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Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Anna Zadernowska, Łucja Łaniewska-Trokenheim
The objective of the study was to answer the question of whether the ready-to-eat meat products can pose indirect hazard for consumer health serving as reservoir of Enterococcus strains harboring tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides resistance genes. A total of 390 samples of ready-to-eat meat products were investigated. Enterococcus strains were found in 74.1% of the samples. A total of 302 strains were classified as: Enterococcus faecalis (48.7%), Enterococcus faecium (39.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
A J Garcia-Prats, L du Plessis, H R Draper, A Burger, J A Seddon, K Zimri, A C Hesseling, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible (H(R)R(S)) tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent form of drug-resistant TB globally, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes, but has been poorly described in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the clinical presentation, treatment, and clinical and microbiological outcomes among children with culture-confirmed H(R)R(S) TB. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based cohort study. RESULTS: Of the 72 children included in the study, the median age was 50...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Ma Ke, Xi Chen, Jia-Cheng Chen, Ying Wang, Xi-Meng Zhang, Fan Huang, Jun-Jiong Zheng, Xiong Chen, Wei Yu, Ke-Ling Cheng, Yan-Qing Feng, Huai-Yu Gu
Rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of rifampicin on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether rifampicin was beneficial for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG33-35 )-induced female C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Rifampicin treatment (daily from the first day after EAE immunization) remarkably attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight, which are associated with suppression of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords of EAE mice...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rajeev Soman, Umang Agrawal, Mitesh Suthar, Ketan Desai, Anjali Shetty
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, formerly Chryseobacterium meningosepticum usually causes neonatal meningitis and is a rare cause of nosocomial meningitis in adults. E. meningoseptica is resistant to most antibiotics, and the use of inactive drugs as empirical therapy may contribute to poor outcome in many patients. Vancomycin, alone or in combination with rifampicin, has been successful in the treatment of meningitis in infants1. We present a case of E. meningoseptica meningitis in an adult who was treated initially with intravenous vancomycin and oral rifampicin, but did not respond to the treatment...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Katherine C Faulkner, Katherine A Hurley, Douglas B Weibel
Antibiotic adjuvant therapy represents an exciting opportunity to enhance the activity of clinical antibiotics by co-dosing with a secondary small molecule. Successful adjuvants decrease the concentration of antibiotics used to defeat bacteria, increase activity (in some cases introducing activity against organisms that are drug resistant), and reduce the frequency at which drug-resistant bacteria emerge. We report that 5-alkyloxytryptamines are a new class of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with exciting activity as antibiotic adjuvants...
October 5, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Insa Joost, Johannes Steinfurt, Philipp T Meyer, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (Stelara®), a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p40-subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, is indicated for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In large multicenter, prospective trials assessing efficacy and safety of ustekinumab increased rates of severe infections have not been observed so far. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 64-year old woman presenting with chills, pain and swelling of her right foot with dark maculae at the sole, and elevated inflammatory markers...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Meki Bilici, Fikri Demir, Murat Muhtar Yılmazer, Fatma Bozkurt, Volkan Tuzcu
BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of Brucella infection is quite diverse and characterized by multi-system involvement. Patients present with myocarditis, endocarditis, or pericarditis. Infective endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular complication in patients with brucellosis. Although conduction abnormalities are seen in cases with endocarditis, they are reported very rarely in the setting of cardiac Brucella infection. CASE REPORT: An eight and a half-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic due to inadequate response to cotrimaxazole plus streptomycin treatment at the 15th day of admission...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Sharda Sharma, Zeeshan Fatima
Novel strategies to combat the ever increasing burden of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causing tuberculosis (TB) remains a global concern. The ability of MTB to sense and adapt to restricted iron conditions in the hostile environment is essential for their survival and confers the basis of their success as dreadful pathogen. The striking and clinically relevant virulence trait of MTB is its ability to form biofilms and adhere to the host cells. The present study elucidated the effect of iron deprivation on biofilm formation and cell adherence of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic surrogate of MTB...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Paloma Horejs Bittencourt, Carlos Sidney Silva Pimentel, Bianca Sampaio Bonfim, Paulo José Marostica, Edna Lúcia Souza
In Brazil the knowledge about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of respiratory tract colonization and the identification rates after a standardized treatment. A retrospective cohort was performed highlighting the history of respiratory colonizations between January 2008 and June 2015. Patients under the age of 21 years with cystic fibrosis confirmed by sweat test or genetic study receiving care at the outpatient clinics of a Teaching Hospital were included...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zully M Puyén, Joshi Acosta, George Obregon, Edson Pacheco, Hada Ramirez, Alberto Mendoza, Diana Marín, Anthony D Harries
Objective To determine the use and performance of a line probe assay (LPA) compared with conventional culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in patients registered with tuberculosis (TB) under routine program conditions in Peru in 2011-2013. Methods This was a descriptive, operational research, cross-sectional study of sputum specimens from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB and mycobacterial cultures from patients with smear-negative or positive TB. Drug resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid detected by LPA was compared to CDST...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
C Dessinioti, C Zisimou, V Tzanetakou, A Stratigos, C Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the use of systemic antibiotic treatment for hidradenitis supportive (HS). AIM: To investigate the effectiveness, safety and relapse rate of HS treated with a combination of daily oral clindamycin and rifampicin. METHODS: This was a prospective, hospital-based study of oral clindamycin 600 mg and rifampicin 600 mg daily for 12 weeks for treatment of HS. Patients were followed up for 1 year to monitor for relapse...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Kunal Zaveri, Kiranmayi Patnala
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one most challenging task for treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To screen the potential MurE inhibitor...
October 10, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Alexander A Firsov, Maria V Golikova, Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner
To explore if combinations of linezolid (L) with rifampicin (R) are able to restrict Staphylococcus aureus resistance, the enrichment of L- and R-resistant mutants was studied in an in vitro dynamic model. L- and R-resistant mutants were enriched in all single drug treatments. In contrast, L-resistant mutants were not enriched and R-resistant mutants were similar to baseline amounts with only minimal regrowth at the end of the combination treatments. These effects appear to be explained by lowering the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for L+R combinations (MPCL+R) compared to the MPCs of L and R alone (MPCL and MPCR) and thereby the longer times above MPCL+R (73-100% of the dosing interval for L and 42-58% for R) compared to the times above MPCL (0-44%) and MPCR (0%)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Hiroshi Ikeda, Kiwamu Nakamura, Mei Ikenori, Takahiro Saito, Keisuke Nagamine, Minoru Inoue, Takuro Sakagami, Hiroko Suzuki, Mariko Usui, Keiji Kanemitsu, Akinori Matsumoto, Takuro Shinbo
We herein report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection that involved both optic nerves, the conjunctiva, the right lower lung, and multiple skin lesions, including a thoracic nodule. The patient was a 65-year-old man without any significant medical history. The pathogen was detected in the patient's eye discharge, sputum, bronchial lavage fluid, and thoracic nodule. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy, including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol, was administered, and the thoracic nodule was resected...
2016: Internal Medicine
Laura Pérez-Lago, Santiago Izco, Marta Herranz, Griselda Tudó, María Carcelén, Iñaki Comas, Olalla Sierra, Juliá González, María Jesús Ruiz-Serrano, Juan Eyene, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
OBJECTIVE: Molecular epidemiology techniques in tuberculosis (TB) can identify high-risk strains that are actively transmitted. We aimed to implement a novel strategy to optimize the identification and control of MDR-TB in a specific population. METHODS: We developed a strain-specific-PCR tailored from whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) data to track a specific multidrug-resistant prevalent strain in Equatorial Guinea (EG-MDR). RESULTS: The PCR was applied prospectively on remnants of GeneXpert reaction mixtures owing to the lack of culture facilities in EG...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Lemoine, F Baudin, R Vialle, E Grimprel
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of osteoarticular infections has improved over the past 20 years but it still remains potentially severe. The treatment of these infections has been simplified and shortened. In 2008, the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) established new therapeutic guidelines in order to standardize treatment in France. The aim of this study is to analyze practices in a Parisian hospital and assess the efficacy of this treatment in short and medium terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study focused on patients older than 3 months, without comorbidities, who were hospitalized for an acute osteoarticular infection in 2012 at Trousseau Hospital (Paris), with a follow-up of at least 4 weeks...
October 10, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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