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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145690/-visual-analysis-of-retinal-oct-data
#1
Martin Röhlig, Anselm Jünemann, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Oliver Stachs, Heidrun Schumann
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables noninvasive high-resolution 3D imaging of the human retina, and thus plays a fundamental role in ophthalmology. Via OCT examination, even subtle retinal changes can be captured, which occur in very early stages of different diseases (e.g., glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, or age-related macular degeneration). Yet, analyzing the resulting data is challenging. Conventionally, OCT data are strongly aggregated via automated methods. While this reduces the amount of information to be analyzed, it also makes it difficult, if not impossible, to identify small and localized retinal changes...
November 16, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145614/methionine-and-choline-deficient-mcd-model-in-predicting-adverse-drug-reactions-in-human-nash
#3
Hui Li, Erica Toth, Nathan J Cherrington
In the past few decades, great conceptual and technological advances have been made in the field of toxicology, but animal model-based research still remains one of the most widely-used and readily available tools for furthering our current knowledge. However, animal models are not perfect in predicting all systemic toxicity in humans. Extrapolating animal data to accurately predict human toxicities remains a challenge, and researchers are obligated to question the appropriateness of their chosen animal model...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145603/accuracy-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-molecular-diagnosis-in-patients-with-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome
#4
John Hoon Rim, Seung-Tae Lee, Heon Yung Gee, Byung Joo Lee, Jong Rak Choi, Hye Won Park, Sueng-Han Han, Jinu Han
Importance: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a group of disorders presenting with genetic and clinical heterogeneities that have challenged the genetic and clinical diagnoses of INS. Precise molecular diagnosis in early infancy may result in more accurate genetic counseling and improved patient management. Objective: To assess the accuracy of genomic data from next-generation sequencing (NGS) and phenotypic data to enhance the definitive diagnosis of INS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center retrospective case series was conducted in 48 unrelated, consecutive patients with INS, with or without associated ocular or systemic conditions, who underwent genetic testing between June 1, 2015, and January 31, 2017...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#5
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#6
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145424/levosimendan-protects-human-hepatocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
Stefanie N Brunner, Nicolai V Bogert, Andreas A Schnitzbauer, Eva Juengel, Anton Moritz, Isabella Werner, Angela Kornberger, Andres Beiras-Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major challenge in liver transplantation. The mitochondrial pathway plays a pivotal role in hepatic IRI. Levosimendan, a calcium channel sensitizer, was shown to attenuate apoptosis after IRI in animal livers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on apoptosis in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Primary human hepatocytes were either exposed to hypoxia or cultured under normoxic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145159/potential-link-between-m-6-a-modification-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
REVIEW
Lian-Ju Li, Yin-Guang Fan, Rui-Xue Leng, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
The field of m(6)A modification and epitranscriptomics has recently attracted much attention. More methods allowing for precise m(6)A site profiling and location are developed and crucial players of m(6)A modification machinery are increasingly identified. Although some challenges remain, m(6)A modification is found to modulate almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, structure, translation, and export. Thus, m(6)A modification adds a new layer of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and it is implicated in T cell response to HIV infection, type I interferon production, and T cell differentiation and homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145016/thermal-effect-on-the-degradation-of-hiapp20-29-fibrils
#9
H X Zhang, Lei Liu, Jie Wang, Christian Bortolini, Mingdong Dong
Uncontrolled misfolding of proteins resulting in the formation of amyloid deposits is associated with over 40 types of diseases, for instance, type-2 diabetes. The human Islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) amyloid formation is thought to be the cause of type-2 diabetes occurrence. A possible strategy to the current challenge of reducing the toxicity of its aggregates to pancreatic β-cell is the discovery of an efficient way to degrading amyloid deposits. In this work, hIAPP20-29, a core fibrillating fragment of hIAPP, was selected as model system to explore the thermal effect at different temperature on the degradation of hIAPP20-29 mature fibrils...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144769/detection-of-emerging-zoonotic-pathogens-an-integrated-one-health-approach
#10
Brian H Bird, Jonna A K Mazet
The emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The advent of increasingly sophisticated diagnostics tools has revolutionized our capacity to detect and respond to these health threats more rapidly than ever before. Yet, no matter how sophisticated these tools become, the initial identification of emerging infectious diseases begins at the local community level. It is here that the initial human or animal case resides, and it is here that early pathogen detection would have maximum benefit...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144428/resistance-of-magnesium-alloys-to-corrosion-fatigue-for-biodegradable-implant-applications-current-status-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
R K Singh Raman, Shervin Eslami Harandi
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143921/dichloroacetate-induced-intracellular-acidification-in-glioblastoma-in-vivo-detection-using-aacid-cest-mri-at-9-4%C3%A2-tesla
#12
Mohammed Albatany, Alex Li, Susan Meakin, Robert Bartha
Intracellular pH (pHi) plays an important role in the maintenance of normal cell function, and is maintained within a narrow range by the activity of transporters located at the plasma membrane. Modulation of tumor pHi may influence proliferation, apoptosis, chemotherapy resistance, and thermosensitivity. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel MRI contrast mechanism that is dependent on cellular pH. Amine and amide concentration-independent detection (AACID) is a recently developed CEST contrast method that is intracellular pH (pHi) weighted...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#13
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143801/novel-molecular-challenges-in-targeting-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-in-alk-expressing-human-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Abdulraheem Alshareef
Targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase receptor initially identified as a potent oncogenic driver in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the form of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein, using tyrosine kinase inhibitors has shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for ALK-expressing tumors. However, clinical resistance to ALK inhibitors invariably occurs, and the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent studies have clearly shown that clinical resistance to ALK inhibitors is a multifactorial and complex mechanism...
October 28, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143777/margination-of-fluorescent-polylactic-acid-polyaspartamide-based-nanoparticles-in-microcapillaries-in-vitro-the-effect-of-hematocrit-and-pressure
#15
Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Rosa D'Apolito, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro, Giovanna Tomaiuolo
The last decade has seen the emergence of vascular-targeted drug delivery systems as a promising approach for the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this field, one of the major challenges is carrier margination propensity (i.e., particle migration from blood flow to vessel walls); indeed, binding of these particles to targeted cells and tissues is only possible if there is direct carrier-wall interaction. Here, a microfluidic system mimicking the hydrodynamic conditions of human microcirculation in vitro is used to investigate the effect of red blood cells (RBCs) on a carrier margination in relation to RBC concentration (hematocrit) and pressure drop...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143726/recent-advances-in-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based-oncolytic-virotherapy-a-5-year-update
#16
Sébastien A Felt, Valery Z Grdzelishvili
Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anti-cancer approach that uses viruses that preferentially infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) is an OV that is currently being tested in the USA in several phase I clinical trials against different malignancies. Several factors make VSV a promising OV: lack of pre-existing human immunity against VSV, a small and easy to manipulate genome, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host cell transformation, independence of cell cycle and rapid growth to high titres in a broad range of cell lines facilitating large-scale virus production...
November 16, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143674/the-role-of-human-rights-litigation-in-improving-access-to-reproductive-health-care-and-achieving-reductions-in-maternal-mortality
#17
Jennifer Templeton Dunn, Katherine Lesyna, Anna Zaret
BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health, reducing global maternal mortality, and working toward universal access to reproductive health care are global priorities for United Nations agencies, national governments, and civil society organizations. Human rights lawyers have joined this global movement, using international law and domestic constitutions to hold nations accountable for preventable maternal death and for failing to provide access to reproductive health care services. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses three decisions in which international treaty bodies find the nations of Brazil and Peru responsible for violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also two domestic decisions alleging constitutional violations in India and Uganda...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#18
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143561/beyond-lip-service-towards-human-rights-driven-our-speech-language-pathology-guidelines-for-south-african-speech-language-pathologists
#19
Michelle Pascoe, Daleen Klop, Thandeka Mdlalo, Mikateko Ndhambi
Developed with a strong awareness of past injustices, South Africa's progressive constitution emphasises a full spectrum of human rights. While the constitution celebrates many languages and cultures, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) face challenges in translating these values into practice with a diverse clientele. Similarly, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights focuses on freedom of expression in one's language of choice, but is often perceived as a "Cinderella" right (i.e. one that is frequently neglected)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#20
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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