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heterologous immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445724/quantification-of-the-impact-of-the-hiv-1-glycan-shield-on-antibody-elicitation
#1
Tongqing Zhou, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Cheng Cheng, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Michael Chambers, Aliaksandr Druz, Hui Geng, Krisha McKee, Young Do Kwon, Sijy O'Dell, Mallika Sastry, Stephen D Schmidt, Kai Xu, Lei Chen, Rita E Chen, Mark K Louder, Marie Pancera, Timothy G Wanninger, Baoshan Zhang, Anqi Zheng, S Katie Farney, Kathryn E Foulds, Ivelin S Georgiev, M Gordon Joyce, Thomas Lemmin, Sandeep Narpala, Reda Rawi, Cinque Soto, John-Paul Todd, Chen-Hsiang Shen, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Yongping Yang, Peng Zhao, Barton F Haynes, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, Diana G Scorpio, Lawrence Shapiro, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character)...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440187/genetic-modifications-of-icosahedral-plant-virus-based-nanoparticles-for-vaccine-and-immunotherapy-applications
#2
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Vaccine development is one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. Vaccines made of live-attenuated pathogens can revert to virulent live strains, which causes safety concerns. On the other hand, the use of purified antigenic components as subunit vaccines is safer, but less effective, as these components induce lower levels of protective immunity. Multiple copy presentation of an antigenic determinant in a well-ordered and well-defined orientation on a nanosized particle can mimic the natural host-pathogen surface interaction to provide antigen stability and immunogenicity similar to that of conventional vaccines with improved safety...
April 24, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437636/chimeric-flock-house-virus-protein-a-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeting-domain-enhances-viral-replication-and-virus-like-particle-trans-encapsidation-in-plants
#3
Yiyang Zhou, Christopher M Kearney
Flock House virus (FHV) RNA can be trans-encapsidated, entirely in planta, by tobacco mosaic virus coat protein to form virus-like particles (VLPs). Vaccination with these VLPs leads to strong antigen expression in mice and immune-activation. We hypothesize that creating an additional cellular site for replication and/or trans-encapsidation might significantly improve the final output of trans-encapsidated product. FHV protein A was engineered to target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a heterologous tobacco etch virus ER-targeting domain, and was expressed in cis or in trans relative to the replicating FHV RNA1...
April 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435908/development-of-a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-like-particle-vaccine-in-silkworms-using-codon-optimised-prm-and-envelope-genes
#4
Sayaka Matsuda, Reiko Nerome, Kenichi Maegawa, Akira Kotaki, Shigeo Sugita, Kazunori Kawasaki, Kazumichi Kuroda, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Kuniaki Nerome
We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Additionally, in the peptide analysis of infected pupae homogenate, it appeared approximately 300-500 μg E protein/pupa were produced...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424281/distinct-roles-of-vaccinia-virus-nf-kb-inhibitor-proteins-a52-b15-and-k7-in-the-immune-response
#5
Mauro Di Pilato, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban
Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15 and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in a NYVAC vaccinia virus strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of A52R, B15R and K7R increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Revertant viruses for these genes confirmed their role in inhibiting the innate immune system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421815/cross-protection-conferred-by-immunization-with-a-romph-based-intranasal-fowl-cholera-vaccine
#6
Thanya Varinrak, Pichayanut Poolperm, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
A previous study demonstrated that a recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH)-based intranasal fowl cholera vaccine elicited efficient homologous protection against Pasteurella multocida strain X-73 (A:1) in chickens. The present study aimed to determine the cross protectivity against heterologous P. multocida strains. The rOmpH was purified via electroelution and formulated with two kinds of adjuvants. The vaccine formulations in a total volume of 100 µl were 100 µg rOmpH with 3 µg of Escherichia coli enterotoxin B (LTB) or 10 µg of CpG ODN2007...
April 19, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419854/a-formalin-inactivated-vaccine-provides-good-protection-against-vibrio-harveyi-infection-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#7
Hai Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen, Ming-An Tsai, E Ya-Zhen, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper, so considerable efforts are in practice to control the pathogen. This study presents a highly effective vaccine against V. harveyi in the orange-spotted grouper with the help of a single intraperitoneal immunization. The vaccine candidate was in form of whole, formalin-inactivated V. harveyi cells combined with a metabolizable ISA763 AVG adjuvant. Our results indicated that the vaccine triggered a remarkably higher expression level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in the groupers' kidneys and spleens, as recorded after 1 and 3 days of immunization...
April 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#8
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412074/reversible-synthesis-of-colanic-acid-and-o-antigen-polysaccharides-in-salmonella-typhimurium-enhances-induction-of-cross-immune-responses-and-provides-protection-against-heterologous-salmonella-challenge
#9
Pei Li, Qing Liu, Chun Huang, Xinxin Zhao, Kenneth L Roland, Qingke Kong
Colanic Acid (CA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are two major mannose-containing extracellular polysaccharides of Salmonella. Their presence on the bacterial surface can mask conserved protective outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from the host immune system. The mannose moiety in these molecules is derived from GDP-mannose, which is synthesized in several steps. The first two steps require the action of phosphomannose isomerase, encoded by pmi (manA), followed by phosphomannomutase, encoded by manB. There are two copies of manB present in the Salmonella chromosome, one located in the cps gene cluster (cpsG) responsible for CA synthesis, and the other in the rfb gene cluster (rfbK) involved in LPS O-antigen synthesis...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411325/a-literature-update-elucidating-production-of-panax-ginsenosides-with-a-special-focus-on-strategies-enriching-the-anti-neoplastic-minor-ginsenosides-in-ginseng-preparations
#10
REVIEW
Tanya Biswas, A K Mathur, Archana Mathur
Ginseng, an oriental gift to the world of healthcare and preventive medicine, is among the top ten medicinal herbs globally. The constitutive triterpene saponins, ginsenosides, or panaxosides are attributed to ginseng's miraculous efficacy towards anti-aging, rejuvenating, and immune-potentiating benefits. The major ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd., Re, and Rg1, formed after extensive glycosylations of the aglycone "dammaranediol," dominate the chemical profile of this genus in vivo and in vitro. Elicitations have successfully led to appreciable enhancements in the production of these major ginsenosides...
April 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404844/intramuscular-immunization-of-mice-with-the-live-attenuated-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-vaccine-strain-vc2-expressing-the-equine-herpesvirus-1-ehv-1-glycoprotein-d-gd-generates-anti-ehv-1-immune-responses-in-mice
#11
Shiliang A Liu, Brent A Stanfield, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Shan Naidu, Ingeborg Langohr, Fabio Del Piero, Jacqueline Ferracone, Alma A Roy, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Vaccination remains the best option to combat EHV-1 infection and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of the Equine Herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein D (gD), and that intramuscular immunization of mice resulted in strong anti-viral humoral and cellular immune responses...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400767/the-periplasmic-chaperone-network-of-campylobacter-jejuni-evidence-that-salc-cj1289-and-ppid-cj0694-are-involved-in-maintaining-outer-membrane-integrity
#12
Aidan J Taylor, Shadi A I Zakai, David J Kelly
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria is a key structure in host-pathogen interactions that contains a plethora of proteins, performing a range of functions including adhesion, nutrient uptake, export of effectors and interaction with innate and adaptive components of the immune system. In addition, the OM can exclude drugs and thus contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The OM of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains porins, adhesins and other virulence factors that must be specifically localized to this membrane, but the protein sorting mechanisms involved are only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399189/the-choice-of-the-anchoring-protein-influences-the-interaction-of-recombinant-bacillus-spores-with-the-immune-system
#13
Aurelia Piekarska, Paulina Pełka, Grażyna Peszyńska-Sularz, Alessandro Negri, Krzysztof Hinc, Michał Obuchowski, Adam Iwanicki
The technology of display of heterologous proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores enables use of these structures as carriers of antigens for mucosal vaccination. Currently, there are no technical possibilities to predict whether a designed fusion will be efficiently displayed on the spore surface and how such recombinant spores will interact with cells of the immune system. In this study, we compared four variants of B. subtilis spores presenting a fragment of a FliD protein from Clostridium difficile in fusion with CotB, CotC, CotG or CotZ spore coat proteins...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381580/development-of-an-alternative-modified-live-influenza-b-virus-vaccine
#14
Jefferson J S Santos, Courtney Finch, Troy Sutton, Adebimpe Obadan, Isabel Aguirre, Zhimin Wan, Diego Lopez, Ginger Geiger, Ana Silvia Gonzalez-Reiche, Lucas Ferreri, Daniel R Perez
Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major human pathogen, responsible for seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness. Two antigenically distinct IBV HA lineages co-circulate worldwide with little cross-reactivity between each other. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIV) have been shown to provide improved cross-protective immune responses compared to inactivated vaccines by eliciting local mucosal immunity and systemic B cell and T cell-mediated memory responses. We have previously shown that incorporation of temperature sensitive (ts) mutations in the PB1 and PB2 subunits along with a modified HA epitope tag in the C-terminus of PB1 resulted in influenza A viruses (IAV) that are safe and effective as modified live attenuated (att) virus vaccines (IAV att)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377201/expression-of-a-novel-complement-c3-gene-in-the-razor-clam-sinonovacula-constricta-and-its-role-in-innate-immune-response-and-hemolysis
#15
Maoxiao Peng, Donghong Niu, Zhiyi Chen, Tianyi Lan, Zhiguo Dong, Thi-Nga Tran, Jiale Li
Complement component 3 (C3) is a core component of the complement system, and directly participates in immune regulation and immune defense. Isoforms of C3 have been reported in several species of vertebrate, but invertebrates, and more specifically clams, have been less well studied. An isoform of C3, named ScC3-2, was identified in Sinonovacula constricta (Chinese razor clam). ScC3-2 included eight conserved regions, a thioester bond and two predicted junction sites (α-β and α-γ). The gene was expressed in the liver, gill, foot, hemolymph, mantle, gonad and siphon tissues...
April 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373278/flavones-modulate-respiratory-epithelial-innate-immunity-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-activation-of-t2r14
#16
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Chronic rhinosinusitis has a significant impact on patient quality of life, creates billions of dollars of annual healthcare costs, and accounts for ~20% of adult antibiotic prescriptions in the US. Due to the rise of resistant microorganisms, there is a critical need to better understand how to stimulate and/or enhance innate immune responses as a therapeutic modality to treat respiratory infections. We recently identified bitter taste receptors (taste family type 2 receptors, or T2Rs) as important regulators of sinonasal immune responses and potential important therapeutic targets...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369428/novel-approaches-to-neisseria-meningitidis-vaccine-design
#17
Myron Christodoulides, John Heckels
A range of vaccines is available for preventing life-threatening diseases caused by infection with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus, Men). Capsule polysaccharide (CPS)-conjugate vaccines are successful prophylactics for serogroup MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY infections and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used successfully for controlling clonal serogroup MenB infections. MenB vaccines based on recombinant proteins identified by reverse vaccinology (Bexsero®) and proteomics (Trumenba®) approaches have recently been licensed and Bexsero® has been introduced into the UK infant immunization program...
March 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368530/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccination-boosts-durable-cross-reactive-and-protection-associated-t-cells-in-children
#18
K G-I Mohn, F Zhou, K A Brokstad, S Sridhar, R J Cox
Background: Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) stimulate a multifaceted immune response including cellular immunity, which may provide protection against newly emerging strains. This study shows proof of concept that LAIV boosts pre-existing, cross-reactive T-cells in children to genetically diverse influenza A strains to which the children had not been exposed. Methods: We studied the long-term cross-reactive T-cell response in 14 trivalent LAIV vaccinated children using the fluorescent immunospot assay (FluroSpot) with heterologous H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses and CD8 peptides from the internal proteins (M1, NP, PB1)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362809/antigen-capsid-display-on-human-adenovirus-35-via-pix-fusion-is-a-potent-vaccine-platform
#19
Nadine C Salisch, Marija Vujadinovic, Esmeralda van der Helm, Dirk Spek, Lars Vorthoren, Jan Serroyen, Harmjan Kuipers, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn, Jerome Custers, Jort Vellinga
Durable protection against complex pathogens is likely to require immunity that comprises both humoral and cellular responses. While heterologous prime-boost regimens based on recombinant, replication-incompetent Adenoviral vectors (AdV) and adjuvanted protein have been able to induce high levels of concomitant humoral and cellular responses, complex manufacturing and handling in the field may limit their success. To combine the benefits of genetic and protein-based vaccination within one vaccine construct and to facilitate their use, we generated Human Adenovirus 35 (HAdV35) vectors genetically encoding a model antigen based on the Plasmodium falciparum (P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341670/prime-boost-immunization-eliminates-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-by-producing-high-avidity-effector-cd8-t-cells
#20
Bo Xiang, Trevor R Baybutt, Lisa Berman-Booty, Michael S Magee, Scott A Waldman, Vitali Y Alexeev, Adam E Snook
Heterologous prime-boost immunization with plasmid DNA and viral vector vaccines is an emerging approach to elicit CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity targeting pathogens and tumor Ags that is superior to either monotherapy. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the synergy of prime-boost strategies remain incompletely defined. In this study, we examine a DNA and adenovirus (Ad5) combination regimen targeting guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a receptor expressed by intestinal mucosa and universally expressed by metastatic colorectal cancer...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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