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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934834/pulmonary-mycobacterium-kansasii-disease-in-immunocompetent-host-treatment-outcomes-with-short-course-chemotherapy
#1
C Padmapriyadarsini, D Nair, N S Gomathi, B Velayudham
Mycobacterium kansasii, most virulent of all atypical mycobacteria, causes pulmonary disease identical to the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Early identification of the species and prompt initiation of treatment for M. kansasii is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality due to this disease. This case series highlights the similarity in the clinical presentation of both M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii and response to direct observation of short-course chemotherapy with rifampicin, in the management of pulmonary M...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934830/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-causing-blood-stream-infection-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterisation
#2
S Singh, B Dhawan, A Kapil, S K Kabra, A Suri, V Sreenivas, B K Das
INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. METHODS: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934638/comparative-evaluation-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-dheas-potential-to-predict-hepatic-oatp-transporter-based-drug-drug-interactions
#3
Kei Nishizawa, Takeo Nakanishi, Ikumi Tamai
Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) on hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are important clinical issues. Previously we reported that plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) could serve as an endogenous probe to predict OATP-based DDIs in monkeys using rifampicin as an OATP inhibitor. However, since the contribution of hepatic OATPs to the changes of plasma DHEAS by rifampicin remains unclear, here, we evaluated by an in vivo pharmacokinetic study. Since plasma DHEAS concentrations were unexpectedly low in our rat model, disposition of externally administered DHEAS was evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933861/detection-of-drug-responsive-t-lymphocytes-in-a-case-of-fatal-antituberculosis-drug-related-liver-injury
#4
Toru Usui, Paul Whitaker, Xiaoli Meng, John Watson, Daniel J Antoine, Neil S French, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
Antituberculosis (TB) drug exposure is associated with a mild elevation of liver enzymes that occasionally develops into severe liver injury. Herein, we identify ethambutol- and rifampicin-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clones in a patient with fatal anti TB-related liver injury. The clones were activated to proliferate and secrete IFN-γ, Il-13, and granzyme B following drug treatment. Drug-responsive T-cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of antituberculosis-related liver failure.
November 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931691/risk-assessment-of-hepatotoxicity-among-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-coinfected-patients-under-tuberculosis-treatment
#5
Williams Ngouleun, Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya, Anatole Constant Pieme, Phelix Bruno Telefo
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem. It is a contagious and grave disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampicin used for the treatment of tuberculosis are potentially hepatotoxic and can lead to drug hepatitis. In order to improve the follow-up of TB patients in Cameroon, we carried out a study which aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk factors associated with anti-TB drugs. METHODS: The studies were performed on 75 participants who had visited the Loum District Hospital located in the littoral region of Cameroon for their routine consultation...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931690/evaluation-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-central-ethiopia
#6
Zufan Bedewi Omer, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Adane Worku, Aboma Zewde, Girmay Medhin, Temesgen Mohammed, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is growing globally and becoming a major challenge for national TB control programs. Therefore, rapid identification of MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and monitoring their transmission could contribute significantly to the control of TB. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay has been recommended by the World Health Organization to identify rifampicin (RIF)- and isoniazid (INH)-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for the detection of RIF- and INH-resistant M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931689/rapid-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-to-first-line-antitubercular-drugs-by-nitrate-reductase-assay-a-comparison-with-proportion-method
#7
Amrish Kohli, Gulnaz Bashir, Akeela Fatima, Abiroo Jan, Nayeem-U-Din Wani, Junaid Ahmad
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Early initiation of therapy in patients with tuberculosis is imperative for its control. Conventional methods of susceptibility testing such as the proportion method (PM) require visual detection and counting of colonies that takes up to 6weeks. Rapid and simple phenotypic methods that have been endorsed by the World Health Organization can serve as alternatives. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the colorimetric nitrate reductase assay, which utilizes the detection of nitrate reduction as an indicator of growth much earlier compared with PM (within 7-14days)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931345/factors-associated-with-sputum-culture-conversion-in-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
B Velayutham, D Nair, T Kannan, C Padmapriyadarsini, K S Sachdeva, J Bency, J S Klinton, S Haldar, A Khanna, S Jayasankar, S Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Sputum culture conversion in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is important to make treatment-related decisions and prevent transmission of disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with sputum culture conversion, and to determine time to culture conversion and the impact of culture conversion on successful treatment outcomes in MDR-/rifampicin (RMP) resistant TB. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of data from treatment cards and registers of MDR-/RMP-resistant patients initiated on treatment under India's Revised National TB Control Programme in Delhi, West Bengal and Kerala from January 2009 to December 2011...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931337/drug-related-hepatitis-in-patients-treated-with-standard-anti-tuberculosis-chemotherapy-over-a-30-year-period
#9
R J Bright-Thomas, A R Gondker, J Morris, L P Ormerod
SETTING: Drug-induced hepatitis is known to occur in a proportion of patients on treatment for active tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: We prospectively examined the incidence of drug-induced hepatitis in 2070 patients treated for TB with the standard regimen based on 6 months of rifampicin (R, RMP) and isoniazid (H, INH), with 2 months of initial pyrazinamide (Z, PZA) and ethambutol (E, EMB), over a 30-year period from 1981 to 2010, in Blackburn, UK. RESULTS: Of the 1031 (49...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928111/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-treated-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-undergoing-gastrectomy
#10
In Young Jung, Moo Hyun Kim, Woo Yong Jeong, Mi Young Ahn, Yong Duk Jeon, Hea Won Ahn, Jin Young Ahn, Je Eun Song, Dong Hyun Oh, Yong Chan Kim, Eun Jin Kim, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi
Gastrectomy is a proxy of malnutrition, which may lead to increased risk for developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Malabsorption in gastrectomy patients could lead to low serum levels of rifampicin, which may be related to higher treatment failure. However, there is limited information on treatment outcomes of TB in patients who have undergone gastrectomy. This study aims to determine treatment outcomes and adverse effects in patients treated for TB after undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer. During the study period, 112 patients were treated for active TB that developed after gastrectomy for gastric cancer...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928076/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-resistant-to-isoniazid-and-or-rifampicin-standardization-of-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-analysis
#11
Jimena Collantes, Francesca Barletta Solari, Leen Rigouts
Drug susceptibility testing using molecular techniques can enhance the identification of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Two multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect the most common resistance-associated mutations to isoniazid (katGS315T, inhA-15C → T), and rifampicin (rpoBH526Y and rpoBS531L). To assess the species specificity of the qPCR, we selected 31 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reference strains belonging to 17 species from the public collection of mycobacterial cultures (BCCM/ITM)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920774/effects-of-tween-80-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-laboratory-media
#12
Christina K Nielsen, Jørgen Kjems, Tina Mygind, Torben Snabe, Rikke L Meyer
Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919693/performance-evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-a-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-compared-with-taqman-mtb-and-trcrapid-m-tb
#13
Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Hideaki Nagai, Kenji Ogawa, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Kozo Morimoto, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that can detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in clinical specimens as well as rifampicin (RIF) resistance resulting from rpoB mutation. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) with or without RIF resistance, the clinical performance of the test is variable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in a setting of moderate TB burden and high medical resources...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919643/transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-shanghai-china-a-retrospective-observational-study-using-whole-genome-sequencing-and-epidemiological-investigation
#14
Chongguang Yang, Tao Luo, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Mingyu Gan, Peng Xu, Zheyuan Wu, Senlin Lin, Jiyun Tian, Qingyun Liu, ZhengAn Yuan, Jian Mei, Kathryn DeRiemer, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistance is a substantial threat to global elimination of tuberculosis. Understanding transmission patterns is crucial for control of the disease. We used a genomic and epidemiological approach to assess recent transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and identify potential risk factors for transmission. METHODS: We did a population-based, retrospective study of patients who tested positive for tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2012, in Shanghai, China...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918128/mulberroside-a-suppresses-pxr-mediated-transactivation-and-gene-expression-of-p-gp-in-ls174t-cells
#15
Yuhua Li, Ling Huang, Jiahong Sun, Xiaohua Wei, Jinhua Wen, Guoping Zhong, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Mulberroside A (Mul A) is the main bioactive constituents of Sangbaipi, which is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been recognized as the critical mediator of human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene transactivation. In this study, the effect of Mul A on PXR-mediated transactivation and gene expression of P-gp was investigated. It was found that Mul A significantly suppressed PXR-mediated P-gp luciferase activity induced by rifampicin (Rif). Furthermore, Rif induced an elevation of P-gp expression and transport activity, which was apparently suppressed by Mul A...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917125/comparison-of-liver-cell-models-using-the-basel-phenotyping-cocktail
#16
Benjamin Berger, Massimiliano Donzelli, Swarna Maseneni, Franziska Boess, Adrian Roth, Stephan Krähenbühl, Manuel Haschke
Currently used hepatocyte cell systems for in vitro assessment of drug metabolism include hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocyte (PHH) cultures. We investigated the suitability of the validated in vivo Basel phenotyping cocktail (caffeine [CYP1A2], efavirenz [CYP2B6], losartan [CYP2C9], omeprazole [CYP2C19], metoprolol [CYP2D6], midazolam [CYP3A4]) in vitro and characterized four hepatocyte cell systems (HepG2 cells, HepaRG cells, and primary cryopreserved human hepatocytes in 2-dimensional [2D] culture or in 3D-spheroid co-culture) regarding basal metabolism and CYP inducibility...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916487/evaluation-of-hepatoprotective-potential-of-erythrina-indica-leaves-against-antitubercular-drugs-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-experimental-rats
#17
Mohd Mujahid, Talib Hussain, Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui, Arshad Hussain
BACKGROUND: Erythrina indica Lam. traditionally used in the treatment of laxative, diuretic, worm infestation, liver ailment and joints pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antihepatotoxic potential of Erythrina indica against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Liver toxicity was induced by antitubercular drugs (INH+ RIF) at dose level of 50 mg/kg each, p.o for 28 days. 50% methanolic extract of Erythrina indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 28 days...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914801/new-bithiazolyl-hydrazones-novel-synthesis-characterization-and-antitubercular-evaluation
#18
Mahendra B Bhalerao, Sambhaji T Dhumal, Amarsinh R Deshmukh, Laxman U Nawale, Vijay Khedkar, Dhiman Sarkar, Ramrao A Mane
New bithiazolyl hydrazones (6a-l) have been first time synthesized by carrying novel one pot cyclocondensation of 5-acyl thiazoles (1a-b), thiosemicarbazide (2) and substituted phenacyl chlorides (4a-f) in freshly prepared ionic liquid, diisopropyl ethyl ammonium acetate (DIPEAc) at room temperature. The newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their antitubercular activity and the compounds 3b, 6a, 6b, 6d, 6e, 6f, 6g, and 6l have displayed noticeable antitubercular activity compared to Rifampicin with tolerable cytotoxicity...
November 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#19
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913043/evaluation-of-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-on-extrapulmonary-and-respiratory-samples-other-than%C3%A2-sputum-a-low-burden-country-experience
#20
Sushil Pandey, Jacob Congdon, Bradley McInnes, Alina Pop, Christopher Coulter
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on extrapulmonary (EP) and respiratory (non-sputum) clinical samples of patients suspected of having tuberculosis (TB) from Queensland, Australia. A total of 269 EP and respiratory (non-sputum) clinical samples collected from Qld patients who were suspected of having TB were subjected to the GeneXpert MTB/RIF analysis, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture and drug susceptibility testing. Phenotypic and genotypic data were compared...
November 29, 2016: Pathology
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