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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817723/sequence-analysis-of-the-rifampicin-resistance-determining-region-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-multidrug-resistance-confirmed-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-of-punjab-pakistan
#1
Salma Hameed, Kartyk Moganeradj, Nasir Mahmood, Timothy D McHugh, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Catherine Arnold
Molecular screening of new patients suspected for TB could help in the effective control of TB in Pakistan as it is a high TB burden country. It will be informative to understand the prevalence of multi drug resistance for a better drug regimen management in this geographical area. The Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) sequencing was used to identify mutations associated with drug resistance in DNA extracts from 130 known multidrug resistant (MDR) cultured strains and compared with mutations observed in DNA extracts directly from 86 sputum samples from consecutive newly diagnosed cases in Lahore, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#2
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814276/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hunan-province-china
#3
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Hengzhong Yi, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Archie C A Clements, Zuhui Xu
BACKGROUND: The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014...
August 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813625/detection-of-first-line-drug-resistance-mutations-and-drug-protein-interaction-dynamics-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#4
Somanna Ajjamada Nachappa, Sumana M Neelambike, Chokkanna Amruthavalli, Nallur B Ramachandra
Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. AIMS: To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#5
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808382/allium-sativum-constituents-exhibit-anti-tubercular-activity-in-vitro-and-in-raw-264-7-mouse-macrophage-cells-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv
#6
Swapna S Nair, Sujay S Gaikwad, Savita P Kulkarni, Alka Pravin Mukne
BACKGROUND: Long duration of treatment, side-effects of currently used anti-tubercular drugs and emergence of drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) warrants the need to develop new drugs to tackle the scourge of tuberculosis (TB). Garlic is an edible plant reported to have anti-tubercular activity. However, previous researches on anti-tubercular effect of garlic were focused mostly on preliminary in vitro screening. OBJECTIVE: To identify constituents responsible for anti-tubercular activity of thiosulfinate-derivative rich extract of garlic (GE) and to evaluate activity of the most active constituent in RAW 264...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806947/conessine-as-a-novel-inhibitor-of-multidrug-efflux-pump-systems-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Thanyaluck Siriyong, Potjanee Srimanote, Sasitorn Chusri, Boon-Ek Yingyongnarongkul, Channarong Suaisom, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
BACKGROUND: Holarrhena antidysenterica has been employed as an ethnobotanical plant for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, fever, and bacterial infections. Biological activities of the principle compound, conessine including anti-diarrhoea and anti-plasmodial effects were documented. Our previous study reported potency of Holarrhena antidysenterica extract and conessine as resistance modifying agents against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether conessine, a steroidal alkaloid compound, could act as a resistance modifying agent against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (ii) whether MexAB-OprM efflux pump involved in the mechanism...
August 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803018/short-communication-molecular-characteristics-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-pathogenicity-of-clinical-nocardia-cyriacigeorgica-isolates-from-an-outbreak-of-bovine-mastitis
#8
Wei Chen, Yongxia Liu, Herman W Barkema, Jian Gao, Jeroen De Buck, John P Kastelic, Gang Liu, Tariq Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Bo Han
The occurrence of nocardial mastitis, mostly in the context of outbreaks, has been reported in many countries. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding detailed characterization of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine mastitis. Thus, herein we report characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, molecular identification, and pathogenicity of N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from an outbreak of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd in northern China. A total of 182 (80.2%) lactating cows had clinical mastitis with severe inflammation and firmness of the udder, reduced milk production, and anorexia, with no apparent clinical response to common antibiotics...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802408/down-regulation-of-malate-synthase-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra-leads-to-reduced-stress-tolerance-persistence-and-survival-in-macrophages
#9
Kumar Sachin Singh, Rishabh Sharma, Deepa Keshari, Nirbhay Singh, Sudheer Kumar Singh
Malate synthase is a condensing enzyme responsible for conversion of glyoxylate to malate in the presence of acetyl-CoA. This reaction helps in bypassing the TCA cycle reactions involving carbon loss and leads to diverting some of the carbon skeletons to gluconeogenic events while rest can continue to provide TCA cycle intermediates. Malate synthase (GlcB) is encoded by MRA_1848 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a knockdown (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating GlcB. The survival studies suggested increased susceptibility to oxidative and nitrosative stress as well as to rifampicin...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802406/real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-a-rapid-and-pragmatic-approach-for-screening-of-multidrug-resistant-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Kusum Sharma, Megha Sharma, Shreya Singh, Manish Modi, Aman Sharma, Pallab Ray, Subhash Varma
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge in an endemic country like India. Timely detection of MDR-TB can contribute to a better patient outcome. OBJECTIVE: To perform real-time PCR (qPCR) using rpoB, mpb64 and IS6110 gene on a variety of EPTB samples and to compare the performance of different gene targets. All qPCR positive samples were subjected to high resolution melt-curve analysis (HRM analysis) for rpoB and katG gene to evaluate its potential for MDR screening among different sample types...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797593/osteo-cutaneous-acanthamoebiasis-in-a-non-immunocompromised-patient-with-a-favorable-outcome
#11
Megha Sharma, Shashi Sharma Sudhan, Sonali Sharma, Kirti Megha, Ritambhra Nada, Sumeeta Khurana
Osteo-cutaneous form is a rare presentation of acanthamoebiasis. We present the first such case from India in an apparently healthy male who developed cutaneous lesion with bone involvement after traumatic inoculation of Acanthamoeba cysts. The diagnosis was established by routine microbiological techniques and confirmed by 18SrRNA gene sequencing. Aggressive therapy with terbinafine, chlorhexidine, rifampicin and co-trimoxazole was successful in clearing the lesion and preventing encephalitis.
August 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795162/global-survey-of-mrna-levels-and-decay-rates-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-trachoma-and-lymphogranuloma-venereum-biovars
#12
Rita Ferreira, Vítor Borges, Maria José Borrego, João Paulo Gomes
Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum) strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i) 60-70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" for all strains; ii) the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii) the median of the half-life time (t1/2) values of transcripts were 15-17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts' stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv) transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794886/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-determination-of-rifampicin-resistance-among-new-tuberculosis-cases-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#13
S Atashi, B Izadi, S Jalilian, S H Madani, A Farahani, P Mohajeri
Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793376/genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-screening-and-characterization-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-associated-mutations-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-india
#14
Sunil Sethi, Rakesh Yadav, Shreya Singh, Rajiv Khaneja, Ashutosh Aggarwal, Priyanka Agarwal, Digambar Behera
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is rising and World health organization has recommended the line probe assay (LPA) for screening. In this study we assess LPA at a tertiary care center from North India in 1758 samples from suspected MDR-TB cases. All smear positive and/or M.tuberculosis culture confirmed cases (n=1170) were subjected to GenoType-MTBDR assay. Amongst these the majority were retreatment cases, smear positive at diagnosis (n=637). MDR prevalence of 7.8% was observed with the highest cases reported amongst MDR contacts (33...
August 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789699/oral-pyridoxine-can-substitute-for-intravenous-pyridoxine-in-managing-patients-with-severe-poisoning-with-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-fixed-dose-combination-tablets-a-case-report
#15
M D S A Dilrukshi, C A P Ratnayake, C A Gnanathasan
BACKGROUND: Fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin is a rare cause of poisoning even in endemic countries for tuberculosis infection. Severe poisoning can cause severe morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly. Though intravenous pyridoxine is the preferred antidote for severe standard isoniazid poisoning it is not freely available even in best of care centers. We describe a case of severe poisoning with fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin successfully managed with oral pyridoxine at national hospital of Sri Lanka...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782933/new-insights-into-antibiofilm-effect-of-a-nanosized-zno-coating-against-the-pathogenic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Marta M Alves, Ons Bouchami, Ana Tavares, Laura Córdoba, Catarina F Santos, Maria Miragaia, Maria de Fátima Montemor
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are arising as promising novel antibiotics toward device-related infections. The surface functionalization of Zn, a novel resorbable biomaterial, with ZnO NPs could present an effective solution to overcome such a threat. In this sense, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of nano- and microsized ZnO coatings was studied against clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bacterial viability of planktonic and biofilm cells together with the corresponding biofilm structures revealed that only the nanosized ZnO coating had an antibiofilm effect...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782709/mic-distribution-among-wild-type-strains-of-legionella-pneumophila-identifies-a-subpopulation-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-macrolides-owing-to-efflux-pump-genes
#17
Marine Vandewalle-Capo, Clémence Massip, Ghislaine Descours, Joséphine Charavit, Joelle Chastang, Pierre Alain Billy, Sandrine Boisset, Gerard Lina, Christophe Gilbert, Max Maurin, Sophie Jarraud, Christophe Ginevra
Legionnaires' disease is a severe pneumonia mainly caused by Legionella pneumophila, and which is treated by antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to describe the susceptibility of clinical strains of Legionella pneumophila to seven antibiotics used for legionellosis treatment. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 109 well-characterized clinical strains of L. pneumophila serogroup-1 were determined using a broth microdilution method without charcoal and compared to antibiotic-resistant strains selected in vitro...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782605/drug-adherence-and-efficacy-of-smear-microscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-2-months-of-medication-in-north-western-tanzania
#18
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Jeremiah Kidola, Christa Kasang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the Tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence level and the efficacy of smear microscopy in the diagnosing pulmonary TB at month 2. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the four sites located in the Northern-western Tanzania. New smear positive, pulmonary TB patients were followed up and their adherence to TB medication assessed after 2 months of the treatment. In addition, the acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy was performed after 2 and 5 months of the treatment...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781188/distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-vibrio-species-associated-with-zooplankton-in-coastal-area-of-korea
#19
Ji Hye Yang, Jong Soo Mok, Yeoun Joong Jung, Ka Jeong Lee, Ji Young Kwon, Kunbawui Park, Seong Yong Moon, Soon Jae Kwon, A Ra Ryu, Tea Seek Lee
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus are the most common pathogens causing seafood-borne illnesses in Korea. This study determines the abundance and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Vibrio species in seawater and zooplankton samples from the Geoje Island coast in Korea, which is an important area for coastal fisheries, the fishing industry, and tourism. The two Vibrio species were detected more in mesozooplankton samples than in seawater samples. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed greater resistance than those of V...
August 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780247/direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance-in-respiratory-specimen-using-abbott-realtime-mtb-detection-and-rif-inh-resistance-assay
#20
Kingsley King-Gee Tam, Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Sabrina Wai-Chi To, Gilman Kit-Hang Siu, Terrence Chi-Kong Lau, Victor Chi-Man Shek, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Samson Sai-Yin Wong, Pak-Leung Ho, Wing-Cheong Yam
Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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