cole, Wellington Z Amaral, Shibani Mukherjee, Shichuan Zhang, Francisca Ahn, Sarah E Bulin, Nathan A DeCarolis, Phillip D Rivera, Benjamin P C Chen, Sanghee Yun, Amelia J Eisch
Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles.56 Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as28 Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function...
November 2017: Radiation Research
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC(1638N/+)) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Jackelynne P Silva-Martinez, Andreia Sorice Genaro, Hui Annie Wen, Naama Glauber, Thais Russomano
BACKGROUND: Space radiation can cause different types of cancers in crewmembers, especially during long-term space missions. INTRODUCTION: To date, a complete bilateral breast ultrasound has not been performed at the International Space Station (ISS). A breast screening imaging technique could be a useful tool for early identification of breast cancer in astronauts. We hypothesized that breast ultrasound performed by a crewmember while being remotely guided by a specialist from the ground could be an essential tool for medical diagnosis in space...
May 24, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Birendra Mishra, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts are exposed to charged particles during space travel, and charged particles are also used for cancer radiotherapy. Premature ovarian failure is a well-known side effect of conventional, low linear energy transfer (LET) cancer radiotherapy, but little is known about the effects of high LET charged particles on the ovary. We hypothesized that lower LET (16.5 keV/µm) oxygen particles would be less damaging to the ovary than we previously found for iron (LET = 179 keV/µm). Adult female mice were irradiated with 0, 5, 30 or 50 cGy oxygen ions or 50 cGy oxygen plus dietary supplementation with the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA)...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Leif E Peterson, Tatiana Kovyrshina
Background. The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a source of bias in occupational studies of mortality among workers caused by use of comparative disease rates based on public data, which include mortality of unhealthy members of the public who are screened out of the workplace. For the US astronaut corp, the HWE is assumed to be strong due to the rigorous medical selection and surveillance. This investigation focused on the effect of correcting for HWE on projected lifetime risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence...
December 2015: Heliyon
Jacob Raber, Sydney J Weber, Amy Kronenberg, Mitchell S Turker
The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to (28)Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET=78keV/μm; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to (48)Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET=107keV/μm; 0...
June 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
Birendra Mishra, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
STUDY QUESTION: Do charged iron particles, components of space radiation, cause premature ovarian failure? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to charged iron particles causes ovarian DNA damage, oxidative damage and apoptosis, resulting in premature ovarian failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ovary is very sensitive to follicle destruction by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as X-rays and γ-rays. However, it is completely unknown whether high-LET radiation, such as charged iron particles, also destroys ovarian follicles...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
Xiao Wen Mao, Nina C Nishiyama, Michael J Pecaut, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Peter Gifford, Kristine E Haynes, Caroline Becronis, Daila S Gridley
Microgravity and radiation are stressors unique to the spaceflight environment that can have an impact on the central nervous system (CNS). These stressors could potentially lead to significant health risks to astronauts, both acutely during the course of a mission or chronically, leading to long-term, post-mission decrements in quality of life. The CNS is sensitive to oxidative injury due to high concentrations of oxidizable, unsaturated lipids and low levels of antioxidant defenses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative damage in the brain cortex and hippocampus in a ground-based model for spaceflight, which includes prolonged unloading and low-dose radiation...
June 2016: Radiation Research
Yu Matsumoto, Yuko Tousen, Yoriko Nishide, Miki Tadaishi, Ken Kato, Yoshiko Ishimi
We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Camilla Urbaniak, Gregor Reid
Humans have been exploring space for almost 55 years but space travel comes with many psychological and physiological changes that astronauts have to adapt to, both during and post flight missions. Now, with the reality of such missions lasting years, maintaining proper health of the flight crew is a high priority. While conditions such as nausea, bone loss, renal calculi and depression have been recognized, and approaches to medical and surgical care in space considered, the influence of the microbiota could be of added significance in maintaining astronaut health...
2016: Women's Health
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steve J Strawn, Hemang Thakor, Ziling Fan, Jerry W Shay, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
PURPOSE: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
U Hoffmann, A D Moore, J Koschate, U Drescher
PURPOSE: Heart rate (HR), pulmonary and muscle oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2pulm, [Formula: see text]O2musc) kinetics after changes of work rate (WR) indicate regulatory characteristics related to aerobic metabolism. We analysed whether the kinetics of HR, [Formula: see text]O2pulm and [Formula: see text]O2musc are slowed after missions to the International Space Station (ISS). The changes of the kinetics were correlated with [Formula: see text]O2peak data. METHODS: 10 astronauts [4 females, 6 males, age: 48...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alan D Moore, Peggy A Lynn, Alan H Feiveson
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic deconditioning may occur during International Space Station (ISS) flights. This paper documents findings from exercise testing conducted before, during, and after ISS expeditions. METHODS: There were 30 male and 7 female astronauts on ISS missions (48 to 219 d, mean 163 d) who performed cycle exercise protocols consisting of 5-min stages eliciting 25%, 50%, and 75% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)). Tests were conducted 30 to 90 d before missions, on flight day 15 and every 30 flight days thereafter, and on recovery (R) days +5 and +30...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yasuhiko Murata, Takako Yasuda, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Shoji Oda, Akiko Mantoku, Kazuhiro Takeyama, Masahiro Chatani, Akira Kudo, Satoko Uchida, Hiromi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Masaki Shirakawa, Koichi Fujisawa, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Shuji Terai, Hiroshi Mitani
To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994...
2015: PloS One
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