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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339465/comparative-accuracy-of-the-reba-mtb-mdr-and-hain-mtbdrplus-line-probe-assays-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-multicenter-non-inferiority-study
#1
Joshua Havumaki, Doris Hillemann, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Sophia B Georghiou, Samuel G Schumacher, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent diagnostic advances, the majority of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases remain undiagnosed. Line probes assays (LiPAs) hold great promise to curb the spread of MDR-TB as they can rapidly detect MDR-TB even when laboratory infrastructure is limited, yet few of these assays are currently widely available or supported by World Health Organization (WHO) policy. METHODS: The aim of this prospective, blinded, non-inferiority study was to compare the performance of YD Diagnostics REBA MTB MDR LiPA (YD) to the WHO-endorsed Hain MTBDRplus V1 LiPA (Hain V1) for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336091/altered-cellular-metabolism-of-hepg2-cells-caused-by-microcystin-lr
#2
Junguo Ma, Yiyi Feng, Siyu Jiang, Xiaoyu Li
This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure on the metabolism and drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. For this purpose, we first conducted an experiment to make sure that MC-LR could penetrate the HepG2 cell membrane effectively. The transcriptional levels of phase I (such as CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP26B1) and phase II (such as EPHX1, SULTs, and GSTM) enzymes and export pump genes (such as MRP1 and MDR1) were altered by MC-LR-exposure for 24 h, indicating that MC-LR treatment may destabilize the metabolism of HepG2 cells...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335544/combination-effect-of-antituberculosis-drugs-and-ethanolic-extract-of-selected-medicinal-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#3
Prabasiwi Nur Fauziyah, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dhyan Kusuma Ayuningtyas
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334925/simultaneous-lc-ms-ms-determination-of-lopinavir-and-rifabutin-in-human-plasma
#4
Swati Jaiswal, Abhisheak Sharma, Mahendra Shukla, Jawahar Lal
Tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome represents the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Anti-TB drugs are used concurrently with antiretroviral drug for treatment of TB-HIV co-morbidities. Due to lower risk of interaction with protease inhibitors, rifabutin is preferred over rifampicin in treatment of HIV and TB co-morbidity. A simple and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of rifabutin (RBT) and lopinavir (LPV) simultaneously in human plasma...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333978/association-between-genotype-and-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-circulating-in-china-in-a-national-drug-resistance-survey
#5
Yang Zhou, Susan van den Hof, Shengfen Wang, Yu Pang, Bing Zhao, Hui Xia, Richard Anthony, Xichao Ou, Qiang Li, Yang Zheng, Yuanyuan Song, Yanlin Zhao, Dick van Soolingen
We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes, of which 92% belonged to the East Asian (mainly Beijing strains) or the Euro-American lineage. The epidemic Beijing strains in China are closely related to the Beijing B0/W148 strain earlier described in Russia and a large cluster of these strains has spread national wide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333342/activity-of-faropenem-with-and-without-rifampicin-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-evaluation-in-a-whole-blood-bactericidal-activity-trial
#6
Meera Gurumurthy, Rupangi Verma, Claire M Naftalin, Kim Hor Hee, Qingshu Lu, Kin Hup Tan, Simi Issac, Wenwei Lin, Angelia Tan, Kok-Yong Seng, Lawrence Soon-U Lee, Nicholas I Paton
Background: Faropenem has in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and shows synergy with rifampicin. We tested this in a whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBA) trial. Methods: We randomized healthy volunteers to receive a single oral dose of faropenem (600 mg) with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (500/125 mg) ( n  =   8), rifampicin (10 mg/kg) ( n  =   14) or the combination rifampicin + faropenem + amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ( n  =   14)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333116/effect-of-vernonia-amygdalina-del-leaf-ethanolic-extract-on-intoxicated-male-wistar-rats-liver
#7
Maria Immaculata Iwo, Sergia Louisa Sjahlim, Siti Farah Rahmawati
Vernonia amygdalina has been shown to have antioxidant activity, and is also expected to have hepatoprotective activity. This study was conducted to study the effect of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts on intoxicated rat livers. Fresh leaves were extracted in ethanol, and the hepatoprotective activity was tested on male Wistar rats induced with a combination of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin. Parameters observed were the activity of the enzyme alanine transferase (ALT), serum albumin levels, liver index, and histopathological of the rat liver...
March 23, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331797/paradoxical-response-with-increased-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-levels-to-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-patient-with-disseminated-tuberculosis
#8
Sho Watanabe, Yugo Kaneko, Hironori Kawamoto, Tomoki Maehara, Yuri Baba, Ikumi Fujisaki, Nayuta Saito, Kai Ryu, Aya Seki, Tsugumi Horikiri, Akira Kinoshita, Hiroshi Takeda, Keisuke Saito, Kazuyosi Kuwano
It has been reported that tuberculosis (TB) worsens after cessation of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and starting anti-TB treatment. Little is known about the immunological pathogenesis of this paradoxical response (PR). We report the first case of a TB patient in whom PR occurred concurrently with elevation of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. A 75-year-old woman, who had been treated with adalimumab for SAPHO syndrome, developed disseminated TB. Soon after administration of anti-TB treatment (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol), and after discontinuation of adalimumab, a PR occurred...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331348/molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-jigjiga-town-ethiopia
#9
Mussie Brhane, Ameha Kebede, Yohannes Petros
BACKGROUND: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#10
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330890/direct-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-sputum-samples-from-tuberculosis-patients-by-high-resolution-melt-curve-analysis
#11
Divya Anthwal, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Manpreet Bhalla, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi, Sagarika Haldar
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat for TB control worldwide. Globally, only 40% of the 340,000 notified TB patients estimated to have multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) were detected in 2015. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of High Resolution Melt curve analysis (HRM) for the rapid and direct detection of MDR-TB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in sputum samples. A reference plasmid library was first generated of the most frequently observed mutations in the resistance determining regions of rpoB, katG and inhA promoter and used as positive controls in HRM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#12
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329820/hepatocellular-toxicity-of-imidazole-and-triazole-antimycotic-agents
#13
Patrizia Haegler, Lorenz Joerin, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Hepatotoxicity has been described for all antimycotic azoles currently marketed. A possible mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated for ketoconazole, but not for the other azoles. The aim of the current investigations was to study the toxicity of different azoles in human cell models and to find out mechanisms of their toxicity. In HepG2 cells, posaconazole and ketoconazole were cytotoxic starting at 20 and 50 µM and decreased the cellular ATP content starting at 5 and 10 µM, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327117/preliminary-evaluation-of-anti-tuberculosis-potential-of-siderophores-against-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-mycobacteria-growth-indicator-tube-drug-sensitivity-test
#14
Karuna Gokarn, Ramprasad B Pal
BACKGROUND: Alternative treatment strategies have become essential in overcoming the problem of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In this preliminary in vitro study, the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) activity of exogenous iron chelators (xenosiderophores) such as Exochelin-MS (Exo-MS) and Deferoxamine-B (DFO-B) was evaluated against ten multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and seven pyrazinamide-resistant (PZA (R) ) Mtb isolates. METHODS: Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube-Drug Susceptibility Test was used to assess the anti-TB effect of Exo-MS or DFO-B individually and their combinations with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PZA)...
March 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326447/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-and-linezolid-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolated-from-prosthetic-joint-infections
#15
C Littorin, B Hellmark, Å Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, B Söderquist
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare but long-lasting and are serious complications without any spontaneous resolution, requiring additional surgery and long-term treatment with antibiotics. Staphylococci are the most important aetiological agents of PJIs, and among the coagulase-negative staphylococci Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common. However, S. epidermidis often displays multidrug resistance (MDR), demanding additional treatment options. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of tedizolid and linezolid against S...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323406/affinity-selection-mass-spectrometry-identifies-a-novel-antibacterial-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#16
Scott S Walker, David Degen, Elliott Nickbarg, Donna Carr, Aileen Soriano, Mihir Baran Mandal, Ronald E Painter, Payal R Sheth, Li Xiao, Xinwei Sher, Nicholas Murgolo, Jing Su, David B Olsen, Richard H Ebright, Katherine Young
The growing prevalence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a significant global threat to human health. Rifampicin, an RNA polymerase-targeting agent, is an important part of the antibacterial armamentarium; however the emergence of resistance requires that it be used against only certain infections and usually in combination with another antibiotic. While rifampicin has significant clinical limitations, it does show that bacterial RNA polymerase can be an effective target for antibacterial intervention...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320880/rna-mediated-cis-regulation-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-modulates-stress-induced-phenotypic-variation
#17
Carly Ching, Kevin Gozzi, Björn Heinemann, Yunrong Chai, Veronica G Godoy
In the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, RecA-dependent mutagenesis, which causes antibiotic resistance acquisition, is linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). Notably, unlike the Escherichia coli paradigm, recA and DDR gene expression in A. baumannii are bimodal. Namely, there is phenotypic variation upon DNA damage, which may provide a bet-hedging strategy for survival. Thus, understanding recA gene regulation is key to elucidate the yet unknown DDR regulation in A. baumannii Here, we identify a structured 5' Untranslated Region (5' UTR) in the recA transcript which serves as a cis-regulatory element...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320336/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-ethiopian-settings-and-its-association-with-previous-history-of-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Previous studies have documented variable prevalences of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and its risk factors in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis is aimed, firstly, to determine the pooled prevalence of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed and previously treated TB cases, and secondly, to measure the association between MDR-TB and a history of previous anti-TB drugs treatment...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318196/-paradoxical-reaction-to-antituberculosis-treatment-in-an-immunocompetent-girl-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, Claudia Orden Rueda, Laura Ochoa Gómez, Nuria Clavero Montañés, Enrique Berdún Chéliz, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Paradoxical reaction to antituberculosis treatment is rare in paediatric population. We report a 9-year-old girl with high fever and productive cough for the last three weeks. Tuberculine test and Quantiferon were positive, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 64 mm/h, culture and polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis negative, and chest X ray showed a widened right mediastinum. Tuberculosis was diagnosed, therefore treatment with standard doses of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol was started...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317814/the-medicinal-plants-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis-laboratory-study-on-medicinal-plants-from-the-northern-area-of-pakistan
#20
Sami Ullah, Shah Hussain, Sadiq Noor Khan, Mohammad Khurram, Iqbal Khan, Murad Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of deaths due to infectious diseases. Although global efforts have been made to control TB, still, this is a serious threat as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) produced resistance against both the first- and second-line drugs. The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant, extremely drug resistant, and totally drug-resistant TB worldwide requires extra efforts to search for new anti-TB drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated the antimycobacterial activities of Citrullus colocynthis, Calotropis procera, Ricinus communis, Capparis decidua, and Fagonia cretica plants' extracts against rifampicin-sensitive (H37Rv) and rifampicin-resistant (TMC331) strains of MTB...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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