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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#1
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428078/kinetic-reconstruction-reveals-time-dependent-effects-of-romosozumab-on-bone-formation-and-osteoblast-function-in-vertebral-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#2
Rogely Waite Boyce, Qing-Tian Niu, Michael S Ominsky
Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal sclerostin antibody under development for the treatment of osteoporosis, has a unique mechanism of action on bone-increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. The effects on bone formation are transient, eliciting a rapid increase in bone formation that attenuates with continued treatment. Although bone formation attenuates, bone mineral density (BMD) continues to increase. To explore potential tissue-level mechanisms that could contribute to a progressive increase in spine BMD, we used kinetic reconstruction techniques to examine the effects of romosozumab on modeling and remodeling units in vertebral cancellous bone from adult cynomolgus monkeys administered romosozumab for 10 and 28weeks...
April 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427994/global-dynamics-in-a-stoichiometric-food-chain-model-with-two-limiting-nutrients
#3
Ming Chen, Meng Fan, Yang Kuang
Ecological stoichiometry studies the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions to establish how the nutrient content affect food-web dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. In this study, we formulate a food chain with two limiting nutrients in the form of a stoichiometric population model. A comprehensive global analysis of the rich dynamics of the targeted model is explored both analytically and numerically. Chaotic dynamic is observed in this simple stoichiometric food chain model and is compared with traditional model without stoichiometry...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427451/household-level-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-ethiopia
#4
Dinberu Seyoum, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Luc Duchateau, Patrick Brandt, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Niko Speybroeck
BACKGROUND: The global decline of malaria burden and goals for elimination has led to an increased interest in the fine-scale epidemiology of malaria. Micro-geographic heterogeneity of malaria infection could have implications for designing targeted small-area interventions. METHODS: Two-year longitudinal cohort study data were used to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of malaria episodes in 2040 children aged < 10 years in 16 villages near the Gilgel-Gibe hydropower dam in Southwest Ethiopia...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426780/response-of-spatial-vegetation-distribution-in-china-to-climate-changes-since-the-last-glacial-maximum-lgm
#5
Siyang Wang, Xiaoting Xu, Nawal Shrestha, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Zhiyao Tang, Zhiheng Wang
Analyzing how climate change affects vegetation distribution is one of the central issues of global change ecology as this has important implications for the carbon budget of terrestrial vegetation. Mapping vegetation distribution under historical climate scenarios is essential for understanding the response of vegetation distribution to future climatic changes. The reconstructions of palaeovegetation based on pollen data provide a useful method to understand the relationship between climate and vegetation distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426754/assessing-environmental-attributes-and-effects-of-climate-change-on-sphagnum-peatland-distributions-in-north-america-using-single-and-multi-species-models
#6
Tobi A Oke, Heather A Hager
The fate of Northern peatlands under climate change is important because of their contribution to global carbon (C) storage. Peatlands are maintained via greater plant productivity (especially of Sphagnum species) than decomposition, and the processes involved are strongly mediated by climate. Although some studies predict that warming will relax constraints on decomposition, leading to decreased C sequestration, others predict increases in productivity and thus increases in C sequestration. We explored the lack of congruence between these predictions using single-species and integrated species distribution models as proxies for understanding the environmental correlates of North American Sphagnum peatland occurrence and how projected changes to the environment might influence these peatlands under climate change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426660/exhaustive-search-of-linear-information-encoding-protein-peptide-recognition
#7
Abdellali Kelil, Benjamin Dubreuil, Emmanuel D Levy, Stephen W Michnick
High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425443/hybridization-of-strength-pareto-multiobjective-optimization-with-modified-cuckoo-search-algorithm-for-rectangular-array
#8
Khairul Najmy Abdul Rani, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek, Hasliza A Rahim, Neoh Siew Chin, Alawiyah Abd Wahab
This research proposes the various versions of modified cuckoo search (MCS) metaheuristic algorithm deploying the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) multiobjective (MO) optimization technique in rectangular array geometry synthesis. Precisely, the MCS algorithm is proposed by incorporating the Roulette wheel selection operator to choose the initial host nests (individuals) that give better results, adaptive inertia weight to control the positions exploration of the potential best host nests (solutions), and dynamic discovery rate to manage the fraction probability of finding the best host nests in 3-dimensional search space...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424743/towards-bi-inclusive-policies-suggestions-based-on-research-on-dutch-same-sex-attracted-young-people
#9
Jantine van Lisdonk, Saskia Keuzenkamp
Dutch national LGBT policies are not bi-inclusive and this study provides suggestions for improvement, based on empirical research. Attention for bisexuality in policy appears simply to pay lip service and to endorse the construction of sexual orientation as a hetero/homo binary. The outcomes of our survey (n = 1449) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) of Dutch same-sex attracted young people suggest that special attention for bisexual people is warranted. Compared to exclusively same-sex attracted participants, the equally both-sex attracted participants scored worse on openness about their sexual attraction, visibility discomfort, perceived acceptance, and suicide attempts...
2017: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422688/person-reidentification-based-on-elastic-projections
#10
Xuelong Li, Lina Liu, Xiaoqiang Lu
Person reidentification usually refers to matching people in different camera views in nonoverlapping multicamera networks. Many existing methods learn a similarity measure by projecting the raw feature to a latent subspace to make the same target's distance smaller than different targets' distances. However, the same targets captured in different camera views should hold the same intrinsic attributes while different targets should hold different intrinsic attributes. Projecting all the data to the same subspace would cause loss of such an information and comparably poor discriminability...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422562/from-perception-to-action-the-mediating-role-of-parental-safety-concerns-on-adolescents-physical-activity
#11
Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo
BACKGROUND: Parental safety concerns have been recognized as a critical determinant of adolescents' physical activity. However, it is still uncertain what factors relate to parental safety concern, and how they, in turn, affect adolescents' physical activity. This study explored the mediating relationships of parental safety concern on adolescents' physical activity by considering personal, social, and built environmental factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis used the data from Growing Up in Ireland (GUI), a national study (N=5,212)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421358/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-the-management-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Salman Hussain, Ambrish Singh, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Conflicting evidence exists concerning the supplementation of vitamin D in knee osteoarthritis condition. This systematic literature review was done to explore the effects of vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Electronic literature search was done in databases like PubMed(®), Embase(®), and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to 6th July 2016. The quality of included Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool. We considered change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Functional Pain Score (FPS) as the primary outcome measure...
April 18, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418705/accurate-differentiation-of-carotenoid-pigments-using-flight-representative-raman-spectrometers
#13
Cedric Malherbe, Ian B Hutchinson, Melissa McHugh, Richard Ingley, Jan Jehlička, Howell G M Edwards
Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415313/characterization-of-phase-transitions-in-a-model-ecosystem-of-sessile-species
#14
Florian Uekermann, Joachim Mathiesen, Namiko Mitarai
We consider a model ecosystem of sessile species competing for space. In particular, we consider the system introduced by Mathiesen et al. [J. Mathiesen, N. Mitarai, K. Sneppen, and A. Trusina, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 188101 (2011)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.188101] where species compete according to a fixed interaction network with links determined by a Bernoulli process. In the limit of a small introduction rate of new species, the model exhibits a discontinuous transition from a high-diversity state to a low-diversity state as the interaction probability between species, γ, is increased from zero...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415256/turbulent-compressible-fluid-renormalization-group-analysis-scaling-regimes-and-anomalous-scaling-of-advected-scalar-fields
#15
N V Antonov, N M Gulitskiy, M M Kostenko, T Lučivjanský
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997)TMPHAH0040-577910.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415249/traveling-waves-and-breathers-in-an-excitatory-inhibitory-neural-field
#16
Stefanos E Folias
We study existence and stability of traveling activity bump solutions in an excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) neural field with Heaviside firing rate functions by deriving existence conditions for traveling bumps and an Evans function to analyze their spectral stability. Subsequently, we show that these existence and stability results reduce, in the limit of wave speed c→0, to the equivalent conditions developed for the stationary bump case. Using the results for the stationary bump case, we show that drift bifurcations of stationary bumps serve as a mechanism for generating traveling bump solutions in the E-I neural field as parameters are varied...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415179/bias-cancellation-in-one-determinant-fixed-node-diffusion-monte-carlo-insights-from-fermionic-occupation-numbers
#17
Matúš Dubecký
The accuracy of the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (FNDMC) depends on the node location of the supplied trial state Ψ_{T}. The practical FNDMC approaches available for large systems rely on compact yet effective Ψ_{T}, most often containing an explicitly correlated single Slater determinant (SD). However, SD nodes may be better suited to one system than to another, which may possibly lead to inaccurate FNDMC energy differences. It remains a challenge how to estimate nonequivalence or appropriateness of SDs...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414261/-support-your-client-at-the-space-that-they-re-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-prescribers-perspectives-on-prep-related-risk-compensation
#18
Sarah K Calabrese, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, Douglas S Krakower, Adam I Eldahan, Lauren A Gaston Hawkins, Kristen Underhill, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and evidence that most PrEP users do not engage in risk compensation (i.e., increased risk behavior due to a perceived decrease in HIV susceptibility), some healthcare providers report patient risk compensation to be a deterrent to prescribing PrEP. Overcoming this barrier is essential to supporting PrEP access and uptake among people at risk for HIV. To inform such efforts, this qualitative study explored PrEP-related risk compensation attitudes among providers with firsthand experience prescribing PrEP...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414020/modifying-alcohol-consumption-to-reduce-obesity-macro-development-and-feasibility-trial-of-a-complex-community-based-intervention-for-men
#19
Iain K Crombie, Kathryn B Cunningham, Linda Irvine, Brian Williams, Falko F Sniehotta, John Norrie, Ambrose Melson, Claire Jones, Andrew Briggs, Peter M Rice, Marcus Achison, Andrew McKenzie, Elena Dimova, Peter W Slane
BACKGROUND: Obese men who consume alcohol are at a greatly increased risk of liver disease; those who drink > 14 units of alcohol per week have a 19-fold increased risk of dying from liver disease. OBJECTIVES: To develop an intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in obese men and to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to investigate its effectiveness. DESIGN OF THE INTERVENTION: The intervention was developed using formative research, public involvement and behaviour change theory...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413956/structure-roles-and-inhibitors-of-a-mitotic-protein-kinase-haspin
#20
Katrin Kestav, Asko Uri, Darja Lavogina
Background Haspin (haploid germ cell-specific nuclear protein kinase) is an atypical serine/threonine-protein kinase that was for a long time considered an inactive pseudokinase due to low degree of structural homology of Haspin with the 'classical' protein kinases. However, the discovery of Haspin-catalyzed phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3 residue unveiled importance of Haspin in mitosis and provided yet another link between mitotic phosphorylation pathways and chromatin modifications. Results In this review of 111 publications, we have (1) briefly summarized catalytic properties and physiological roles of Haspin, (2) focussed on the architecture of Haspin and mechanisms behind its substrate recognition, (3) provided detailed insight into the advances in the development and characterization of Haspin-selective inhibitors, and (4) given overview of inhibitor scaffolds that despite targeting other protein kinases feature Haspin as a common off-target...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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