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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097230/protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-by-pfspz-vaccine
#1
Judith E Epstein, Kristopher M Paolino, Thomas L Richie, Martha Sedegah, Alexandra Singer, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, April Stafford, Richard C Ruck, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Peter F Billingsley, Anita Manoj, Joana C Silva, Kara Moser, Robin Nielsen, Donna Tosh, Susan Cicatelli, Harini Ganeshan, Jessica Case, Debbie Padilla, Silas Davidson, Lindsey Garver, Elizabeth Saverino, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Patrick S Twomey, Sharina Reyes, James E Moon, Eric R James, Natasha Kc, Minglin Li, Esteban Abot, Arnel Belmonte, Kevin Hauns, Maria Belmonte, Jun Huang, Carlos Vasquez, Shon Remich, Mary Carrington, Yonas Abebe, Amy Tillman, Bradley Hickey, Jason Regules, Eileen Villasante, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman
BACKGROUND: A radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccine, PfSPZ Vaccine, protected 6 of 6 subjects (100%) against homologous Pf (same strain as in the vaccine) controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 3 weeks after 5 doses administered intravenously. The next step was to assess protective efficacy against heterologous Pf (different from Pf in the vaccine), after fewer doses, and at 24 weeks. METHODS: The trial assessed tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3 or 5 doses of PfSPZ Vaccine in non-immune subjects...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#2
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087328/identification-of-drug-and-drug-metabolite-immune-responses-originating-from-both-na%C3%A3-ve-and-memory-t-cells
#3
Andrew Gibson, Lee Faulkner, Sally Wood, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
Both naïve and memory T-cells from drug-naive donors can be stimulated by parent drug and drug haptens. Thus, drug-derived antigens can stimulate naïve T-cells alongside pre-existing memory T-cells through proposed heterologous immunity with an as yet undetermined peptide antigen.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#4
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077440/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-enhances-efficacy-of-a-francisella-tularensis-lvs-catanionic-nanoparticle-subunit-vaccine-against-f-tularensis-schu-s4-challenge-by-augmenting-both-humoral-and-cellular-immunity
#5
Katharina Richard, Barbara J Mann, Aiping Qin, Eileen M Barry, Robert K Ernst, Stefanie N Vogel
Francisella tularensis, a bacterial biothreat agent, has no approved vaccine in the USA. Previously, we showed that incorporating lysates from partially attenuated F. tularensis LVS or fully virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strains into catanionic surfactant vesicle (V) nanoparticles (LVS-V and Schu S4-V, respectively) protected fully against F. tularensis LVS intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge in mice. However, we achieved only partial protection against F. tularensis Schu S4 intranasal (i.n.) challenge, even when employing heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076785/infection-programs-sustained-lymphoid-stromal-cell-responses-and-shapes-lymph-node-remodeling-upon-secondary-challenge
#6
Julia L Gregory, Anne Walter, Yannick O Alexandre, Jyh Liang Hor, Ruijie Liu, Joel Z Ma, Sapna Devi, Nobuko Tokuda, Yuji Owada, Laura K Mackay, Gordon K Smyth, William R Heath, Scott N Mueller
Lymph nodes (LNs) are constructed of intricate networks of endothelial and mesenchymal stromal cells. How these lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs) regulate lymphoid tissue remodeling and contribute to immune responses remains poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive functional and transcriptional analysis of LSC responses to skin viral infection and found that LSC subsets responded robustly, with different kinetics for distinct pathogens. Recruitment of cells to inflamed LNs induced LSC expansion, while B cells sustained stromal responses in an antigen-independent manner...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066981/disruption-of-transplant-tolerance-by-an-incognito-form-of-cd8-t-cell-dependent-memory
#7
M K Nelsen, K S Beard, R J Plenter, R M Kedl, E T Clambey, R G Gill
Several approaches successfully achieve allograft tolerance in preclinical models but are challenging to translate into clinical practice. Many clinically relevant factors can attenuate allograft tolerance induction including intrinsic genetic resistance, peri-transplant infection, inflammation, and pre-existing anti-donor immunity. The prevailing view for immune memory as a tolerance barrier is that the host harbors memory cells that spontaneously cross-react to donor MHC antigens. Such pre-existing 'heterologous' memory cells have direct reactivity to donor cells and resist most tolerance regimens...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065598/cas13b-is-a-type-vi-b-crispr-associated-rna-guided-rnase-differentially-regulated-by-accessory-proteins-csx27-and-csx28
#8
Aaron A Smargon, David B T Cox, Neena K Pyzocha, Kaijie Zheng, Ian M Slaymaker, Jonathan S Gootenberg, Omar A Abudayyeh, Patrick Essletzbichler, Sergey Shmakov, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems defend microbes against foreign nucleic acids via RNA-guided endonucleases. Using a computational sequence database mining approach, we identify two class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems (subtype VI-B) that lack Cas1 and Cas2 and encompass a single large effector protein, Cas13b, along with one of two previously uncharacterized associated proteins, Csx27 and Csx28. We establish that these CRISPR-Cas systems can achieve RNA interference when heterologously expressed. Through a combination of biochemical and genetic experiments, we show that Cas13b processes its own CRISPR array with short and long direct repeats, cleaves target RNA, and exhibits collateral RNase activity...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#9
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061786/attenuated-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-double-deletion-mutant-s-8%C3%A2-clpp-apxiic-confers-protection-against-homologous-or-heterologous-strain-challenge
#10
Fang Xie, Gang Li, Long Zhou, Yanhe Zhang, Ning Cui, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which leads to large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, S-8△clpP△apxIIC, a double-deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed, and its safety and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. RESULTS: The S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a murine (BALB/c) model, and caused no detrimental effects on pigs even at a dose of up to 1...
January 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061775/immunization-with-streptococcus-suis-bacterin-plus-recombinant-sao-protein-in-sows-conveys-passive-immunity-to-their-piglets
#11
Kai-Jen Hsueh, Li-Ting Cheng, Jai-Wei Lee, Yao-Chi Chung, Wen-Bin Chung, Chun-Yen Chu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunization with recombinant Sao-L (surface antigen one-L, rSao-L) protein from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 in pigs was able to increase cross-serotype protection against S. suis serotype 1 and 2 challenge. Since weaning piglets are more susceptible to S. suis infections due to the stresses associated with weaning, prepartum immunization in sows may convey passive immunity to piglets and provide protection...
January 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#12
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056100/chimeric-l2-based-virus-like-particle-vlp-vaccines-targeting-cutaneous-human-papillomaviruses-hpv
#13
Bettina Huber, Christina Schellenbacher, Saeed Shafti-Keramat, Christoph Jindra, Neil Christensen, Reinhard Kirnbauer
Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035266/simple-and-noninvasive-method-for-assessment-of-digestive-efficiency-validation-of-fecal-steatocrit-in-greenfinch-coccidiosis-model
#14
Richard Meitern, Mari-Ann Lind, Ulvi Karu, Peeter Hõrak
Animals' capability to absorb energy and nutrients from food poses a major internal constraint that affects the amount of resources available for allocation to maintenance, growth, signaling, and reproduction. Intestinal surface is the largest area of contact between immune system and microbial antigens; gut thus appears the main arena where trade-offs between immune function and other components of fitness arise. Assessment of the integrity of digestive machinery should therefore be of high priority in ecophysiological research...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030629/co-activation-of-th17-and-antibody-responses-provides-efficient-protection-against-mucosal-infection-by-group-a-streptococcus
#15
Xianyang Chen, Ning Li, Shuai Bi, Xiaoguang Wang, Beinan Wang
Conserved protein antigens among serotypes of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) have been focused for vaccine development because of the diversity of GAS serotypes and risks of autoimmunity post-GAS infection. Precise delineation of protective immune response to each of GAS antigens is critical for vaccine efficacy and safety. We recently reported that immunization with SrtA of GAS provides Th17-dependent clearance of heterologous serotypes of GAS in NALT. SCPA is a surface virulence molecule of GAS and known to induce antibody-mediated protection against GAS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024958/outer-membrane-vesicles-harboring-modified-lipid-a-moiety-augment-the-efficacy-of-an-influenza-vaccine-exhibiting-reduced-endotoxicity-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Tae-Young Lee, Chang-Ung Kim, Eun-Hye Bae, Sang-Hwan Seo, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon, Kyu-Tae Chang, Young Sang Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Doo-Jin Kim
Influenza is an acute respiratory disease and a major health problem worldwide. Since mucosal immunity plays a critical role in protection against influenza virus infection, mucosal immunization is considered a promising vaccination route. However, except for live-attenuated vaccines, there are no effective killed or recombinant mucosal influenza vaccines to date. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized vesicles produced by gram-negative bacteria, and contain various bacterial components capable of stimulating the immune system of the host...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018863/immunization-with-the-mipa-skp-or-etec_2479-antigens-confers-protection-against-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-strains-expressing-different-colonization-factors-in-a-mouse-pulmonary-challenge-model
#17
Michael P Hays, Amit Kumar, Francisco J Martinez-Becerra, Philip R Hardwidge
Achieving cross-protective efficacy against multiple bacterial strains or serotypes is an important goal of vaccine design. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease in underdeveloped nations. We have been interested in identifying and characterizing ETEC antigens that generate protective immune responses independent of ETEC colonization factor (CF) expression. Our previous studies used proteomics to identify the ETEC MipA, Skp, and ETEC_2479 proteins as effective in protecting mice from homologous challenge with ETEC H10407 using a pulmonary inoculation model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998269/increased-t-cell-breadth-and-antibody-response-elicited-in-prime-boost-regimen-by-viral-vector-encoded-homologous-siv-gag-env-in-outbred-cd1-mice
#18
Anne-Marie Carola Andersson, Peter Johannes Holst
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle for the development of HIV vaccines is the virus' worldwide sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the presence of T cell epitopes within conserved regions of the virus' structural Gag protein and conserved structures in the envelope (env) sequence raises the possibility that cross-reactive responses may be induced by vaccination. In this study, the aim was to investigate the importance of antigenic match on immunodominance and breadth of obtainable T cell responses...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997681/the-core-domain-of-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2-generates-potent-cross-neutralizing-antibodies
#19
Patricia Vietheer, Irene Boo, Jun Gu, Kathleen McCaffrey, Stirling Edwards, Catherine Owczarek, Matthew P Hardy, Louis Fabri, Rob J Center, Pantelis Poumbourios, Heidi E Drummer
: A vaccine that prevents hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is urgently needed to support an emerging global elimination program. However, vaccine development has been confounded because of HCV's high degree of antigenic variability and the preferential induction of type-specific immune responses with limited potency against heterologous viral strains and genotypes. We showed previously that deletion of the three variable regions from the E2 receptor-binding domain (Δ123) increases the ability of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to inhibit E2-CD81 receptor interactions, suggesting improved bNAb epitope exposure...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993173/the-immunological-characteristics-and-probiotic-function-of-recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-spore-expressing-clonorchis-sinensis-cysteine-protease
#20
Zeli Tang, Mei Shang, Tingjin Chen, Pengli Ren, Hengchang Sun, Hongling Qu, Zhipeng Lin, Lina Zhou, Jinyun Yu, Hongye Jiang, Xinyi Zhou, Xuerong Li, Yan Huang, Jin Xu, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, a food-borne zoonosis, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis. The intestinal tract and bile ducts are crucial places for C. sinensis metacercariae to develop into adult worms. The endospore of Bacillus subtilis is an ideal oral immunization vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to intestine. Cysteine protease of C. sinensis (CsCP) is an endogenous key component in the excystment of metacercariae and other physiological or pathological processes. METHODS: We constructed a fusion gene of CotC (a coat protein)-CsCP and obtained B...
December 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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