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Shelby Meier, Assaf A Gilad, J Anthony Brandon, Chenghao Qian, Erhe Gao, Jose F Abisambra, Moriel Vandsburger
Research into gene therapy for heart failure has gained renewed interest as a result of improved safety and availability of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV). While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is standard for functional assessment of gene therapy outcomes, quantitation of gene transfer/expression relies upon tissue biopsy, fluorescence or nuclear imaging. Imaging of gene expression through the use of genetically encoded chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI reporter genes could be combined with clinical cardiac MRI methods to comprehensively probe therapeutic gene expression and subsequent outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Selene Napsucialy-Mendivil, Joseph G Dubrovsky
Root system formation to a great extent depends on lateral root (LR) formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LRs are initiated within a parent root in pericycle that is an external tissue of the stele. LR initiation takes place in a strictly acropetal pattern, whereas posterior lateral root primordium (LRP) formation is asynchronous. In this chapter, we focus on methods of genetic and phenotypic analysis of LR initiation, LRP morphogenesis, and LR emergence in Arabidopsis. We provide details on how to make cleared root preparations and how to identify the LRP stages...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Annas Al-Sharea, Andrew J Murphy, L A Huggins, Y Hu, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leukocytosis, particularly monocytosis, has been shown to promote atherosclerosis in both diabetic and non-diabetic mouse models. We previously showed that hyperglycemia independently promotes monocytosis and impairs the resolution of atherosclerosis. Since patients with chronic diabetes often develop dyslipidemia and also have increased risk for atherosclerosis, we sought to examine how controlling blood glucose affects atherosclerosis development in the presence of severe hyperlipidemia...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Nabil Bensabeh, Joan Carlos Ronda, Marina Galia, Virginia Cadiz, Gerard Lligadas, Virgil Percec
Cu(0) wire-catalyzed single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) of (-)-menthyl acrylate, a biobased hydrophobic monomer, was investigated at 25 ºC in ethanol, iso-propanol, ethyl lactate, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol (TFP). All solvents are known to promote, in the presence of N-ligands, the mechanistically required self-regulated disproportionation of Cu(I)Br into Cu(0) and Cu(II)Br2 . Both fluorinated alcohols brought out their characteristics of universal SET-LRP solvents and showed the proper polarity balance to mediate an efficient polymerization of this bulky and hydrophobic monomer...
March 7, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Samuel L Sidharta, Timothy J Baillie, Stuart Howell, Stephen J Nicholls, Natalie Montarello, Satoshi Honda, Daisuke Shishikura, Sinny Delacroix, Susan Kim, John F Beltrame, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen G Worthley, Matthew I Worthley
OBJECTIVE: Coronary vasodilator function and atherosclerotic plaque progression have both been shown to be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between these factors and the lipid burden of coronary plaque remains unknown. These experiments focus on investigating the relationship between impaired coronary vasodilator function (endothelium dependent (salbutamol) and endothelium independent (glyceryl trinitrate)) and the natural history of atheroma plaque progression and lipid burden using dual modality intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging...
March 1, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Leonor Castro, Salvador Soto-Faraco, Luis Morís Fernández, Manuela Ruzzoli
In everyday life we often must coordinate information across spatial locations and different senses for action. It is well known, for example, that reactions are faster when an imperative stimulus and its required response are congruent than when they are not, even if stimulus location itself is completely irrelevant for the task (the so-called Simon effect). However, because these effects have been frequently investigated in single modality scenarios, the consequences of spatial congruence when more than one sensory modality is at play are less well known...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
William M Armstead, Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Serge Yarovoi, Abd Al-Roof Higazi, Douglas B Cines
The sole FDA-approved drug treatment for ischemic stroke is tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, upregulation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and endothelin 1 (ET-1) by tPA after stroke contributes to impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation. Wild-type (wt) tPA can bind to the lipoprotein-related receptor (LRP), which mediates vasodilation, or NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs), exacerbating vasoconstriction. Elevations in IL-6, a marker of inflammation that accompanies stroke, are reported to be an adverse prognostic factor...
February 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
No consensus has been attained regarding the utility of open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa). We carried out a network meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis comparing RRP, LRP and RALRP on peri-operative and functional outcome measures. Electronic databases were searched for either randomized clinical trials or cohort studies comparing RALRP either with LRP or RRP in patients with localized PCa...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Lorenzo Giuseppe Luciani, Daniele Mattevi, William Mantovani, Tommaso Cai, Stefano Chiodini, Valentino Vattovani, Marco Puglisi, Daniele Tiscione, Umberto Anceschi, Gianni Malossini
Background: To compare the surgical outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) performed via 3 different approaches: retropubic (RRP), laparoscopic-assisted (LRP), and robot-assisted (RARP), in a single non-academic regional center by a single surgeon. Materials and Methods: The data of patients undergoing RP from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. The standard approach changed through the years: RRP (n = 380, years 2005 to 2008), LRP (n = 240, years 2009 to 2011), and RARP (n = 262, years 2012 to 2014)...
November 2017: Current Urology
Tomoya Kitakaze, Meiku Oshimo, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Mizuyuki Ryu, Yasushi A Suzuki, Hiroshi Inui, Naoki Harada, Ryoichi Yamaji
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which promotes the proliferation of murine C2C12 myoblasts. In the present study, it was investigated how Lf promotes myoblast proliferation and whether Lf promotes myoblast differentiation or induces myotube hypertrophy. Lf promoted the proliferation of myoblasts in a dose‑dependent manner. Myoblast proliferation increased on day 3 when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for three days and also when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for the first day and in the absence of Lf for the subsequent two days...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wenfei Cai, Ting Hu, Amr M Bakry, Zhaomin Zheng, Yidong Xiao, Qilin Huang
The differences between ultrasonic and non-ultrasonic approaches in synthesizing Lignosus rhinocerotis polysaccharide-selenium nanoparticles (LRP-SeNPs) were compared in terms of size, morphology, stability and antioxidant activity by UV-VIS, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) with high resolution TEM. Results indicated that the SeNPs were associated with the LRP macromolecules in a physical adsorption pattern without breaking chemical bonds, and the ultrasonic treatment reduced the size of SeNPs, narrowed the size distribution as well as improved the stability...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Dunxin Han, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Jifeng Feng, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Li Cao, Cheng He
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of central nervous system (CNS) trauma with limited therapeutic treatments. The polarization of microglia into the M1 or M2 state has been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of SCI, although the complete repertoire of underlying factors has not been identified. Interestingly, the time point at which hematomyelia (intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage) is alleviated coincides with a decrease in the number of M2 microglia. Here the function of Hemopexin (Hpx), a hematogenous glycoprotein, was examined in the crush model of SCI...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Li Wang, Rui-Zhi Tan, Zhi-Xia Zhang, Rui Yin, Yong-Liang Zhang, Wei-Jia Cui, Tao He
Multidrug resistance (MDR) severely limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Previous studies have identified Twist as a key factor of acquired MDR in breast, gastric and prostate cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of action of Twist in MDR remain unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of MDR-associated proteins, including lung resistance-related protein (LRP), topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα), MDR-associated protein (MRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and the expression of Twist in cancerous tissues and pericancerous tissues of human breast cancer, were examined...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Wei-Xing Jiang, Zhi-En Zhou, Wei-Gang Yan, Jie Pan, Zhi-Gang Ji
RATIONALE: Postoperative hemorrhage is a rare complication after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), with no case reports of bleeding from the external iliac artery in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old man diagnosed with clinical stage 2c prostate cancer underwent LRP successfully with only approximately 200 mL of intraoperative blood loss. However, his blood pressure dropped from 135/74 to 80/49 mm Hg and his hemoglobin decreased by 66 g/L compared with the preoperative level within 5 hours...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sinan Khadhouri, Catherine Miller, Sarah Fowler, Luke Hounsome, Alan McNeill, Jim Adshead, John S McGrath
OBJECTIVES: To describe contemporary radical prostatectomy (RP) practice using the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) data and audit project and to observe differences in practice in relation to surgeon or centre case volume. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on 13,920 Radical Prostatectomy (RP) procedures performed by 178 surgeons across 86 centres were recorded on the BAUS data and audit platform between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2015. This equates to approximately 95% of total RPs performed over this period when compared to HES (Hospital Episode Statistics) data...
February 1, 2018: BJU International
Donghui Zhu, Yingchao Su, Bingmei Fu, Huaxi Xu
Poor Mg status is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provided the first evidence that elevated Mg levels significantly reduced the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulated its function in vitro. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) and magnesium transporter subtype 1 (MagT1) were two major cellular receptors mediating entry of extracellular Mg2+ into the cells. Elevated Mg levels also induced an accelerated clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from the brain to the blood side via BBB transcytosis through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), while reduced the influx of Aβ from the blood to the brain side involving receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and caveolae...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Xue-Mei Qi, Cheng Wang, Xing-Kun Chu, Gen Li, Jian-Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with Aβ aggregation, toxicity and transport through blood-brain barrier, may play a key role in the development of AD. Recently, clusterin peptide D-[113-122] was shown to mimic clusterin's function and exerted therapeutic effect in atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether this clusterin peptide also affected (Aβ) deposition in AD transgenic mouse...
January 25, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Rie Oyama, Kimihiko Masui, Kodai Hattahara, Akihiro Hamada, Yasumasa Shichiri
We investigated the surgical outcome for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) withinitial 70 prostate cancer cases performed by a single surgeon between June 2014 and May 2016. The surgeon had a previous experience of more than 400 cases of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Comparative study of the surgical outcome was made between the first 35 patients (group 1) and the second 35 patients (group 2). The console time without lymph node dissection significantly decreased from group 1 to 2 (193 min vs 158 min, p=0...
December 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Ying Zhou, Zhou-Fan Wang, Wei Li, Hui Hong, Juan Chen, Yi Tian, Zhao-Yun Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the effect of miR-330 targeting VAV1 on amyloid β-protein (Aβ) production, oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice through the MAPK signaling pathway. METHODS: Putative targeted gene of miR-330 was performed by a miRNA target prediction website and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. AD mouse model was successfully established. Fourteen C57 mice were randomized into AD and control groups...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Abbas Basiri, Jean Jmch de la Rosette, Shahin Tabatabaei, Henry H Woo, M Pilar Laguna, Hamidreza Shemshaki
PURPOSE: This study is a systematic analysis of the evidence regarding oncological, perioperative and postoperative outcomes and the cost of open retropubic radical prostatectomy (ORP), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). METHODS: Summary data was abstracted from 104 original research articles representing 227,400 patients. PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were reviewed in December 2016...
January 23, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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