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heterologous immunity

Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Sorina Chiorean, John C Vederas, Marco J van Belkum
Genome sequencing of Enterococcus faecium M3K31, a strain isolated from griffon vultures, previously revealed the presence of three sequences encoding for bacteriocins, namely enterocin P, enterocin HF, and a SRCAM 602-like bacteriocin. In this work, we describe the SRCAM 602-like bacteriocin that we named faerocin MK. Mature faerocin MK consists of 43 residues and contains an YGNGV-motif and two cysteine residues at positions 10 and 15, consistent with other class IIa bacteriocins. Faerocin MK and SRCAM 602 were chemically synthesized and their scope of activity was tested...
January 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Zuzana Krcková, Daniela Kocourková, Michal Danek, Jitka Brouzdová, Premysl Pejchar, Martin Janda, Igor Pokotylo, Peter G Ott, Olga Valentová, Jan Martinec
Background and Aims: The non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) is a new member of the plant phospholipase family that reacts to abiotic environmental stresses, such as phosphate deficiency, high salinity, heat and aluminium toxicity, and is involved in root development, silicon distribution and brassinolide signalling. Six NPC genes (NPC1-NPC6) are found in the Arabidopsis genome. The NPC2 isoform has not been experimentally characterized so far. Methods: The Arabidopsis NPC2 isoform was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
Kun Xu, Yufeng Song, Lianpan Dai, Yongli Zhang, Xuancheng Lu, Yijia Xie, Hangjie Zhang, Tao Cheng, Qihui Wang, Qingrui Huang, Yuhai Bi, William J Liu, Wenjun Liu, Xiangdong Li, Chuan Qin, Yi Shi, Jinghua Yan, Dongming Zhou, George F Gao
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global health concern. ZIKV can persist in human semen and be transmitted by sexual contact, as well as by mosquitos as seen for classical arboviruses. We and others have previously demonstrated that ZIKV infection leads to testis damage and infertility in mouse models. So far, no prophylactics or therapeutics are available, therefore, vaccine development is urgently demanded. Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus has been explored as the preferred vaccine vector for many pathogens due to the low pre-existing immunity against the vector among the human population...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
S Bhuvaneswari, K G Tirumurugaan, P Venkatesan, P Manesh Kumar, K Kumanan
Newcastle disease (ND) is a major risk to the poultry industry which results in severe economic loss throughout the world even with vaccination. The vaccine viruses that are used in many countries include the LaSota and other live viruses that were isolated in the early and late 1950s. Reports from several laboratories including ours indicate a greater variance of the circulating strains and recent classification indicates the existence of XVIII different genotypes of NDV strains. The efficiency of the LaSota vaccination in inducing protective immunity to different heterologous strains has been a question and its efficacy upon exposure to a virulent genotype IV strain has not been reported after 1989 world-wide except for India...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Linlin Liu, Wang Zhang, Yuxin Song, Wenqian Wang, Yuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Kai Li, Qing Pan, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Gaoming He, Xiaomei Wang, Hongyu Cui
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in the global poultry sector. Lactic acid bacteria are an appealing vehicle for the safe and effective delivery of heterologous protein antigens. Oral administration of the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis expressing recombinant fusion proteins has been used to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this study, a Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 strain co-expressing the outer membrane protein (Omp) H of the microfold (M) cell-targeting ligand and the viral capsid protein (VP)2 antigen of IBDV was genetically engineered, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral and injected vaccine in chickens was evaluated...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
Félix A Rey, Karin Stiasny, Marie-Christine Vaney, Mariano Dellarole, Franz X Heinz
Zika and dengue viruses belong to the Flavivirus genus, a close group of antigenically related viruses that cause significant arthropod-transmitted diseases throughout the globe. Although infection by a given flavivirus is thought to confer lifelong protection, some of the patient's antibodies cross-react with other flaviviruses without cross-neutralizing. The original antigenic sin phenomenon may amplify such antibodies upon subsequent heterologous flavivirus infection, potentially aggravating disease by antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)...
December 27, 2017: EMBO Reports
Kevin O Saunders, Laurent K Verkoczy, Chuancang Jiang, Jinsong Zhang, Robert Parks, Haiyan Chen, Max Housman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Xiaoying Shen, Ashley M Trama, Richard Scearce, Laura Sutherland, Sampa Santra, Amanda Newman, Amanda Eaton, Kai Xu, Ivelin S Georgiev, M Gordon Joyce, Georgia D Tomaras, Mattia Bonsignori, Steven G Reed, Andres Salazar, John R Mascola, M Anthony Moody, Derek W Cain, Mireille Centlivre, Sandra Zurawski, Gerard Zurawski, Harold P Erickson, Peter D Kwong, S Munir Alam, Yves Levy, David C Montefiori, Barton F Haynes
The events required for the induction of broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) following HIV-1 envelope (Env) vaccination are unknown, and their induction in animal models as proof of concept would be critical. Here, we describe the induction of plasma antibodies capable of neutralizing heterologous primary (tier 2) HIV-1 strains in one macaque and two rabbits. Env immunogens were designed to induce CD4 binding site (CD4bs) bnAbs, but surprisingly, the macaque developed V1V2-glycan bnAbs. Env immunization of CD4bs bnAb heavy chain rearrangement (VHDJH) knockin mice similarly induced V1V2-glycan neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), wherein the human CD4bs VH chains were replaced with mouse rearrangements bearing diversity region (D)-D fusions, creating antibodies with long, tyrosine-rich HCDR3s...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Murillo Silva, Thao H Nguyen, Phaethon Philbrook, Matthew Chu, Olivia Sears, Stephen Hatfield, Robert K Abbott, Garnett Kelsoe, Michail V Sitkovsky
Rapidly evolving pathogens such as HIV or influenza can quickly mutate their antigenic profiles, reducing the efficacy of conventional vaccines. Despite this challenge, functionally required epitopes are highly conserved among heterologous viral strains and represent a key vulnerability that could be targeted during vaccine development. As the antigenicity of these conserved epitopes is frequently subdominant, there is a critical need for innovative vaccination strategies designed to target these neutralizing epitopes...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Yu-Jin Kim, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Jae-Min Song, Sang-Moo Kang
Influenza virus M2 extracellular domain (M2e) has been a target for developing cross-protective vaccines. However, the efficacy and immune correlates of M2e vaccination are poorly understood in the different host genetic backgrounds in comparison with influenza vaccines. We previously reported the cross-protective efficacy of virus-like particle (M2e5x VLP) vaccines containing heterologous tandem M2e repeats (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian influenza viruses. In this study to gain better understanding of cross-protective influenza vaccines, we compared immunogenicity and efficacy of M2e5x VLP, H5 hemagglutinin VLP (HA VLP), and inactivated H3N2 virus (H3N2i) in wild-type strains of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and CD4 and CD8 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
With an objective to generate safe and effective anti-Brucella vaccine, an attenuated live Salmonella Typhimurium vector delivering heterologous Brucella immunogenic proteins SOD, Omp19, BLS, and PrpA formulated with purified Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide was evaluated on a guinea pig model. This model represents high susceptibility to Brucella infections and showed similarities in reproducing human pathologies. On safety perspectives, the vaccine formulation induced no observable alterations on general health and histology of the vaccinated guinea pigs...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Eleonora Altman, Vandana Chandan, Blair A Harrison, Evgeny Vinogradov
Structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a nontypeable Helicobacter pylori strain PJ1 and two corresponding mutants, PJ1 HP1283:cam and PJ1 HP1284:cam, was performed using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. It resulted in the core structure that differed significantly from the one proposed previously. Overall architecture of PJ1 LPS was found to be consistent with a structural model described for several other H. pylori strains. It contained a polymer of d-glycero-d-manno-heptose (dd-Hep) as the O-chain component, linked to α-1,6-glucan through a dd-Hep oligosaccharide...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Józef Galli, Tadeusz Stefaniak
Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) are highly conserved proteins that are widely spread throughout all organisms. They function in the cytoplasm as chaperones; however, they could be expressed on the cell surface. It has been shown that Hsp60 obtained from gram-negative bacteria are able to stimulate cells of the acquired and innate immune system. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the immunogenic properties of recombinant Hsp60 proteins derived from four common pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella Enteritidis...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Marika Genzow, Christa Goodell, Troy J Kaiser, Wesley Johnson, Marc Eichmeyer
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses in pig production. Major control strategies include the use of killed vaccines (KV) in breeding females to confer passive immunity to their offspring. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2 NS1-truncated live attenuated IAV-S vaccine has recently become available, which showed promising results in young pigs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intranasal vaccination of newborn pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on virus shedding (via nasal swabs tested by virus isolation)...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Stefanie Baldofski, Carsten Jörg Canitz, Leif-Alexander Garbe, Rudolf J Schneider
Diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) and di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT), two of the most important substitutes for phthalate plasticizers, are used for a wide range of applications. Consequently, an increasing occurrence in urine and environmental samples is reported. Reliable and fast analytical methods for the quantification of these plasticizers are needed. So far, mainly GC-MS or LC-MS methods are used. We aimed to develop the first antibodies and immunoassays allowing for high-throughput analysis of samples...
December 9, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Cédric M Vogt, Maria Teresa Armúa-Fernández, Kurt Tobler, Monika Hilbe, Claudio Aguilar, Mathias Ackermann, Peter Deplazes, Catherine Eichwald
Bacillus subtilis is known as an endospore- and biofilm-forming bacterium with probiotic properties. We have recently developed a method for displaying heterologous proteins on the surface of B. subtilis biofilms by introducing the coding sequences of the protein of interest into the bacterial genome to generate a fusion protein linked to the C-terminus of the biofilm matrix protein TasA. Although B. subtilis is a regular component of the gut microflora, we constructed a series of recombinant B. subtilis strains that were tested for their ability to immunize dogs following oral application of the spores...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Paweł Kozielewicz, Hatun Alomar, Syaratul Yusof, Gillian Grafton, Alison J Cooper, S John Curnow, James W Ironside, Hardev Pall, Nicholas M Barnes
A number of members of the G protein-coupled receptor class of cell surface receptors are 'orphans' with no known endogenous ligand. One of these orphan receptors is GPR61; there are little data about its expression in human cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the post-translational modification of GPR61 by N-glycosylation at an identified consensus N-glycosylation site (N12) and the impact of this modification upon the subcellular expression of the protein. The N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin reduced the apparent molecular weight of immunoreactivity associated with myc-tagged GPR61 by 1-2 kDa, which was comparable to the evident molecular weight of the myc-tagged N12S GPR61 mutant with disrupted consensus N-glycosylation site...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Victorine A Mensah, Sophie Roetynck, Ebrima K Kanteh, Georgina Bowyer, Amy Ndaw, Francis Oko, Carly M Bliss, Ya Jankey Jagne, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Rachel Roberts, Flavia D'Alessio, Odile Leroy, Babacar Faye, Beate Kampmann, Badara Cisse, Kalifa Bojang, Stephen Gerry, Nicola K Viebig, Alison M Lawrie, Ed Clarke, Egeruan B Imoukhuede, Katie J Ewer, Adrian V S Hill, Muhammed O Afolabi
Background: Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding multiple epitope string thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) has shown acceptable safety and promising immunogenicity in African adult and pediatric populations. If licensed, this vaccine could be given to infants receiving routine childhood immunizations. We therefore evaluated responses to ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP when co-administered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha, Clóvis Moreira, Andréa da Silva Ramos Rocha, Paula Fonseca Finger, Carolina Georg Magalhães, Marcos Roberto Alves Ferreira, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
BACKGROUND: The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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