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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936998/venous-thromboembolism-due-to-hyperhomocysteinaemia-and-tuberculosis
#1
Ankush Chaudhary, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi
An 18-year-old male presented to our hospital with complaints of episodic abdominal pain, dry cough and right pleuritic chest pain. He was diagnosed as a case of right tuberculous pleural effusion on the basis of the pleural fluid Genexpert report of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected sensitive to rifampicin and was started on antituberculous therapy. Forty-five days later, he presented with acute onset breathlessness, swelling of the right leg, streaky haemoptysis and a fresh left-sided pleural effusion. Evaluation revealed venous thromboembolism (right lower lobar segment pulmonary embolism with right leg deep vein thrombosis)...
May 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935258/rifampicin-lipid-polymer-hybrid-nanoparticles-lipomer-for-enhanced-peyer-s-patch-uptake
#2
Sagar S Bachhav, Vikas D Dighe, Darsheen Kotak, Padma V Devarajan
The oral uptake of intact nanocarriers through Peyer's patches is an important uptake pathway. We report Rifampicin Lipid-Polymer hybrid nanoparticles (RIF-LIPOMER) using glyceryl monostearate as lipid and the mucoadhesive polymer, Gantrez, with the objective of balancing hydrophobicity and mucoadhesion for enhanced Peyer's patch uptake. RIF-LIPOMER was optimized for size, hydrophobicity, and mucoadhesion using Box-Behnken. Design RIF-LIPOMER (RIF-LIPO-120) exhibited average particle size in the range 300-400nm with drug loading >12%...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934422/low-frequency-of-acquired-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-rifampicin-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-setting-of-high-hiv-1-infection-and-tuberculosis-coprevalence
#3
Neesha Rockwood, Frederick Sirgel, Elizabeth Streicher, Robin Warren, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
Background: We estimated the incidence of acquired isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis in a setting of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and tuberculosis coprevalence. Methods: GeneXpert MTB/RIF-confirmed patients with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis were recruited at antituberculosis treatment initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Liquid culture and adherence assessment were performed at 2 and 5-6 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931561/genetic-mimetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-verification-standards-for-molecular-diagnostics
#4
Edith Erika Machowski, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Molecular diagnostics have revolutionized the management of health care through enhanced detection of disease or infection and effective engagement into care. In recognition of this, the World Health Organization approved the rollout out of nucleic acid amplification technologies for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using platforms such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay and more recently, GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra. These assays can simultaneously detect tuberculosis infection and assess rifampicin resistance...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929965/-a-negleted-bacteria-with-a-case-bartonella-henselae
#5
Kamuran Türker, Bekir Çelebi, Şeyda Andaç, Pınar Bulut, Şenay Yalçın, Saniye Dolhan
Bartonella henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), is a gram-negative, coccobacillus, facultative intracellular bacterium CSD usually presents as a clinical form of benign local lymphadenopathy (LAP) but sometimes it may progress to severe life threatening complications. Despite the fact that CSD is known to be a common disease, which is one of the important causes of local LAPs in the world, there are few publications in our country. For the diagnosis, the clinician should suspect for CSD and has to ask to the patient whether there is a story of cat scratch or not...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929962/-determination-of-in-vitro-susceptibilities-of-brucella-spp-strains-against-11-different-antibacterial-gents-isolated-from-blood-cultures
#6
Recep Keşli, Hüseyin Bilgin, Halim Yılmaz
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still continuous to be a major public health problem. In this study, it was aimed to identify the Brucella strains to the species level isolated from blood cultures, and to determine the rate of antimicrobial susceptibility against eleven antibacterial agents. A total of 106 Brucella spp. strains were included in the study, which were isolated from blood cultures in University of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between January 2011 and June 2013...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924925/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-alone-and-combined-with-other-antibiotics-against-clinical-enterococcal-isolates
#7
Mahtab Beitdaghar, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance has led to research on finding new antimicrobial agents or identifying drug combinations with synergistic effects. Enterococcal infections, particularly those associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs), are therapeutic problems. Linezolid (LZD), an oxazolidinone antibiotic, shows good activity against Gram-positive bacteria including enterococci. To avoid the emergence of linezolid-resistant subpopulations and achieve enhanced activity or bactericidal effect, the use of combined therapy has been considered...
September 18, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924162/insights-into-the-functionality-of-endophytic-actinobacteria-with-a-focus-on-their-biosynthetic-potential-and-secondary-metabolites-production
#8
Ajit Kumar Passari, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Garima Singh, Pratibha Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Rupak Kumar Sharma, Ratul Saikia, Anthonia O' Donovan, Bhim Pratap Singh
Endophytic actinobacteria play an important role in growth promotion and development of host plant by producing enormous quantities of novel bioactive natural products. In the present investigation, 169 endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from endospheric tissues of Rhynchotoechum ellipticum. Based on their antimicrobial potential, 81 strains were identified by 16rRNA gene analysis, which were taxonomically grouped into 15 genera. All identified strains were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes and, for the presence of modular polyketide synthases (PKSI, PKSII and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters to correlate the biosynthetic genes with their functional properties...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919549/the-predominance-of-ethiopian-specific-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-families-and-minimal-contribution-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#9
Mulualem Tadesse, Gemeda Abebe, Alemayehu Bekele, Mesele Bezabih, Pim de Rijk, Conor J Meehan, Bouke C de Jong, Leen Rigouts
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has an extremely high rate of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, dominated by tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN). However, little is known about Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) lineages responsible for TBLN in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 304 MTBc isolates from TBLN patients in Southwest Ethiopia were genotyped primarily by spoligotyping. Isolates of selected spoligotypes were further analyzed by 15-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) (n=167) and qPCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism (n=38)...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918001/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-agents-on-acanthamoeba-sp-and-evidence-of-a-natural-resilience-to-amphotericin-b
#10
Alexandre Taravaud, Philippe M Loiseau, Sébastien Pomel
The free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba sp. is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause amoebic keratitis (AK) or granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). While current treatments of AK are long with some relapses, no consensus therapy has been developed for GAE remaining lethal in 90% of the cases. In this context, efficient antiacanthamoebal drugs have to be identified. In this work, 15 drugs used in the treatment of AK or GAE or in other parasitic diseases were evaluated for their in vitro activity on A...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916194/induction-of-cytochrome-p450-mrna-in-porcine-primary-hepatocytes-cultured-under-serum-free-conditions-comparison-of-freshly-isolated-cells-and-cryopreserved
#11
Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
Primary hepatocytes are widely used in the study of dynamic events like regulation of gene expression, as they are superior to most cell-lines. However, the culturing of the hepatocytes often results in loss of phenotype, e.g. the expression of the cytochrome p450s (CYP). The present study investigated the impact of serum in the culture medium of porcine primary hepatocytes (PPH) on markers of dedifferentiation as well as the impact on CYP induction. The effects were studied in both freshly isolated primary hepatocytes as well as cryopreserved...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913872/high-primary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-strains-isolated-from-dyspeptic-patients-a-prevalence-cross-sectional-study-in-spain
#12
Fernando Macías-García, José Llovo-Taboada, Mario Díaz-López, Iria Bastón-Rey, Juan Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The rate of H. pylori resistance to different antibiotics is increasing and determines the selection of eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains in our area. METHODS: Biopsies from gastric corpus for microbiological culture and antibiotic resistance were obtained in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia. Selective Agar Pylori for isolation of the bacteria and Agar Mueller-Hinton supplemented with blood to test the sensitivity to antibiotics were used...
September 15, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913757/mycobacterium-shimoidei-cavitary-pulmonary-disease-with-favorable-outcome
#13
Vide Popovic, Dragan Arar, Dragica Roso Popovic, Igor Barisic, Marija Tonkic, Irena Peric, Anita Novak, Zana Rubic, Vera Katalinic-Jankovic, Mateja Jankovic Makek, Ivana Goic-Barisic
We report a case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium shimoidei in 67-year-old female with history of asthma. Even though susceptibility testing was not available, choice of treatment regimen (streptomycin, rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin), based on a few cases with favorable outcome reported in the literature, resulted with an excellent clinical, microbiological, and radiological response. This is the first report of pulmonary disease caused by M. shimoidei, but also the first ever isolation of M...
September 14, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912539/diphenyleneiodonium-chloride-dpic-displays-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-activity
#14
Manitosh Pandey, Alok Kumar Singh, Ritesh Thakare, Sakshi Talwar, Pratiksha Karaulia, Arunava Dasgupta, Sidharth Chopra, Amit Kumar Pandey
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics globally has lead to an increase in emergence of drug-resistant pathogens under both nosocomial, as well as more worryingly, in community setting as well. Further, a decrease in the corporate interest and financial commitment has exerted increasing pressure on a rapidly dwindling antimicrobial drug discovery and developmental program. In this context, we have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC, Sigma) against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify potent novel antimicrobial molecules amongst non-antibiotic molecules...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911608/effect-of-goat-milk-on-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-antitubercular-drugs-in-rats
#15
Sonam Miglani, Rakesh Raman Patyar, Sazal Patyar, Mohammad Rafi Reshi
Aim of the present study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of goat milk on antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats using a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide given orally as a suspension for 30 days. Treatment groups received goat milk along with antitubercular drugs. Liver damage was assessed using biochemical and histological parameters. Administration of goat milk (20 mL/kg) along with antitubercular drugs (Group III) reversed the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (82 ± 25...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#16
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911353/persistently-high-early-mortality-despite-rapid-diagnostics-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-in-south-africa
#17
K Schnippel, C Firnhaber, N Ndjeka, F Conradie, L Page-Shipp, R Berhanu, E Sinanovic
OBJECTIVE: To describe the timing and predictors of mortality among multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) patients reported in the South African electronic drug-resistant TB register (EDRweb), 2012-2014. DESIGN: We present time-to-event survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Identity numbers were matched to the National Vital Statistics Register. RESULTS: Of the 20 653 patients included in the analysis (median age 35 years, interquartile range 28-43), over half were male (n = 10 944, 53...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911352/missed-opportunities-for-earlier-diagnosis-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-despite-access-to-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#18
E Mohr, J Daniels, O Muller, J Furin, B Chabalala, S J Steele, V Cox, T Dolby, G Ferlazzo, A Shroufi, L T Duran, H Cox
OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients with potential earlier RR-TB diagnoses in Khayelitsha, South Africa. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis among RR-TB patients diagnosed from 2012 to 2014. Patients were considered to have missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis if 1) they were incorrectly screened according to the Western Cape diagnostic algorithm; 2) the first specimen was not tested using Xpert® MTB/RIF; 3) no specimen was ever tested; or 4) the initial Xpert test showed a negative result, but no subsequent specimen was sent for follow-up testing in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904673/mutations-in-rpob-and-katg-genes-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-undetectable-using-genotyping-diagnostic-methods
#19
Faustinos Tatenda Takawira, Racheal Shamiso Dube Mandishora, Zephaniah Dhlamini, Ellen Munemo, Babill Stray-Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in MTB and hence, increased rate of discordant results and mortality due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. The rpoB and katG genes molecular markers are used for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance respectively...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#20
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
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