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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202948/identification-of-pathogenic-variants-in-genes-related-to-channelopathy-and-cardiomyopathy-in-korean-sudden-cardiac-arrest-survivors
#1
Ju Sun Song, Jong-Sun Kang, Young-Eun Kim, Seung-Jung Park, Kyoung-Min Park, June Huh, June Soo Kim, Hana Cho, Chang-Seok Ki, Young Keun On
Pathogenic variants in genes related to channelopathy and cardiomyopathy are the most common cause of sudden unexplained cardiac death. However, few reports have investigated the frequency and/or spectrum of pathogenic variants in these genes in Korean sudden cardiac arrest survivors. This study aimed to investigate the causative genetic variants of cardiac-associated genes in Korean sudden cardiac arrest survivors. We performed exome sequencing followed by filtering and validation of variants in 100 genes related to channelopathy and cardiomyopathy in 19 Korean patients who survived sudden cardiac arrest...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181690/calcium-mediated-cellular-triggered-activity-in-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered cardiac arrhythmia, the basic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain incompletely understood. During the past decade or so, it has become clear that alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) handling may play a role in the pathogenesis of AF. Studies in small and large animal models, as well as atrial samples from patients with different forms of AF have implicated ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) dysfunction and enhanced spontaneous Ca(2+) release events from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) as a potential cause of proarrhythmic cellular ectopic (triggered) activity in AF...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179314/dna-methylation-in-breast-tumor-from-high-risk-women-in-the-breast-cancer-family-registry
#3
Hui-Chen Wu, Melissa C Southey, Hanina Hibshoosh, Regina M Santella, Mary Beth Terry
To examine DNA methylation profiles in breast tumors of women with a strong breast cancer family history, we measured methylation by bisulfite sequencing in 40 genes in 40 breast tumor tissues from women in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We selected candidate genes from analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA) breast data. Compared to TCGA breast cancer, BCFR cases are younger and more likely to be ER-negative. Overall, we found that many of the methylation differences between BCFR tumor and normal adjacent tissues were smaller than that in TCGA samples...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179209/administration-of-anabolic-steroid-during-adolescence-induces-long-term-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-increases-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-adult-wistar-rats
#4
Fernando de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Dahienne Ferreira de Oliveira, Diorney Luiz Souza Gran da Silva, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento, Emerson Lopes Olivares
Chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in adult rats results in cardiac hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Molecular analyses demonstrated that hyperactivation of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor mediates cardiac hypertrophy induced by AAS and also induces down-regulation of myocardial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), resulting in loss of exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exposure to AAS during adolescence promoted long-term cardiovascular dysfunctions, such as dysautonomia...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164397/four-main-active-ingredients-derived-from-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-guanxin-shutong-capsule-cause-cardioprotection-during-myocardial-ischemia-injury-calcium-overload-suppression
#5
Feng Liu, Zhuang-Zhuang Huang, Yu-Hong Sun, Ting Li, Dong-Hua Yang, Gang Xu, Ying-Ying Su, Tao Zhang
Guanxin Shutong capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI). Previous studies have shown that the formula has four main active ingredients (FMAI), protocatechuic acid, cryptotanshinone, borneol, and eugenol. However, the mechanisms of action of these FMAI against MI injury are still not well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the FMAI on MI in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated, the cell viability and apoptosis rate were, respectively, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and fluorescence activating cell sorter, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and CaM and CaMKII δ mRNA as well as protein levels were determined...
February 6, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131631/ryanodine-receptor-modification-and-regulation-by-intracellular-ca-2-and-mg-2-in-healthy-and-failing-human-hearts
#6
K Walweel, P Molenaar, M S Imtiaz, A Denniss, C Dos Remedios, D F van Helden, A F Dulhunty, D R Laver, N A Beard
RATIONALE: Heart failure is a multimodal disorder, of which disrupted Ca(2+) homeostasis is a hallmark. Central to Ca(2+) homeostasis is the major cardiac Ca(2+) release channel - the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) - whose activity is influenced by associated proteins, covalent modification and by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). That RyR2 is remodelled and its function disturbed in heart failure is well recognized, but poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation of RyR2 from left ventricles of healthy, cystic fibrosis and failing hearts, and to correlate these functional changes with RyR2 modifications and remodelling...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131630/the-effect-of-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-ryanodine-receptor-on-sr-ca-2-leak-in-ventricular-myocytes
#7
Elisa Bovo, Sabine Huke, Lothar A Blatter, Aleksey V Zima
Functional impact of cardiac ryanodine receptor (type 2 RyR or RyR2) phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) remains highly controversial. In this study, we characterized a functional link between PKA-mediated RyR2 phosphorylation level and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release and leak in permeabilized rabbit ventricular myocytes. Changes in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and intra-SR [Ca(2+)]SR were measured with Fluo-4 and Fluo-5N, respectively. Changes in RyR2 phosphorylation at two PKA sites, serine-2031 and -2809, were measured with phospho-specific antibodies...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122814/a-missense-mutation-makes-a-mess-of-ca2-sensing
#8
Caitlin Sedwick
A new JGP study shows how a disease-causing mutation in RyR2 dramatically alters channel behavior.
February 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111173/cardiac-expression-of-ryanodine-receptor-subtype-3-a-strategic-component-in-the-intracellular-ca-2-release-system-of-purkinje-fibers-in-large-mammalian-heart
#9
Rebecca E Daniels, Kazi T Haq, Lawson S Miller, Elizabeth W Chia, Masahito Miura, Vincenzo Sorrentino, John J McGuire, Bruno D Stuyvers
BACKGROUND: Three distinct Ca(2+) release channels were identified in dog P-cells: the ryanodine receptor subtype 2 (RyR2) was detected throughout the cell, while the ryanodine receptor subtype 3 (RyR3) and inositol phosphate sensitive Ca(2+) release channel (InsP3R) were found in the cell periphery. How each of these channels contributes to the Ca(2+) cycling of P-cells is unclear. Recent modeling of Ca(2+) mobilization in P-cells suggested that Ca(2+) sensitivity of Ca(2+)induced Ca(2+)release (CICR) was larger at the P-cell periphery...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105734/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-mediates-the-intracellular-signaling-pathways-of-cardiac-apoptosis-in-mice-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#10
Marilen Federico, Enrique L Portiansky, Leandro Sommese, Francisco J Alvarado, Paula G Blanco, Carolina N Zanuzzi, John Dedman, Marcia Kaetzel, Xander H T Wehrens, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
Background The impact of cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetic stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We described that myocytes from fructose-rich diet (FRD) animals exhibit arrhythmias produced by exacerbated Ca(2+) /calmodulin-protein kinase (CaMKII) activity, ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We tested the hypothesis that this mechanism also underlies cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetes. Methods and Results We generated a pre-diabetic model in mice fed with FRD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102470/neuronal-ryanodine-receptors-in-development-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Nawaf Abu-Omar, Jogita Das, Vivian Szeto, Zhong-Ping Feng
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium-release channels found on the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells. All three RyR isoforms, RyR1-3, are expressed in the brain, with RyR2 predominating. RyRs are localized within the soma, axons, dendritic spines, and presynaptic terminals of neurons. RyRs are highly expressed in the cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory region, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. During the physiological processes of development and aging, the intracellular calcium homeostasis is largely regulated by RyRs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100344/-recurrent-syncope-related-to-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-due-to-de-novo-ryr2-r2401h-mutation
#12
X Liu, J X Li, J Z Hu, Y Shen, R Wan, Q M Xiong, Q Q Zhou, J Y Xie, J J Jin, X Yan, J H Yu, K Hong
Objective: To explore the clinical and molecular genetic features of a Chinese patient with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Methods: Clinical data including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill exercise testing of a patient with CPVT admitted to our department in March 2013 were analyzed, and the peripheral venous blood samples of the patient and his family members and 400 ethnicity-matched healthy controls were obtained. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the six CPVT-related genes including RYR2, CASQ2, TRDN, CALM1, KCNJ2 and ANKB were sequenced to detect the variants related to CPVT...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096415/increased-mitochondrial-nanotunneling-activity-induced-by-calcium-imbalance-affects-intermitochondrial-matrix-exchanges
#13
Manuela Lavorato, V Ramesh Iyer, Williams Dewight, Ryan R Cupo, Valentina Debattisti, Ludovic Gomez, Sergio De la Fuente, Yan-Ting Zhao, Héctor H Valdivia, György Hajnóczky, Clara Franzini-Armstrong
Exchanges of matrix contents are essential to the maintenance of mitochondria. Cardiac mitochondrial exchange matrix content in two ways: by direct contact with neighboring mitochondria and over longer distances. The latter mode is supported by thin tubular protrusions, called nanotunnels, that contact other mitochondria at relatively long distances. Here, we report that cardiac myocytes of heterozygous mice carrying a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-linked RyR2 mutation (A4860G) show a unique and unusual mitochondrial response: a significantly increased frequency of nanotunnel extensions...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077437/sensitized-signalling-between-l-type-ca2-channels-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-the-absence-or-inhibition-of-fkbp12-6-in-cardiomyocytes
#14
Yan-Ting Zhao, Yun-Bo Guo, Lei Gu, Xue-Xin Fan, Hua-Qian Yang, Zheng Chen, Peng Zhou, Qi Yuan, Guang-Ju Ji, Shi-Qiang Wang
AIMS: The heart contraction is controlled by the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+ )release (CICR) between L-type Ca(2+ )channels and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). The FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 binds to RyR subunits, but its role in stabilizing RyR function has been debated for long. Recent reports of high-resolution RyR structure show that the HD2 domain that binds to the SPRY2 domain of neighbouring subunit in FKBP-bound RyR1 is detached and invisible in FKBP-null RyR2. The present study was to test the consequence of FKBP12...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065668/ablation-of-the-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor-phospho-site-ser2808-does-not-alter-the-adrenergic-response-or-the-progression-to-heart-failure-in-mice-elimination-of-the-genetic-background-as-critical-variable
#15
Francisco J Alvarado, Xi Chen, Héctor H Valdivia
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phospho-site S2808 has been touted by the Marks group as a hallmark of heart failure (HF) and a critical mediator of the physiological fight-or-flight response of the heart. In support of this hypothesis, mice unable to undergo phosphorylation at RyR2-S2808 (S2808A) were significantly protected against HF and displayed a blunted response to adrenergic stimulation. However, the issue remains highly controversial because several groups have been unable to reproduce these findings...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003438/bde-47-and-bde-49-inhibit-axonal-growth-in-primary-rat-hippocampal-neuron-glia-co-cultures-via-ryanodine-receptor-dependent-mechanisms
#16
Hao Chen, Karin M Streifel, Vikrant Singh, Dongren Yang, Linley Mangini, Heike Wulff, Pamela J Lein
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children and preclinical models; however, the mechanisms by which PBDEs cause developmental neurotoxicity remain speculative. The structural similarity between PBDEs and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggests shared toxicological properties. Consistent with this, both NDL PCBs and PBDEs have been shown to stabilize ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in the open configuration...
December 20, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988446/a-novel-variant-in-ryr2-causes-familiar-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#17
Cristina Bosch, Oscar Campuzano, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Sergi Cesar, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Monica Coll, Irene Mademont, Jesus Mates, Bernat Del Olmo, Anna Iglesias, Josep Brugada, Volker Petersen, Ramon Brugada
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare familial arrhythmogenic disease. It usually occurs in juvenile patients with a structurally normal heart and causes exercise-emotion triggered syncope and sudden cardiac death. The main gene associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is RyR2, encoding the cardiac ryanodine receptor protein which is involved in calcium homeostasis. After the identification of a 16 year-old man presenting with exercise-induced sudden cardiac death, clinically diagnosed as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, we collected the family information and performed a comprehensive genetic analysis using Next Generation Sequencing technology...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987400/an-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-within-3-utr-of-ryr2-modulates-sudden-unexplained-death-risk-in-chinese-populations
#18
Shouyu Wang, Zhixiang Zhang, Ya Yang, Chaoqun Wang, Ruiyang Tao, Shuxiang Hu, Zhixia Yin, Qing Zhang, Lijuan Li, Yan He, Shaohua Zhu, Chengtao Li, Suhua Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Lihui Sheng, Fangyu Wu, Bin Luo, Yuzhen Gao
Sudden unexplained death (SUD) constitutes a part of the overall sudden death that can not be underestimated. Over the last years, genetic testing on SUD has revealed that inherited channelopathies might play important roles in the pathophysiology of this disease. Ryanodine receptor type-2 (RYR2) is a kind of ion channel extensively distributed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of myocardium. Studies on RYR2 have suggested that either dysfunction or abnormal expression of it could lead to arrhythmia, which may cause cardiac arrest...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927985/the-arrhythmogenic-calmodulin-p-phe142leu-mutation-impairs-c-domain-ca2-binding-but-not-calmodulin-dependent-inhibition-of-the-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor
#19
Mads Toft Søndergaard, Yingjie Liu, Kamilla Taunsig Larsen, Alma Nani, Xixi Tian, Christian Holt, Ruiwu Wang, Reinhard Wimmer, Filip Van Petegem, Michael Fill, S R Wayne Chen, Michael Toft Overgaard
A number of point mutations in the intracellular Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) are arrhythmogenic, yet their underlying mechanisms are not clear. These mutations generally decrease Ca(2+) binding to CaM and impair inhibition of CaM-regulated Ca(2+) channels like the cardiac Ca(2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2), and it appears that attenuated CaM Ca(2+) binding correlates with impaired CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Here, we investigated the RyR2 inhibitory action of the CaM p.Phe142Leu mutation (F142L; numbered including the start-Met), which markedly reduces CaM Ca(2+) binding...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909533/patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-drug-development-and-screening-in-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#20
REVIEW
Ben Jehuda Ronen, Barad Lili
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited arrhythmia often leading to sudden cardiac death in children and young adults, is characterized by polymorphic/bidirectional ventricular tachycardia induced by adrenergic stimulation associated with emotionally stress or physical exercise. There are two forms of CPVT: 1. CPVT1 is caused by mutations in the RYR2 gene, encoding for ryanodine receptor type 2. CPVT1 is the most common form of CPVT in the population, and is inherited by a dominant mechanism...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
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