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sex trade worker

Alissa Davis, Beth E Meyerson, Blessing Aghaulor, Katherine Brown, Adisyn Watson, Kathryn E Muessig, Ligang Yang, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Increased trade between China and Uganda has fueled trafficking of female Ugandans into China. These women may face challenges accessing health services. This study focused on examining barriers to health care access among female Ugandan sex workers in China. METHODS: In 2014, we undertook in-depth interviews with 19 female Ugandan sex workers in Guangzhou, China. Interviews focused on barriers to health service access and were analyzed using an a priori coding framework followed by open-coding to capture emergent themes...
October 14, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Yelena Bird, Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, John Moraros
The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Maryam Foroughi, Saeedeh Moayedi-Nia, Alireza Shoghli, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Abbas Sedaghat, Mansoor Mohajeri, Seyed Noraldin Mousavinasab, Minoo Mohraz
OBJECTIVES: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran. METHODS: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours...
September 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Elizabeth J Pfeiffer, Harrison M K Maithya
Since access to HIV testing, counselling, and drug therapy has improved so dramatically, scholars have investigated ways this 'scale-up' has interacted with HIV/AIDS-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on data collected during ethnographic research in a trading centre in western Kenya, this paper critically analyses two violent and localised case studies of panic over the ill health of particular community residents as a nuanced lens through which to explore the dynamic interplay of gender politics and processes of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the aftershocks of the AIDS crisis...
September 2, 2016: Global Public Health
Mira L Schneiders, Amy Weissman
INTRODUCTION: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations' attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Yeon Jung Yu, Xiaoming Li, Cheuk Chi Tam, Yuejiao Zhou, Yi Chen, Zhiyong Shen
Previous literature has suggested high rates of HIV/STIs among Chinese FSWs. However, limited data were available regarding HIV-related risks among Vietnamese FSWs - a rapidly increasing, vulnerable population in southwest China. The current study examined the demographic and behavioral factors associated with the infection rates of HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis C (HCV) among Vietnamese FSWs in Guangxi, China. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cumulative sample of 1026 Vietnamese FSWs (aged 14-66) recruited over five years (2010-2014) from 35 National Sentinel Surveillance sites in Guangxi...
November 2016: AIDS Care
Sara De Matteis, Deborah Jarvis, Sally Hutchings, Andy Darnton, David Fishwick, Steven Sadhra, Lesley Rushton, Paul Cullinan
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exposure to occupational hazards is an important preventable risk factor but the contribution of specific occupations to COPD risk in a general population is uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the association of COPD with occupation in the UK population. METHODS: In 2006-2010, the UK Biobank cohort recruited 502 649 adults aged 40-69 years. COPD cases were identified by prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity<lower limit of normal according to American Thoracic Society (ATS)/ European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines...
June 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Malin Wetterholm, Aleksandra Turkiewicz, Kjerstin Stigmar, Jenny Hubertsson, Martin Englund
Background and purpose - Assessment of potential disparities in access to care is a vital part of achieving equity in health and healthcare. We have therefore studied the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the rates of knee and hip replacement due to osteoarthritis. Methods - This was a cohort study in Skåne, Sweden. We included all residents aged ≥ 35 years with consultations between 2004 and 2013 for hip or knee osteoarthritis. We retrieved individual information on income, education, and occupation and evaluated the rates of knee and hip replacement according to SES, with adjustment for age and sex...
June 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
M K Oosthuizen, I Amrein
Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Xin Ma, Mingway Chang, Leyla Ismayilova, Tim Hunt, Brooke West, Elwin Wu, Chris Beyrer
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). METHODS: We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Reed, J T Erausquin, Allison K Groves, Marissa Salazar, Monica Biradavolu, Kim M Blankenship
OBJECTIVES: This study examines violence experienced in work and personal contexts and relation to HIV risk factors in these contexts among female sex workers (FSW) in Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: FSW at least 18 years of age (n=2335) were recruited through three rounds of respondent-driven sampling between 2006 and 2010 for a survey on HIV risk. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression models, any sexual/physical violence (last 6 months) perpetrated by clients and husbands were separately assessed in association with accepting more money for sex without a condom (last 30 days), consistent condom use with clients and husbands (last 30 days), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (last 6 months)...
September 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Stephan Wolf, Lars Chittka
The learning capacities of males and females may differ with sex-specific behavioural requirements. Bumblebees provide a useful model system to explore how different lifestyles are reflected in learning abilities, because their (female but sterile) workers and males engage in fundamentally different behaviour routines. Bumblebee males, like workers, embark on active flower foraging but in contrast to workers they have to trade off their feeding with mate search, potentially affecting their abilities to learn and utilize floral cues efficiently during foraging...
January 2016: Animal Behaviour
Sunita V S Bandewar, Shalini Bharat, Anine Kongelf, Hemlata Pisal, Martine Collumbien
BACKGROUND: The period 2006-2009 saw intensive scale-up of HIV prevention efforts and an increase in reported safer sex among brothel and street-based sex workers in Mumbai and Thane (Maharashtra, India). Yet during the same period, the prevalence of HIV increased in these groups. A better understanding of sex workers' risk environment is needed to explain this paradox. METHODS: In this qualitative study we conducted 36 individual interviews, 9 joint interviews, and 10 focus group discussions with people associated with HIV interventions between March and May 2012...
2016: BMC Public Health
Cheryl R Stein, Sylvan Wallenstein, Moshe Shapiro, Dana Hashim, Jacqueline M Moline, Iris Udasin, Michael A Crane, Benjamin J Luft, Roberto G Lucchini, William L Holden
BACKGROUND: Rescue and recovery workers responding to the 2001 collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) sustained exposures to toxic chemicals and have elevated rates of multiple morbidities. METHODS: Using data from the World Trade Center Health Program and the National Death Index for 2002-2011, we examined standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) with indirect standardization for age, sex, race, and calendar year to the U...
February 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Oralia Loza, Rebeca Ramos, João Ferreira-Pinto, Maria Teresa Hernandez, Susana A Villalobos
The purpose of this study is to extend the research on contextual factors that influence the initiation and continued use of methamphetamine (meth) by women on the U.S.-Mexico border. At present, a minimal body of literature exists that explores meth use on the Mexico-U.S. border. A purposeful sample of 20 women who were active meth users aged ≥18 years was recruited by trained outreach workers from a variety of meth-user networks in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, the city bordering El Paso, Texas. Respondents participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews including questions on users' perceived familial, social, and environmental influences of meth use...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Mayris P Webber, William Moir, Cynthia S Crowson, Hillel W Cohen, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Charles B Hall, Jessica Berman, Basit Qayyum, Nadia Jaber, Eric L Matteson, Yang Liu, Kerry Kelly, David J Prezant
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of selected systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs) in approximately 14,000 male rescue/recovery workers enrolled in the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program and to compare FDNY incidence to rates from demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP), a population-based database in Olmsted County, Minnesota. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We calculated incidence for specific SAIDs (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and others) and combined SAIDs diagnosed from September 12, 2001, through September 11, 2014, and generated expected sex- and age-specific rates based on REP rates...
January 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Shirley J Semple, Jamila K Stockman, Eileen V Pitpitan, Steffanie A Strathdee, Claudia V Chavarin, Doroteo V Mendoza, Gregory A Aarons, Thomas L Patterson
BACKGROUND: Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. METHODS: FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports...
2015: PloS One
Racquel E Kohler, Clara N Lee, Satish Gopal, Bryce B Reeve, Bryan J Weiner, Stephanie B Wheeler
BACKGROUND: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. OBJECTIVE: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare...
2015: Patient Preference and Adherence
Olga María López Entrambasaguas, José Granero-Molina, Jose Hernández-Padilla, Cayetano Fernández-Sola
The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants...
November 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Steffanie A Strathdee, Brooke S West, Elizabeth Reed, Babak Moazen, Babak Moazan, Tasnim Azim, Kate Dolan
Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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