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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#1
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#2
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918057/one-step-piggybac-transposon-based-crispr-cas9-activation-of-multiple-genes
#3
Shenglan Li, Anqi Zhang, Haipeng Xue, Dali Li, Ying Liu
Neural cell fate is determined by a tightly controlled transcription regulatory network during development. The ability to manipulate the expression of multiple transcription factors simultaneously is required to delineate the complex picture of neural cell development. Because of the limited carrying capacity of the commonly used viral vectors, such as lentiviral or retroviral vectors, it is often challenging to perform perturbation experiments on multiple transcription factors. Here we have developed a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) all-in-one system, which allows for simultaneous and stable endogenous transactivation of multiple transcription factors and long non-coding RNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918056/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crispr-cas9-systems-in-oncogene-addicted-cancer-types-virally-driven-cancers-as-a-model-system
#4
REVIEW
Luqman Jubair, Nigel A J McMillan
The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918050/the-function-and-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cardiovascular-development-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Clarissa P C Gomes, Helen Spencer, Kerrie L Ford, Lauriane Y M Michel, Andrew H Baker, Costanza Emanueli, Jean-Luc Balligand, Yvan Devaux
The popularization of genome-wide analyses and RNA sequencing led to the discovery that a large part of the human genome, while effectively transcribed, does not encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression in both normal and disease states. Studies of long non-coding RNAs expressed in the heart, in combination with gene association studies, revealed that these molecules are regulated during cardiovascular development and disease. Some long non-coding RNAs have been functionally implicated in cardiac pathophysiology and constitute potential therapeutic targets...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917598/matrix-effect-free-quantitative-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-in-complex-matrices-using-nanoflow-lc-with-integrated-emitter-tip-and-high-dilution-factors
#7
David Moreno-González, Jaime Alcántara-Durán, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Juan F García-Reyes, Antonio Molina-Díaz
Matrix effects are probably the Achilles heel of most quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods based on electrospray ionization. This work reports the evaluation of matrix effects in challenging matrices such as food extracts, human urine or wastewater at different dilution factors using nanoflow liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS). For this purpose, a suite of representative low-molecular weight compounds such as pesticides, drugs of abuse, sport drugs or environmental contaminants were selected...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917500/economic-evaluation-of-childhood-epilepsy-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-a-preliminary-survey
#8
Aliyu Ibrahim, Umar Isa Umar, Umar Musa Usman, Lukman Femi Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Considerable disease variability exists between patients with epilepsy, and the societal costs for epilepsy care are overall high, because of high frequency in the general population especially in children from developing countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study where children with established diagnosis of epilepsy were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence-based costs were stratified by patients' sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic scores (SES)...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917299/exploitation-of-chemical-herbal-and-nanoformulated-acaricides-to-control-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Balan Banumathi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Periyannan Rajasekar, Narayanan Marimuthu Prabhu, Palaniappan Ramasamy, Kadarkarai Murugan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a key vector of bacterial and protozoan diseases causing heavy economic losses directly and indirectly in animal husbandry. In the past decades, the control of ticks faced some major issues, such as the rapid development of resistance in targeted vectors and non-target effects on human health and the environment, due to the employ of synthetic acaricides and repellents. Eco-friendly pesticides for treating and controlling animal parasites such as ticks were mainly from medicinal plants and thus they form the richest entity for manufacturing resources for drugs...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917116/thermal-and-photo-induced-degradation-of-perfluorinated-carboxylic-acids-kinetics-and-mechanism
#10
Jiaoqin Liu, Ruijuan Qu, Zunyao Wang, Itza Mendoza-Sanchez, Virender K Sharma
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) of different carbon chain lengths are chemicals of concern to human health and their removal, using conventional remediation technologies, is challenging. The present paper pursuits thermal and photo-induced degradation of PFCAs (F(CF2)nCOOH, n = 1-9) under various concentrations of four different acids (HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, and H3PO4) covering a range of strong acidic to basic pH. For thermal-induced experiments, the temperature was set at 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C at acid strengths of 0...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917058/lineage-tracing-of-genome-edited-alleles-reveals-high-fidelity-axolotl-limb-regeneration
#11
Grant Parker Flowers, Lucas D Sanor, Craig M Crews
Salamanders are unparalleled among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate many structures, including entire limbs, and the study of this ability may provide insights into human regenerative therapies. The complex structure of the limb poses challenges to the investigation of the cellular and molecular basis of its regeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas, we genetically labelled unique cell lineages within the developing axolotl embryo and tracked the frequency of each lineage within amputated and fully regenerated limbs...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916826/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biocompatibility-evaluation-of-polyallylamine-and-macromolecular-heparin-conjugates-modified-alginate-microbeads
#12
Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Bjørg Steinkjer, Liv Ryan, Rolf Larsson, Bernard Edward Tuch, Jose Oberholzer, Anne Mari Rokstad
Host reactivity to biocompatible immunoisolation devices is a major challenge for cellular therapies, and a human screening model would be of great value. We designed new types of surface modified barium alginate microspheres, and evaluated their inflammatory properties using human whole blood, and the intraperitoneal response after three weeks in Wistar rats. Microspheres were modified using proprietary polyallylamine (PAV) and coupled with macromolecular heparin conjugates (Corline Heparin Conjugate, CHC)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916818/identification-of-4-phenylquinolin-2-1h-one-as-a-specific-allosteric-inhibitor-of-akt
#13
Bill X Huang, Kenny Newcomer, Karl Kevala, Elena Barnaeva, Wei Zheng, Xin Hu, Samarjit Patnaik, Noel Southall, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Hee-Yong Kim
Akt plays a major role in tumorigenesis and the development of specific Akt inhibitors as effective cancer therapeutics has been challenging. Here, we report the identification of a highly specific allosteric inhibitor of Akt through a FRET-based high-throughput screening, and characterization of its inhibitory mechanism. Out of 373,868 compounds screened, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one specifically decreased Akt phosphorylation at both T308 and S473, and inhibited Akt kinase activity (IC50 = 6 µM) and downstream signaling...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916449/bio-scaffolds-in-organ-regeneration-clinical-potential-and-current-challenges
#14
REVIEW
S Yesmin, M B Paget, H E Murray, R Downing
Cadaveric organ transplantation represents the definitive treatment option for end-stage disease but is restricted by the shortage of clinically-viable donor organs. This limitation has, in part, driven current research efforts for in vitro generation of transplantable tissue surrogates. Recent advances in organ reconstruction have been facilitated by the re-purposing of decellularized whole organs to serve as three-dimensional bio-scaffolds. Notably, studies in rodents indicate that such scaffolds retain native extracellular matrix components that provide appropriate biochemical, mechanical and physical stimuli for successful tissue/organ reconstruction...
September 12, 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916343/the-role-of-a-new-class-of-long-noncoding-rnas-transcribed-from-ultraconserved-regions-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Terracciano, Sara Terreri, Filomena de Nigris, Valerio Costa, George A Calin, Amelia Cimmino
Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) represent a relatively new class of non-coding genomic sequences highly conserved between human, rat and mouse genomes. These regions can reside within exons of protein-coding genes, despite the vast majority of them localizes within introns or intergenic regions. Several studies have undoubtedly demonstrated that most of these regions are actively transcribed in normal cells/tissues, where they contribute to regulate many cellular processes. Interestingly, these non-coding RNAs exhibit aberrant expression levels in human cancer cells and their expression profiles have been used as prognostic factors in human malignancies, as well as to unambiguously distinguish among distinct cancer types...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916316/the-brucella-melitensis-m5-90%C3%AE-manb-live-vaccine-candidate-is-safer-than-m5-90-and-confers-protection-against-wild-type-challenge-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Junbo Zhang, Shuanghong Yin, Dewu Yi, Hong Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Fei Guo, Chuangfu Chen, Weihuan Fang, Jiafu Wang
Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. Although effective, the current Brucella vaccines (strain M5-90 or others) have several drawbacks. The first is their residual virulence for animals and humans and the second is their inability to differentiate natural infection from that caused by vaccination. In the present study, Brucella melitensis M5-90 manB mutant (M5-90ΔmanB) was generated to overcome these drawbacks. M5-90ΔmanB showed significantly reduced survival in macrophages and mice, and induced strong protective immunity in BALB/c mice...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916100/improving-wastewater-based-epidemiology-to-estimate-cannabis-use-focus-on-the-initial-aspects-of-the-analytical-procedure
#17
Ana Causanilles, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Daniel A Burgard, Erik Emke, Iria González-Mariño, Ivona Krizman-Matasic, Angela Li, Arndís S C Löve, Ann Kathrin McCall, Rosa Montes, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, José B Quintana, Ivan Senta, Senka Terzic, Félix Hernandez, Pim de Voogt, Lubertus Bijlsma
Wastewater-based epidemiology is a promising and complementary tool for estimating drug use by the general population, based on the quantitative analysis of specific human metabolites of illicit drugs in urban wastewater. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug and of high interest for epidemiologists. However, the inclusion of its main human urinary metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in wastewater-based epidemiology has presented several challenges and concentrations seem to depend heavily on environmental factors, sample preparation and analyses, commonly resulting in an underestimation...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915951/male-contraception-prospects-for-sound-and-ultrasound
#18
Robert Sewak, Bettina Teng, Lee A Learman, Charles H Hennekens
The worldwide human population growth rate, which doubled during the 20th century, as well as the increasing fertility rate, have contributed to an increasing and evolving emphasis on contraception. With respect to female contraceptive methods, many have been developed, marketed, and are widely available. In contrast, male contraception has been limited to condoms, which pose logistical challenges, and vasectomy, which is largely irreversible. The use of sound to achieve effective and safe male contraception is a promising but unproven hypothesis...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915834/skeletal-muscle-mechanics-questions-problems-and-possible-solutions
#20
REVIEW
Walter Herzog
Skeletal muscle mechanics have been studied ever since people have shown an interest in human movement. However, our understanding of muscle contraction and muscle mechanical properties has changed fundamentally with the discovery of the sliding filament theory in 1954 and associated cross-bridge theory in 1957. Nevertheless, experimental evidence suggests that our knowledge of the mechanisms of contraction is far from complete, and muscle properties and muscle function in human movement remain largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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