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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447869/mitigation-of-discordant-rifampicin-susceptibility-results-obtained-by-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampicin-and-mycobacterium-growth-indicator-tube
#1
Elmira Gurbanova, Rafail Mehdiyev, Kai Blondal, Rasim Tahirli, Fuad Mirzayev, Doris Hillemann, Asker Ismayilov, Alan Altraja
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of genotypic and phenotypic diagnostic tools for detection of rifampicin (RIF) susceptibility may yield discrepant results. OBJECTIVE: To measure the discordance between the RIF-susceptibility results by Xpert MTB/RIF and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), to evaluate if application of both tests to the same sample affects the discrepancy, and to evaluate treatment outcome in patients with the discordant strains. DESIGN: Sputa from patients with tuberculosis managed in the penitentiary system of Azerbaijan during 2011-2015 were examined for RIF susceptibility using Xpert MTB/RIF and MGIT...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446574/the-use-of-genexpert-remnants-for-drug-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-libreville-gabon
#2
Amel Kévin Alame-Emane, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Oriane Cordelia Aboumegone-Biyogo, Amandine Nzoghe-Mveang, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Christophe Sola, Joël Fleury Djoba-Siawaya, Brigitte Gicquel, Howard E Takiff
Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis are major problems in global health. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RIF-R), but detection of the additional resistance that defines MDR and XDR-TB, and for molecular epidemiology, specimen cultures and biosafe infrastructure are generally required. We sought to determine whether the remnants of sputa prepared for Xpert could be used directly to find mutations associated with drug resistance and for molecular epidemiology, and thus provide a precise characterization of MDR-TB cases in countries lacking BSL3 facilities for M...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445701/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-multiplex-pcr-serotyping-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-humans-foods-and-livestock-in-iran
#3
Lida Lotfollahi, Ardalan Chaharbalesh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen causing listeriosis, which potentially affects all individuals, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons. The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes distribution of the isolated L. monocytogenes from Iran. Twenty two (4.97%) of 442 human, food and livestock samples were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was identified in 8.8% of 125 human samples, 2.99% of 267 food and 6% of 50 livestock samples...
April 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444009/-antituberculosis-drug-resistance-in-the-border-of-brazil-with-paraguay-and-bolivia
#4
Marli Marques, Eunice Atsuko Totumi Cunha, Maria do Socorro Nantua Evangelista, Paulo Cesar Basta, Ana Maria Campos Marques, Julio Croda, Sonia Maria Oliveira de Andrade
Objective: To estimate the rate of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and specifically in the border areas with Paraguay and Bolivia, as well as to identify associated risk factors. Method: The present cross-sectional, epidemiological study focused on PTB cases recorded between January 2007 and December 2010 in the State Reportable Disease Information System with results of susceptibility tests to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#5
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#6
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441320/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-is-ineffective-as-an-adjuvant-to-daptomycin-with-rifampicin-treatment-in-a-murine-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-implant-associated-osteomyelitis
#7
Nis Pedersen Jørgensen, Kasper Hansen, Caroline Marie Andreasen, Michael Pedersen, Kurt Fuursted, Rikke L Meyer, Eskild Petersen
Implant-associated infections caused by bacterial biofilms are difficult to treat. Surgical intervention is often necessary to cure the patient, as the antibiotic recalcitrance of biofilms renders them untreatable with conventional antibiotics. Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been proposed as an adjuvant to conventional antibiotic treatment and it has been speculated that combining HBOT with antibiotics could improve treatment outcomes for biofilm infections. In this study we addressed whether HBOT could improve treatment outcomes of daptomycin and rifampicin combination therapy...
April 25, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438924/analysis-of-the-effects-on-the-qt-interval-of-a-gatifloxacin-containing-regimen-versus-standard-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Piero L Olliaro, Corinne Merle, Thuli Mthiyane, Boubacar Bah, Ferdinand Kassa, Evans Amukoye, Alimatou N' Diaye, Christian Perronne, Christian Lienhardt, Helen Mcilleron, Katherine Fielding
Background: The effects on ventricular repolarisation - recorded on the ECG as lengthening of the QT interval - of acute tuberculosis and those of standard and alternative anti-tuberculosis regimens are under-documented. A correction factor (QTc) is introduced to make the QT independent of the heart rate, translating into the slope of the regression line between QT and heart rate being close to zero.Methods: ECGs were performed pre- and 1-5 hours post-dosing (month 1, 2, end of treatment) around drugs' peak concentration time in tuberculosis patients treated with either the standard 6-month treatment (rifampicin and isoniazid for 6 months, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 2 months; "control") or a test regimen with gatifloxacin, rifampicin and isoniazid given for 4 months (pyrazinamide for the first 2 months) as part of the OFLOTUB study, a randomized controlled trial conducted in five African countries...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438256/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-patients-with-biopsy-proven-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-cape-town-a-10-year-review%C3%A2
#9
Emmanuel E Effa, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Megan Borkum, Brian L Rayner, Peter Heering, Ikechi G Okpechi
BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury that has not been adequately characterized in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite an increasing use of potentially inciting agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis in the region. METHODS: A retrospective audit of records of patients with biopsy-proven AIN diagnosed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town from the 1st of January, 2006, to the 31st of December, 2015...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438132/early-detection-of-multidrug-and-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-smear-positive-sputum-by-direct-sequencing
#10
Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao, Weihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high among MDR-TB patients. Early diagnosis of MDR/pre-XDR-TB is essential for lowering transmission of drug-resistant TB and adjusting the treatment regimen. METHODS: Smear-positive sputum specimens (n = 186) were collected from Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438129/severe-type-1-upgrading-leprosy-reaction-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-paradoxical-manifestation-associated-with-deficiency-of-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Ana Paula Vieira, Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Flávio Jota de Paula, Neusa Yurico Sakai-Valente, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Gil Benard
BACKGROUND: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438118/predictors-of-delayed-culture-conversion-among-ugandan-patients
#12
Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. The sub-study aimed at comparing TB detection rates of different culture media, within and across rifampicin-based regimens (R10, 15 and 20 mg/Kg) over a 6-month treatment follow-up period, and to establish predictors of month-2 culture non-conversion among HIV-negative TB patients enrolled at RIFATOX trial site in Uganda...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438086/feline-leprosy-due-to-candidatus-mycobacterium-tarwinense
#13
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the first in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Candidatus 'Mycobacterium tarwinense', the most common cause of feline leprosy in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M tarwinense' infection...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#14
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430811/antimicrobial-resistance-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia-a-one-year-study
#15
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A Worthing, Jacqueline M Norris, Hui S Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427917/application-of-the-isoniazid-assay-in-dried-blood-spots-using-the-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Kyunghoon Lee, Sun-Hee Jun, Moon-Suk Choi, Sang Hoon Song, Jong Sun Park, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is important for proper treatment of TB. Dried blood spots (DBSs) are widely used for TDM because of their several advantages. Rifampicin and pyrazinamide assays with DBSs have already been developed. However, isoniazid (INH) assay for capillary DBSs have not been reported because of INH instability. We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for measuring INH concentrations in venous and capillary DBSs...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425873/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-and-sputum-smear-negative-pulmonary-suspects-using-xpert-mtb-rif
#17
Irfan Ullah, Arshad Javaid, Haleema Masud, Mazhar Ali, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Faisal Younis, Rehana Yasmin, Afsar Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Masroor Husain, Zahid Ahmad Butt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425484/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-prediction-and-lineage-classification-from-genome-sequencing-comparison-of-automated-analysis-tools
#18
Viola Schleusener, Claudio U Köser, Patrick Beckert, Stefan Niemann, Silke Feuerriegel
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to accelerate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) to design appropriate regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Several recently developed automated software tools promise to standardize the analysis and interpretation of WGS data. We assessed five tools (CASTB, KvarQ, Mykrobe Predictor TB, PhyResSE, and TBProfiler) with regards to DST and phylogenetic lineage classification, which we compared with phenotypic DST, Sanger sequencing, and traditional typing results for a collection of 91 strains...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425207/bcg-vaccination-induced-suppurative-lymphadenitis-four-signs-to-pay-attention-to
#19
Sang Oon Baek, Hyo Sun Ko, Hyun Ho Han
Suppurative lymphadenitis is one of the severe complication after BCG vaccination, but its diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines have not yet been established. In this article, we describe a case of suppurative lymphadenitis caused by BCG vaccination and propose diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines of the disease. The lymphadenitis was presented as skin involving mass and was completely extirpated. Pathological evaluation revealed a necrotising lymphadenitis, consistent with the diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis...
April 19, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#20
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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