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heterologous immunity

Helen S Marshall, Peter C Richmond, Johannes Beeslaar, Qin Jiang, Kathrin U Jansen, Maria Garcés-Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Leszek Szenborn, Jacek Wysocki, Joseph Eiden, Shannon L Harris, Thomas R Jones, Su-San Lee, John L Perez
BACKGROUND: Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. METHODS: We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jeffrey J Coleman, Tomomi Komura, Julia Munro, Michael P Wu, Rakhee R Busanelli, Angela N Koehler, Méryl Thomas, Florence F Wagner, Edward B Holson, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) phenethyl ester (CAPE), the major constituent of propolis, is able to increase the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans after infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. RESULTS: CAPE increases the expression of several antimicrobial proteins involved in the immune response to C. albicans. Structural derivatives of CAPE were synthesized to identify structure-activity relationships and decrease metabolic liability, ultimately leading to a compound that has similar efficacy, but increased in vivo stability...
October 14, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Lexus R Johnson, Orr-El Weizman, Moritz Rapp, Sing Sing Way, Joseph C Sun
Despite robust secondary T cell expansion primed by vaccination, the impact on primary immune responses to heterotypic antigens remains undefined. Here we show that secondary expansion of epitope-specific memory CD8(+) T cells primed by prior infection with recombinant pathogens limits the primary expansion of naive CD8(+) T cells with specificity to new heterologous antigens, dampening protective immunity against subsequent pathogen challenge. The degree of naive T cell repression directly paralleled the magnitude of the recall response...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Mohamed H Kotob, Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mahmoud Abdelzaher, Mansour El-Matbouli
Co-infections are very common in nature and occur when hosts are infected by two or more different pathogens either by simultaneous or secondary infections so that two or more infectious agents are active together in the same host. Co-infections have a fundamental effect and can alter the course and the severity of different fish diseases. However, co-infection effect has still received limited scrutiny in aquatic animals like fish and available data on this subject is still scarce. The susceptibility of fish to different pathogens could be changed during mixed infections causing the appearance of sudden fish outbreaks...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Research
Jyoti Singh Tomar, Manju Narwal, Pravindra Kumar, Rama Krishna Peddinti
The rise of multiple-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens imposes a serious public health concern and has led to increased interest in studying various pathways as well as enzymes. Different DNA glycosylases collaborate during bacterial infection and disease by overcoming the effects of ROS- and RNS-mediated host innate immunity response. 3-Methyladenine DNA glycosylase I, an essential DNA repair enzyme, was chosen for the present study from the MDR species of A. baumannii. The enzyme was especially chosen because of its functional significance in A...
September 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Meihui Xu, Roland Züst, Ying Xiu Toh, Jennifer M Pfaff, Kristen M Kahle, Edgar Davidson, Benjamin J Doranz, Sumathy Velumani, Farhana Tukijan, Cheng-I Wang, Katja Fink
Half of the world's population is exposed to the risk of dengue virus infection. Although a vaccine for dengue is now available in a few countries, its reported overall efficacy of about 60% is not ideal. Protective immune correlates following natural dengue infection remain undefined, which makes it difficult to predict the efficacy of new vaccines. In this study, we address the protective capacity of dengue-specific antibodies that are produced by plasmablasts a few days after natural secondary infection...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Quan-Sheng Du, Jie Cui, Chun-Jie Zhang, Ke He
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is an adaptive immune defense system that resists the invasion of viruses and plasmids heterologous genetic material in bacteria and archaea. Taking the literature related to gene editing technology of CRISPR/Cas9 from the Web of Science database from 2002 to 2015, we use the software CiteSpaceV to analyze co-cited literature in order to establish the research hotspots and fronts recently in this field by knowledge mapping...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Qiong Liu, Qing Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Bo Hu, Xiangmin Zhang, Roy Curtiss, Qingke Kong
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium are potentially useful for developing subunit vaccines because of high immunogenicity and protective efficacy. However, flagella might remain in OMV pellets following OMV purification, resulting in non-essential immune responses and counteraction of bacterial protective immune responses when developing a vaccine against infection of multiple serotypes Salmonella. In this study, a flagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant was constructed. Lipopolysaccharide profiles, protein profiles and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant differences between the wild-type and mutant OMVs, with the exception of a large amount of flagellin in the wild-type OMVs...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adthakorn Madapong, Gun Temeeyasen, Kepalee Saeng-Chuto, Thitima Tripipat, Wichian Navasakuljinda, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC(®) PRRS, Porcillis(®) PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
Christa E Osuna, So-Yon Lim, Claire Deleage, Bryan D Griffin, Derek Stein, Lukas T Schroeder, Robert Omage, Katharine Best, Ma Luo, Peter T Hraber, Hanne Andersen-Elyard, Erwing Fabian Cardozo Ojeda, Scott Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, Stephen Higgs, Alan S Perelson, Jacob D Estes, David Safronetz, Mark G Lewis, James B Whitney
Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Edward H Ntege, Nobuko Arisue, Daisuke Ito, Tomoyuki Hasegawa, Nirianne M Q Palacpac, Thomas G Egwang, Toshihiro Horii, Eizo Takashima, Takafumi Tsuboi
Genetic variability in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites hampers current malaria vaccine development efforts. Here, we hypothesize that to address the impact of genetic variability on vaccine efficacy in clinical trials, conserved antigen targets should be selected to achieve robust host immunity across multiple falciparum strains. Therefore, suitable vaccine antigens should be assessed for levels of polymorphism and genetic diversity. Using a total of one hundred and two clinical isolates from a region of high malaria transmission in Uganda, we analyzed extent of polymorphism and genetic diversity in four recently reported novel blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate proteins: Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr), GPI anchored micronemal antigen (PfGAMA), rhoptry-associated leucine zipper-like protein 1 (PfRALP1) and Duffy binding-like merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSPDBL1)...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Sweta Karan, Pujarini Dash, Himani Kaushik, Pramoda K Sahoo, Lalit C Garg, Aparna Dixit
Interleukin-10, an important regulator of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, is a multifunctional major cytokine. Though it is one of the major cytokines, IL-10 from the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we report large scale production and purification of biologically active recombinant IL-10 of L. rohita (rLrIL-10) using a heterologous expression system and its biophysical and functional characterization. High yield (~70 mg/L) of soluble rLrIL-10 was obtained at shake flask level...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Elena Illiano, Massimiliano Bissa, Francesca Paolini, Carlo Zanotto, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Rosella Franconi, Antonia Radaelli, Aldo Venuti
The therapeutic antitumor potency of a prime-boost vaccination strategy was explored, based on the mutated, nontransforming forms of the E6 (E6F47R) and E7 (E7GGG) oncogenes of Human Papilloma Virus type 16 (HPV16), fused to the Potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP) sequence. Previous data showed that CP fusion improves the immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens and may thus increase their efficacy. After verifying the correct expression of E6F47RCP and E7GGGCP inserted into DNA and Fowlpox virus recombinants by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, their combined use was evaluated for therapy in a pre-clinical mouse model of HPV16-related tumorigenicity...
October 2, 2016: Virus Research
Peter Pushko, Xiangjie Sun, Irina Tretyakova, Rachmat Hidajat, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
Avian-origin influenza represents a global public health concern. In 2013, the H10N8 virus caused documented human infections for the first time. Currently, there is no approved vaccine against H10 influenza. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising vaccine approach. In this study, we evaluated H10 VLPs containing hemagglutinin from H10N8 virus as an experimental vaccine in a ferret challenge model. In addition, we evaluated quadri-subtype VLPs co-localizing H5, H7, H9 and H10 subtypes...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Ana L Perez-Balbuena, David Ancona-Lezama, Jaime D Martinez, Sarai Delgado-Pelayo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to expand the limited knowledge regarding autologous contralateral penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: We report the retrospective outcomes of patients who received autokeratoplasty and contralateral opaque corneas in the donor eye at a tertiary care ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City. RESULTS: Eleven patients received autokeratoplasty and contralateral opaque corneas in the donor eye at our center from 2010 to 2015...
September 21, 2016: Cornea
Emma J Grant, Tracy M Josephs, Sophie A Valkenburg, Linda Wooldridge, Margaret Hellard, Jamie Rossjohn, Mandvi Bharadwaj, Katherine Kedzierska, Stephanie Gras
αβT cell receptor (TCR) genetic diversity is outnumbered by the quantity of pathogenic epitopes to be recognized. To provide efficient protective anti-viral immunity, a single TCR ideally needs to cross-react with a multitude of pathogenic epitopes. However, the frequency, extent, and mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity remain unclear; with conflicting results on anti-viral T cell cross-reactivity observed in humans. Namely, both the presence and lack of T cell cross-reactivity has been reported with HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes from the Epstein-Barr and influenza viruses (BMLF-1 and M158, respectively) or with the hepatitis C and influenza viruses (NS31073 and NA231, respectively)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
P Rodpothong, Ch Boonarkart, K Ruangrung, N Onsirisakul, D Kanistanon, P Auewarakul
Viral surface proteins, premembrane protein (prM) and envelope (E) protein have been shown to induce a production of antibodies that are involved in both enhancement and neutralization. To explore the feasibility of modifying the relative immune responses to prM and E proteins, four DNA constructs were created and administered into groups of Balb/c mice; pPW01 contains prM and E genes of DENV1, pPW02 contains prM and E genes of DENV2, pPW03 contains DENV1 prM and DENV2 E, and pPW04 contains DENV2 prM and DENV1 E...
2016: Acta Virologica
Justo Aznar, Julio Tudela
BACKGROUND: The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has major therapeutic potential. Recent clinical trials using cells derived from human stem cells are showing encouraging results, although these should be assessed with the necessary caution. DISCUSSION: Some media have reported the results of these trials without due care, perhaps creating expectations that do not match the reality of the facts. This paper describes some of the recent advances in the use of human stem cells, particularly those made in the area of ophthalmology, and more specifically, in Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Dapeng Li, Markus von Schaewen, Xuesong Wang, Wanyin Tao, Yunfang Zhang, Li Li, Brigitte Heller, Gabriela Hrebikova, Qiang Deng, Alexander Ploss, Jin Zhong, Zhong Huang
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem for which no vaccine is available. HCV has a highly heterogeneous RNA genome and can be classified into seven genotypes. Due to the high genetic and resultant antigenic variation among genotypes, inducing antibodies capable of neutralizing most of the HCV genotypes by experimental vaccination has been challenging. Previous efforts focused on priming humoral immune responses with recombinant HCV envelope E2 protein produced in mammalian cells...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Matthew Costa, Justin Pollara, Regina Whitney Edwards, Michael Seaman, Miroslaw K Gorny, David Montefiori, Hua-Xin Liao, Guido Ferrari, Shan Lu, Shixia Wang
: HIV-1 is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years' infection and, therefore, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that a moderate protection is possible, which may correlate with ADCC activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that in an HIV vaccine phase I trial, DP6-001, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation, could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
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