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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916870/efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-swinepox-virus-expressing-the-truncated-s-protein-of-a-novel-isolate-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#1
Xiaomin Yuan, Huixing Lin, Bin Li, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes significant loss to the swine industry. The emergence of novel PEDV strains in recent years has decreased the effectiveness of PEDV vaccines. We have developed a live recombinant vaccine, a swinepox virus vector that expresses a truncated S protein (rSPV-St) from a recent PEDV strain, SQ2014, and evaluated its immunogenicity and effectiveness in a swine model. Vaccination of swine with rSPV-St elicited a robust antibody response specific for the homologous PEDV SQ2014...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912760/immunization-with-live-human-rhinovirus-hrv-16-induces-protection-in-cotton-rats-against-hrv14-infection
#2
Mira C Patel, Lioubov M Pletneva, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Adriana E Kajon, Jorge C G Blanco
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the main cause of cold-like illnesses, and currently no vaccine or antiviral therapies against HRVs are available to prevent or mitigate HRV infection. There are more than 150 antigenically heterogeneous HRV serotypes, with ∼90 HRVs belonging to major group species A and B. Development of small animal models that are susceptible to infection with major group HRVs would be beneficial for vaccine research. Previously, we showed that the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is semi-permissive to HRV16 (major group, species HRV-A virus) infection, replicating in the upper and lower respiratory tracts with measurable pathology, mucus production, and expression of inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911838/efficacy-of-a-single-oral-dose-of-a-live-bivalent-e-coli-vaccine-against-post-weaning-diarrhea-due-to-f4-and-f18-positive-enterotoxigenic-e-coli
#3
É Nadeau, J M Fairbrother, J Zentek, L Bélanger, D Tremblay, C-L Tremblay, I Röhe, W Vahjen, M Brunelle, K Hellmann, D Cvejić, B Brunner, C Schneider, K Bauer, R Wolf, Á Hidalgo
F4- and F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli strains (F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC) are important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4 (antigenic variant ac) and F18 (ab and ac) fimbriae are major antigens that play an important role in the early stages of infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, one F4ac- and one F18ac-positive, was evaluated using F4ac-ETEC and F18ab-ETEC challenge models. A randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory study with two different vaccination-challenge intervals (7 and 21 days) was conducted for each challenge model...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911037/a-biologically-conjugated-polysaccharide-vaccine-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-provides-protection-against-challenge-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-o1-infection
#4
Yue Han, Qing Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Yunan Wei, Qingke Kong
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian airsacculitis and colibacillosis, resulting in significant economic loss to the poultry industry. O1, O2 and O78 are the three predominant serotypes. O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide is serotype determinant and highly immunogenic, and O-antigen polysaccharide-based vaccines have great potential for preventing bacterial infections. In this study, we utilized a novel yeast/bacterial shuttle vector pSS26 to clone the 10.8 kb operon synthesizing APEC O1 O-antigen polysaccharide...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903071/highly-conserved-m2e-and-hemagglutinin-epitope-based-recombinant-proteins-induce-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection
#6
Yan Guo, Lei He, Nianping Song, Pei Li, Shihui Sun, Guangyu Zhao, Wanbo Tai, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Highly pathogenic influenza viruses continue to cause serious threat to public health due to their pandemic potential, calling for an urgent need to develop effective, safe, convenient, and universal vaccines against influenza virus infection. In this study, we constructed two recombinant protein vaccines, 2H5M2e-2H7M2e-H5FP-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-1) and 2H5M2e-H5FP-2H7M2e-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-2), by respectively linking highly conserved sequences of two molecules of ectodomain of M2 (M2e) and one molecule of fusion peptide (FP) epitope of hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses in different orders...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899372/the-combination-of-recombinant-and-non-recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-spore-display-technology-for-presentation-of-antigen-and-adjuvant-on-single-spore
#7
Wojciech Potocki, Alessandro Negri, Grażyna Peszyńska-Sularz, Krzysztof Hinc, Michał Obuchowski, Adam Iwanicki
BACKGROUND: Bacillus subtilis spores can be used for presentation of heterologous proteins. Two main approaches have been developed, the recombinant one, requiring modification of bacterial genome to express a protein of interest as a fusion with spore-coat protein, and non-recombinant, based on the adsorption of a heterologous protein onto the spore. So far only single proteins have been displayed on the spore surface. RESULTS: We have used a combined approach to adsorb and display FliD protein of Clostridium difficile on the surface of recombinant IL-2-presenting spores...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893919/antigen-localisation-influences-the-magnitude-and-kinetics-of-the-endogenous-adaptive-immune-response-to-recombinant-salmonella-vaccines
#8
Yanina R Sevastsyanovich, David R Withers, Claire L Marriott, Faye C Morris, Timothy J Wells, Douglas F Browning, Irene Beriotto, Ewan Ross, Hossam Omar Ali, Catherine A Wardius, Adam F Cunningham, Ian R Henderson, Amanda E Rossiter
The use of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains is a promising strategy to present heterologous antigens to the mammalian immune system to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, studies on RASV development differ in where heterologous antigens are expressed and localised within the bacterium and it is unclear how antigen localisation modulates the immune response. Previously, we exploited the plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) autotransporter system for accumulation of heterologous antigens in the cell culture supernatant...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893476/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-enhanced-antibody-titers-against-subunit-antigens-in-mice-balb-c-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#9
Rebeca Martínez, Liz Hernández, Lázaro Gil, Yamila Carpio, Antonio Morales, Fidel Herrera, Alina Rodríguez-Mallón, Yeny Leal, Aracelys Blanco, Mario Pablo Estrada
Modern subunit vaccines have excellent safety profiles and improved tolerability, but do not elicit strong immune responses without the addition of adjuvants. Developing a safe and affective adjuvant remains a challenge for peptide-based vaccine design. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is one of the earliest-developed, synthetic, peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists. These compounds mimic the effect of the endogenous ligand, ghrelin. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of GHRP-6 to enhance the humoral immune response against co-injected antigens in mice, tilapia and African catfish...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893327/new-activity-of-yamamarin-an-insect-pentapeptide-on-immune-system-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#10
K Walkowiak-Nowicka, G Nowicki, M Kuczer, G Rosiński
In insects, two types of the immune responses, cellular and humoral, constitute a defensive barrier against various parasites and pathogens. In response to pathogens, insects produce a wide range of immune agents that act on pathogens directly, such as cecropins or lysozyme, or indirectly by the stimulation of hemocyte migration or by increasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Recently, many new immunologically active substances from insects, such as peptides and polypeptides, have been identified. Nevertheless, in the most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887213/bivalent-mucosal-peptide-vaccines-administered-using-the-lcp-carrier-system-stimulate-protective-immune-responses-against-streptococcus-pyogenes-infection
#11
Kai Schulze, Thomas Ebensen, Saranya Chandrudu, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth, Colleen Olive, Carlos A Guzman
Despite the broad knowledge about the pathogenicity of Streptococcus pyogenes there is still a controversy about the correlate of protection in GAS infections. We aimed in further improving the immune responses stimulated against GAS comparing different vaccine formulations including bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and BPPCysMPEG, a derivative of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2), as adjuvants, respectively, to be administered with and without the universal T helper cell epitope P25 along with the optimized B cell epitope J14 of the M protein and B and T cell epitopes of SfbI...
September 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887040/roles-of-antibodies-to-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-and-m2e-in-conferring-cross-protection
#12
Yu-Jin Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Sang-Moo Kang
Although neuraminidase (NA) is the second major viral glycoprotein of influenza virus, its immune mechanism as a vaccine target has been less considered. Here we compared the properties of antibodies and the efficacy of cross protection by N1 and N2 NA proteins, inactivated split influenza vaccines (split), and tandem repeat extracellular domain M2 on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLP). Anti-NA immune sera could confer better cross-protection against multiple heterologous influenza viruses correlating with NA inhibition activity compared to split vaccine immune sera...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874759/prior-exposure-to-zika-virus-significantly-enhances-peak-dengue-2-viremia-in-rhesus-macaques
#13
Jeffy George, William G Valiant, Mary J Mattapallil, Michelle Walker, Yan-Jang S Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, John Misamore, Jack Greenhouse, Deborah E Weiss, Daniela Verthelyi, Stephen Higgs, Hanne Andersen, Mark G Lewis, Joseph J Mattapallil
Structural and functional homologies between the Zika and Dengue viruses' envelope proteins raise the possibility that cross-reactive antibodies induced following Zika virus infection might enhance subsequent Dengue infection. Using the rhesus macaque model we show that prior infection with Zika virus leads to a significant enhancement of Dengue-2 viremia that is accompanied by neutropenia, lympocytosis, hyperglycemia, and higher reticulocyte counts, along with the activation of pro-inflammatory monocyte subsets and release of inflammatory mediators...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871190/new-insights-about-functional-and-cross-reactive-properties-of-antibodies-generated-against-recombinant-tbpbs-of-haemophilus-parasuis
#14
Bibiana Martins Barasuol, João Antônio Guizzo, Jamie Elisabeth Fegan, Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Elías Fernando Rodríguez-Ferri, César Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Anthony Bernard Schryvers, Rafael Frandoloso
Vaccines have become fundamental in the control and elimination of Glässer Disease, a systemic disease of pigs caused by Haemophilus parasuis. The classic vaccines available for prevention of this infection were developed without a robust knowledge about host immunological mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of cross-reactive epitopes on both the N-lobe and C-lobe of variants of transferrin binding protein B (TbpBs) expressed on the surface of 6 virulent serovars of H. parasuis. Antibodies against TbpB-derived antigens were capable of increasing the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and were also capable of blocking porcine transferrin from binding to TbpB...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869522/recombinant-botulinum-neurotoxin-hc-subunit-bont-hc-and-catalytically-inactive-clostridium-botulinum-holoproteins-cibont-hps-as-vaccine-candidates-for-the-prevention-of-botulism
#15
Robert P Webb, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, Patrick M Wright, Rebecca L Guernieri, Jennifer L Brown, Janet C Skerry
There are few available medical countermeasures against botulism and the discontinuation of the pentavalent botulinum toxoid vaccine by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 has resulted in the need for a safe and effective prophylactic alternative. Advances in genetic engineering have resulted in subsequent vaccine efforts being primarily focused on the production of highly purified recombinant protein antigens representing one or more domains of the botulinum neurotoxin. Recombinant subunit vaccines based on the carboxy one-third of the toxin (Hc) developed in our lab against serotypes A-F have been shown to be safe and effective...
September 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860939/infectious-mononucleosis-like-syndrome-with-high-lymphocytosis-and-positive-igm-ebv-and-cmv-antibodies-in-a-three-year-old-girl
#16
Joanna Alicja Krupka, Katarzyna Samelska, Anna Tomasik, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Katarzyna Pawelec
Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection usually affects preadolescent children or young adults, causing similar clinical presentation. Signs and symptoms are typically mild, and the majority of clinical and laboratory findings resolve spontaneously within one month after onset. In adulthood, the risk of fulminant EBV infection and severe complications is much higher, which may be related to increasing memory CD8+ T-cell population with age. It is still not clear what exactly triggers T-cell clonal proliferation...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857034/discovery-of-a-novel-lantibiotic-nisin-o-from-blautia-obeum-a2-162-isolated-from-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#17
Diane Hatziioanou, Cristina Gherghisan-Filip, Gerhard Saalbach, Nikki Horn, Udo Wegmann, Sylvia H Duncan, Harry J Flint, Melinda J Mayer, Arjan Narbad
A novel lanC-like sequence was identified from the dominant human gut bacterium Blautia obeum strain A2-162. This sequence was extended to reveal a putative lantibiotic operon with biosynthetic and transport genes, two sets of regulatory genes, immunity genes, three identical copies of a nisin-like lanA gene with an unusual leader peptide, and a fourth putative lanA gene. Comparison with other nisin clusters showed that the closest relationship was to nisin U. B. obeum A2-162 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens when grown on solid medium in the presence of trypsin...
August 31, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846899/virus-like-particle-vaccine-primes-immune-responses-preventing-inactivated-virus-vaccine-enhanced-disease-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Hye Suk Hwang, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Sang-Moo Kang
Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge...
August 25, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838267/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-dna-mva-hiv-vaccines-in-rhesus-macaque-models
#19
Lynette Siv Chea, Rama Rao Amara
Despite 30 years of research on HIV, a vaccine to prevent infection and limit disease progression remains elusive. The RV144 trial showed moderate, but significant protection in humans and highlighted the contribution of antibody responses directed against HIV envelope as an important immune correlate for protection. Efforts to further build upon the progress include the use of a heterologous prime-boost regimen using DNA as the priming agent and the attenuated vaccinia virus, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), as a boosting vector for generating protective HIV-specific immunity...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835904/expression-and-purification-of-the-cas10-csm-complex-from-staphylococci
#20
Lucy Chou-Zheng, Asma Hatoum-Aslan
CRISPR-Cas (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) is a class of prokaryotic immune systems that degrade foreign nucleic acids in a sequence-specific manner. These systems rely upon ribonucleoprotein complexes composed of Cas nucleases and small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are bacterial residents on human skin that are also leading causes of antibiotic resistant infections (Lowy, 1998; National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance, 2004; Otto, 2009)...
June 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
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