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Oral premalignant

A Pérez-Mendoza, Á M Zárate-Guzmán, E S Galvis García, S Sobrino Cossío, J Djamus Birch
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the main causes of cancer worldwide, but there is currently no global screening strategy for the disease. Endoscopy is the screening method of choice in some Asian countries, but no standardized technique has been recognized. Systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy can increase gastric lesion detection. The aim of the present article was to compare the usefulness of systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy with conventional endoscopy for the detection of premalignant lesions and early gastric cancer in subjects at average risk for gastric cancer...
March 8, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Swati Singla, Gaurav Singla, Sufian Zaheer, Dushyant Singh Rawat, Ashish Kumar Mandal
Background: Oral cancer is a leading cause of cancer in India and contributes to 12% deaths worldwide. The identification of high-risk oral premalignant lesions such as leukoplakia and intervention at premalignant stages could result in significant loss of mortality and morbidity among these patients. The most frequently observed genetic aberrations in these lesions are of mutations in p53, c-erbB2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). No specific tumor markers have been identified consistently in oral leukoplakias and the available studies show wide variations in their expression...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Masoumeh Mehdipour, Minoo Shahidi, Soheila Manifar, Soudeh Jafari, Fatemeh Mashhadi Abbas, Mahmood Barati, Hamed Mortazavi, Mohammad Shirkhoda, Amir Farzanegan, Zahra Elmi Rankohi
BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP), a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa, is considered to be a premalignant disorder of the oral cavity. Previously, several biomarkers have been tested for their diagnostic potential. Here, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of four miRNAs, miR-21, -125a, -31 and -200a, known to be involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development, in the saliva of OLP patients as also their putative relation to OSCC development in these patients...
February 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Lindita Zendeli-Bedjeti, Mirjana Popovska, Aneta Atanasovska-Stojanovska, Sotirija Duvlis
Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and numerous alterations of oral mucosa remain unsolved due to their complex etiopathogenesis. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), in particular, have been reported as the possible risk factors or cofactors. The aim of the study was to determine the association of different HPV types with oral premalignant lesions, and the potential role of smoking and alcohol use. Eighty patients (mean age ± SD, 52.45±5.56) of both genders, 19 (23.75%) male and 61 (76.25%) female, were enrolled in the study...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
D Di Stasio, A Romano, C Gentile, C Maio, A Lucchese, R Serpico, R Paparella, G Minervini, V Candotto, L Laino
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive treatment that has shown promising results in treating preneoplasticlesions. PDT reckons on the administration of a drug (photosensitizer), which can be used in a topical or systemic form. Photodynamic therapy has been successfully used in the management of a variety of pathologies from different anatomical sites, including the head, neck, brain and lungs, hepatobiliary tree and other gastrointestinal and urological pathologies, skin, gynaecological conditions and in vascular anomalies...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Xin Wang, Yu Jin, Yue-Xiu Li, Ya Yang
Oral leukoplakia (OL) is one of the most common oral precancerous lesions with the possibility of malignant transformation, ranging from 17 to 24% of patients with a median follow-up of >7 years. Previous research has revealed that compared with normal oral epithelial tissues, the expression of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) protein is significantly reduced in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Based on the above-mentioned research, it is known that SLPI is a potential predictive and diagnostic tool for the progression of oral carcinogenesis...
February 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Paras B Patel, John M Wright, David R Kang, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is notorious for having a poor prognosis. Recognition of the early features of OMM by both clinicians and pathologists can play an important role in improving survival. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to increase awareness of the early features of OMM, by presenting 2 cases with longitudinal clinical and histopathologic documentation showing progression of OMM from a deceptively bland premalignant (noninvasive) oral melanocytic lesion (POML). By analyzing the clinical and histopathologic features of POML in our cases, and those in the literature, we found that the concerning features are (1) clinically, a pigmented lesion violating the ABCDE criteria or showing multiple recurrences; and (2) histologically, a melanocytic proliferation, in either a lentiginous or pagetoid pattern with or without cellular atypia...
December 28, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Kelly Y P Liu, X J David Lu, Yi-Shing L Cheng, Hagen Klieb, Samson Ng, Kelly McNeil, Aly Karsan, Catherine F Poh
OBJECTIVES: To develop an actionable test using fluorescence capillary electrophoresis (FCE) to assess loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of histologically similar low-grade lesions (LGLs) to identify high-risk lesions for oral cancer progression. STUDY DESIGN: To determine the cutoffs of LOH, the FCE results of 52 surgical margin samples were used to compare with the existing LOH results from the previously validated 32 P-GE approach. Using the developed FCE workflow, an independent set of 102 LGLs with known progression status was used to determine the LOH molecular risk (MR) patterns and associated risk of progression...
December 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Pinki Pandey, Savita Agarwal, Megha Ralli, Alok Dixit, Dheerendra Singh
OBJECTIVE: Oral cancer accounts for almost 40% of all cancers in the Indian subcontinent. Techniques like oral scrape cytology are helpful in early diagnosis of premalignant lesion and thus prevention of malignant transformation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of cytotechnologists in assessing the adequacy and preliminary diagnostic accuracy of oral brush liquid-based cytology. STUDY DESIGN: 110 oral brush liquid-based cytology smears were prospectively screened by a cytotechnologist for adequacy assessment, and a preliminary diagnosis was recorded...
February 2, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Isaäc van der Waal
Of the potentially (pre)maligant oral epithelial lesions, leukoplakia is the most common. A brief overview of the various definitions of leukoplakia that have been used in the past is presented here. A proposal has been made to modify the current definition. Clinically, for decades, leukoplakias have been divided into homogeneous and nonhomogeneous leukoplakias and further into different subtypes. A proposal has been made to slightly rearrange these subtypes. Furthermore, attention has been paid to a number of keratotic lesions that have been reported in the literature...
December 29, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Yesha Vijaykumar Jani, Anjani Ramchandra Chaudhary, Bhavin Bipinchandra Dudhia, Parul Vijay Bhatia, Naresh Chandulal Soni, Purv Shashank Patel
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition, is highly prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. Among many trace elements, copper and iron are required for the functioning of numerous enzymes. The biochemical alterations of these trace elements in the serum of patients with premalignant conditions can help in determining the staging of the disease, its appropriate treatment and as an indicator for prognosis. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of iron and copper as well as to identify the better predictor of the two in the diagnosis and progression of OSMF...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Buddhdev P Khushbu, Monali Chalishazar, Hemant Kale, Malay Baranwal, Tapan Modi
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the cell proliferation and biologic aggressiveness of the lesions by evaluating the significance of number and dispersal pattern of Argyrophillic Nucleolar organizing Regions (AgNORs) using silver colloid technique in normal mucosa, premalignant and malignant lesions. Settings and Design: In-vitro study, lab setting. Methods and Material: The study sample consisted of five groups each with a sample size of 10 and a control group...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
L D Rock, D M Laronde, I Lin, M P Rosin, B Chan, B Shariati, L Zhang
Oral lichen planus is categorized as a potentially malignant condition by the World Health Organization; however, some argue that only lichen planus with dysplasia have malignant potential. Many pathologists call lichen planus with dysplasia "dysplasia with lichenoid mucositis (LM)" or "LM with dysplasia." Previous research has shown that certain high-risk patterns of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in dysplastic lesions are associated with significantly increased cancer risk. However, LM without dysplasia lacks such molecular patterns, supporting the hypothesis that LM, by itself, is not potentially malignant and that only those with dysplasia have malignant potential...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Nidhi Awasthi
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in treatment, the survival of patients with oral cancer has not significantly improved over the past several decades owing to late detection and treatment failures. The present study was undertaken with an objective to explore the role of salivary CYFRA 21-1, CA 19-9, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total proteins, and amylase as biochemical markers of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (PML)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Ai Enomoto, Eiichi Sato, Takashi Yasuda, Tatsuya Isomura, Toshitaka Nagao, Daichi Chikazu
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa whose etiology remains unknown. Moreover, the possibility of OLP being a premalignant change is under debate. Various types of immune cells infiltrate the OLP lesion and affect its clinicopathological features. However, the diversity of infiltrating immune cells has not been fully clarified in relation to OLP diagnosis. In this study, we quantitatively examined CD8 (+) lymphocyte infiltration by immunohistochemistry, which is the principal effector of cytotoxic immune reaction in 123 cases of OLP specimens...
December 27, 2017: Human Pathology
Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel, Zeynab Bayat, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Soroosh Shahryar-Hesami, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Lida Samie, Ghasem Solgi
BACKGROUND: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that could be considered as a potential premalignant status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 expression levels in patients with oral Lichen planus lesions compared to healthy subjects with normal oral mucosa. METHODS: Forty patients with oral lichen planus and 18 healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited in this case-control study. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed clinically and pathologically...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Rashmi Metgud, Smitha Naik, Shrikant Patel
BACKGROUND: Exfoliative cytology is an easy, economical, noninvasive, and feasible method for early detection and screening program of any premalignant or malignant lesion. In case of routine cytological procedure, classical Papanicolaou (PAP) stain is widely used while Romanowsky stains are sparingly used. Leishman-Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a easier, cost effective staining technique, has not been used in exfoliative cytology. Therefore, this pilot study was carried out to compare and contrast the role of LG stain in routine cytological procedure which is very cost-effective, less time-consuming and requires less infrastructural support...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Meng-Tsan Tsai, Yingdan Chen, Cheng-Yu Lee, Bo-Huei Huang, Nguyen Hoang Trung, Ya-Ju Lee, Yen-Li Wang
In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo visualizations of the microstructural and microvascular features of various oral mucosal types. To scan arbitrary locations of the oral mucosa, a scanning probe was developed, composed of a probe body fabricated by a 3D printer, miniaturized two-axis galvanometer, relay lenses, and reflective prism. With a 3D printing technique, the probe weight and the system volume were greatly reduced, enabling the effective improvement of imaging artifacts from unconscious motion and system complexity...
November 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Gayathri Ramesh, Rajeev Pathak, Sunita Pathak, Amrita Raj, Amit Kumar, Anuradha Katiyar
Background: The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
Camila H Facina, Silvana G P Campos, Bianca F Gonçalves, Rejane M Góes, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors can cause permanent changes in genital organs, such as the prostate. Among these environmental chemicals stands out bisphenol A (BPA). Another factor associated with prostate changes is the consumption of a high-fat diet. Although the relationship between the consumption of a high-fat diet and an increased risk of prostate cancer is well established, the mechanisms that lead to the establishment of this disease are not completely understood, nor the simultaneous action of BPA and high-fat diet...
February 2018: Prostate
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