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Francesca Rocchi, Margit E Dylla, Peter A Bohlen, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata)...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Gil Henkin, Daniel Berard, Francis Stabile, Marjan Shayegan, Jason S Leith, Sabrina R Leslie
We present a dynamically adjustable nanofluidic platform for formatting the conformations of and visualizing the interaction kinetics between biomolecules in solution, offering new time resolution and control of the reaction processes. This platform extends Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC), a technique for imaging molecules under confinement, by introducing a system for in-situ modification of the chemical environment; this system uses a deep microchannel to diffusively exchange reagents within the nanoscale imaging region, whose height is fixed by a nanopost array...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
October 20, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Yu Sun, Vaibhav A Narayan, Gayle M Wittenberg
BACKGROUND: Side effects, or the adverse effects of drugs, contain important clinical phenotypic information that may be useful in predicting novel or unknown targets of a drug. It has been suggested that drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share common targets. The diagnostic class, Major Depressive Disorder, is increasingly viewed as being comprised of multiple depression subtypes with different biological root causes. One 'type' of depression generating substantial interest today focuses on patients with high levels of inflammatory burden, indicated by elevated levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Armando H Norman, Andrew J Russell, Claudia Merli
The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Matthieu Barbier, James R Watson
Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Deborah R Coen
The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of "scaling"; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
David A Kring, Georgiana Y Kramer, Gareth S Collins, Ross W K Potter, Mitali Chandnani
The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Siavash Isazadeh, Shameem Jauffur, Dominic Frigon
Effect of ecological variables on community assembly of heterotrophic bacteria at eight full-scale and two pilot-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (AS-WWTPs) were explored by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In total, 39 samples covering a range of abiotic factors spread over space and time were analyzed. A core bacterial community of 24 families detected in at least six of the eight AS-WWTPs was defined. In addition to the core families, plant-specific families (observed at <50% AS-WWTPs) were found to be also important in the community structure...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Janne Kalikka, Xilin Zhou, Jitendra Behera, Giacomo Nannicini, Robert E Simpson
We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge2Sb2Te5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 and Ge1Sb2Te4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb2Te3-GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability...
October 19, 2016: Nanoscale
Peng Song, Baijie Guan, Qiao Zhou, Meiyu Zhao, Jindou Huang, Fengcai Ma
The anisotropic hole and electron mobilities in N,N'-3,4,9,10-perylenediimide-1,7-phenoxy (PDIB-2OPh) and N,N'-3,4,9,10-perylenediimide (PDIB) were theoretically predicted using the Marcus-Hush theory. The substituent effect of phenoxy on their mobility rates, absorption spectra, electron affinities, and ionization potentials was explored. By comparing the simulated hole mobility in PDIB and PDIB-2OPh, it is found that the phenoxy rings act as spacers between adjacent stacking columns in the phenoxy-substituted derivatives...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yongchul G Chung, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Peng Li, Karson T Leperi, Pravas Deria, Hongda Zhang, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, J Fraser Stoddart, Fengqi You, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Randall Q Snurr
Discovery of new adsorbent materials with a high CO2 working capacity could help reduce CO2 emissions from newly commissioned power plants using precombustion carbon capture. High-throughput computational screening efforts can accelerate the discovery of new adsorbents but sometimes require significant computational resources to explore the large space of possible materials. We report the in silico discovery of high-performing adsorbents for precombustion CO2 capture by applying a genetic algorithm to efficiently search a large database of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for top candidates...
October 2016: Science Advances
Xiang Chen, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Chao-Ping Lin, Yu-Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate ((R)-CHBE) is a versatile chiral precursor for many pharmaceuticals. Although several biosynthesis strategies have been documented to convert ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) to (R)-CHBE, the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity are still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Due to the increasing demand of (R)-CHBE, it is essential to explore more robust biocatalyst capable of preparing (R)-CHBE efficiently. RESULTS: A stereoselective carbonyl reductase toolbox was constructed and employed into the asymmetric reduction of COBE to (R)-CHBE...
October 18, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rossella Melchiotti, Filipe Gracio, Shahram Kordasti, Alan K Todd, Emanuele de Rinaldis
Manual gating has been traditionally applied to cytometry data sets to identify cells based on protein expression. The advent of mass cytometry allows for a higher number of proteins to be simultaneously measured on cells, therefore providing a means to define cell clusters in a high dimensional expression space. This enhancement, whilst opening unprecedented opportunities for single cell-level analyses, makes the incremental replacement of manual gating with automated clustering a compelling need. To this aim many methods have been implemented and their successful applications demonstrated in different settings...
October 18, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Timothy B Lannin, Fredrik I Thege, Brian J Kirby
Advances in rare cell capture technology have made possible the interrogation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) captured from whole patient blood. However, locating captured cells in the device by manual counting bottlenecks data processing by being tedious (hours per sample) and compromises the results by being inconsistent and prone to user bias. Some recent work has been done to automate the cell location and classification process to address these problems, employing image processing and machine learning (ML) algorithms to locate and classify cells in fluorescent microscope images...
October 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Yuwang Lai, Defeng Gu, Junhong Liu, Wenping Li, Dongyun Yi
The low frequency errors (LFE) of star trackers are the most penalizing errors for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination. Two test star trackers- have been mounted on the Space Technology Experiment and Climate Exploration (STECE) satellite, a small satellite mission developed by China. To extract and compensate the LFE of the attitude measurements for the two test star trackers, a new approach, called Fourier analysis, combined with the Vondrak filter method (FAVF) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the LFE of the two test star trackers' attitude measurements are analyzed and extracted by the FAVF method...
October 12, 2016: Sensors
Stephen Harrap
Genetic discovery in blood pressure is generally referenced in relation to protein-coding genes, despite the fact that genes less than 2% of the genome. Recent exploration of the DNA sequences between genes, once called "junk" DNA, has revealed a wealth of transcripts for RNA species that do not encode protein. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as dynamic managers of the business of the genome, able to coordinate the expression of genes in time and space to achieve the complexities of normal development and growth...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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