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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070206/qft-plus-a-plus-in-variability-evaluation-of-new-generation-igra-in-serial-testing-of-students-with-a-migration-background-in-germany
#1
J Knierer, E N Gallegos Morales, A Schablon, A Nienhaus, J F Kersten
BACKGROUND: Currently available Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) show a considerable variability in serial testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study offers first results for the new generation IGRA QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) introduced in 2015 in comparison with its predecessor QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) from serial testing of students with a migration background at German universities. METHODS: Forty-one students were selected from a previous study...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061947/b-lymphocytes-forming-follicle-like-structures-in-the-lung-tissue-of-tuberculosis-infected-mice-dynamics-phenotypes-and-functional-activity
#2
Irina Linge, Alexander Dyatlov, Elena Kondratieva, Vadim Avdienko, Alexander Apt, Tatiana Kondratieva
During tuberculosis (TB) infection, B cells form follicles in close vicinity of lung granuloma. We assessed the dynamics of follicle formation, surface phenotypes and functional activity of lung B cells during TB course in genetically susceptible mice. The follicles appeared early post infection and peaked at weeks 7-8. Lung B cells resembled classical B2 cells (CD19(+)IgMloIgD(hi)CD1d(-)CD21/35(int)CD5(-)CD11b(-)CD43(-)), but differed from them by the absence of B2 marker CD23. Lung B-cells constitutively expressed MHC II molecules, presented mycobacterial antigens to immune CD4(+) T-cells and produced high amounts of IL-6 and IL-11, but no classical type 1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ), or anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β) cytokines...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054229/primary-subacute-epiphyseal-osteomyelitis-caused-by-mycobacterium-species-in-young-children-a-modern-diagnostic-approach
#3
REVIEW
N El Houmami, P Minodier, C Bouvier, H Seligmann, J-L Jouve, D Raoult, P-E Fournier
Primary epiphyseal subacute osteomyelitis (PESAO) caused by Mycobacterium species in young children is poorly recognized. We aimed to define the spectrum of this uncommon condition and to propose a novel diagnostic approach. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the PubMed website by selecting all reports of isolated infantile PESAO caused by Mycobacterium species since 1975. We identified 350 citations, of which 174 were assessed for eligibility based on title and abstract. The full text of 81 eligible citations was screened, and relevant data of 15 children under 4 years of age with mycobacterial PESAO were extracted...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043533/performance-comparison-of-a-pair-of-lowenstein-jensen-media-supplemented-with-pyruvate-or-glycerol-and-the-combination-of-both-supplements-in-a-single-lowenstein-jensen-medium-for-the-growth-support-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#4
Alieu K Faburay, Francis S Mendy, Jacob K Otu, Tutty Isatou Faal-Jawara, F Gehre, Ousman Secka
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) supplemented with pyruvate and glycerol (LJPG), compared with LJ supplemented with pyruvate (LJP) or glycerol (LJG) for the support of mycobacterial growth. METHOD: This study used 100 Ziehl-Neelsen-confirmed positive mycobacterium growth indicator tube 960 culture samples that were obtained from clinical samples during routine diagnosis. All cultures were inoculated in parallel on LJG/LJP and on LJGP, which were incubated and read weekly for the evidence of growth...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043532/evaluation-of-sodium-hydroxide-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-0-7-chlorhexidine-decontamination-methods-for-recovering-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-sputum-samples-a-comparative-analysis-the-gambia-experience
#5
Ensa Gitteh, Jacob Kweku Otu, Tijan Jobarteh, Francis Mendy, Isatou Tutty Faal-Jawara, Nana Boatema Ofori-Anyinam, Abigail Ayorinde, Ousman Secka, Florian Gehre
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To determine the culture yield and time to detection of mycobacterial growth between samples decontaminated using 0.7% chlorhexidine and sodium hydroxide-N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NaOH-NALC) and cultured on the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. We also aimed to determine the contamination rate between the 0.7% chlorhexidine and NaOH-NALC decontamination methods. METHODS: The study was carried out on 68 sputa samples (42 smear positives and 26 smear negatives)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040502/a-comparison-between-effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-by-led-and-calcium-hydroxide-therapy-for-root-canal-disinfection-against-enterococcus-faecalis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Mohammad Asnaashari, Hengameh Ashraf, Afsaneh Rahmati, Neda Amini
BACKGROUND: Insufficient root canal disinfection is one of the main reasons for persistent periapical pathology. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proven effective in disinfecting infected root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photo activated disinfection (PAD) when using toluidine blue as photosensitizer and a LED lamp after the conventional treatment, and comparing it with calcium hydroxide therapy in vivo. METHODS: This clinical trial includes 20 patients with molars requiring endodontic retreatment...
December 28, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031831/intestinal-perforation-due-to-paradoxical-reaction-during-treatment-for-miliary-tuberculosis
#7
Miwako Saitou, Tomoko Suzuki, Katsunao Niitsuma
A 61-year-old man was being treated for poor nutritional status. He had been on weekly methotrexate 6 mg and daily tacrolimus 1 mg and prednisolone 18 mg for 8 years due to dermatomyositis. On further workup, he was initially detected to have ileocecal ulcer with subsequent development of diffuse miliary shadows on chest radiograph. He was diagnosed as having ileocecal with miliary tuberculosis (TB). While receiving anti-tuberculous therapy, there was initial improvement of TB-related symptoms and he had no conditions that interfered with the efficiency of the anti-tuberculous therapy...
November 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027281/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#8
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine vs efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine vs efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/ml at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (p=0...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012685/pnca-mutations-are-associated-with-slower-sputum-conversion-during-standard-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Xubin Zheng, Zhu Ning, Francis Drobniewski, Jingyong Yang, Qun Li, Zhengdong Zhang, Yi Hu
Despite the strong association between drug resistance and genetic mutations, the value of molecular diagnosis of drug resistance to guide the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains unclear. This is particularly relevant in resource-limited areas where it is difficult to perform drug susceptibility testing (DST). Here we investigated the association between drug susceptibility phenotypes and genotypes and treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. This study enrolled 74 consecutive patients with confirmed MDR-TB between 2010 and 2011, and outcomes were followed-up over the 24-month treatment course...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003499/new-onset-seizure-in-hiv-infected-adult-zambians-a-search-for-causes-and-consequences
#10
Omar K Siddiqi, Melissa A Elafros, Christopher M Bositis, Igor J Koralnik, William H Theodore, Jason F Okulicz, Lisa Kalungwana, Michael J Potchen, Izukanji Sikazwe, Gretchen L Birbeck
OBJECTIVE: To identify the etiology of new-onset seizure in HIV-infected Zambian adults and identify risk factors for seizure recurrence. METHODS: A prospective cohort study enrolling HIV-infected adults with new-onset seizure within 2 weeks of index seizure obtained clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data to determine seizure etiology. Participants were followed to identify risk factors for seizure recurrence. Risk factors for mortality were examined as mortality rates were unexpectedly high...
December 21, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990383/biologics-use-in-indian-psoriasis-patients
#11
Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Asit Mital
The biologics currently in use for psoriasis in India are etanercept, infliximab and recently introduced itolizumab and secukinumab. Biosimilars, expected to play a significant role in psoriasis management in future, have also been available for the last few years. Patients with psoriasis may be considered eligible to receive treatment with any of the licensed biologic interventions when they fulfill the eligibility criteria. The decision to proceed with treatment must be made in collaboration with the patient and include a careful assessment of the associated risks and benefits...
November 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955709/the-characteristics-of-patients-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-blood-stream-infections-in-beijing-china-a-retrospective-study
#12
Xiaoqing Liu, Sainan Bian, Yueqiu Zhang, Lifan Zhang, Qiwen Yang, Peng Wang, Yingchun Xu, Xiaochun Shi, Yao Zhang, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Published information regarding the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and outcomes of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) blood stream infection (BSI) is limited. We aimed in this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory evaluation, and outcomes of patients with MTB BSI. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with MTB BSI at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2008 and May 2014 were identified by examining the electronic database listing results of all blood cultures...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942386/are-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-who-are-identified-through-active-case-finding-in-the-community-different-than-those-identified-in-healthcare-facilities
#13
S T Abdurrahman, L Lawson, M Blakiston, J Obasanya, M A Yassin, R M Anderson, O Oladimeji, A Ramsay, L E Cuevas
The lack of healthcare access contributes to large numbers of tuberculosis (TB) cases being missed and has led to renewed interest in outreach approaches to increase detection. It is however unclear whether outreach activities increase case detection or merely identify patients before they attend health facilities. We compared adults with cough of >2 weeks' duration recruited in health facilities (1202 participants) or in urban slums (2828 participants) in Nigeria. Participants provided demographic and clinical information and were screened using smear microscopy...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#14
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928077/prevention-of-early-mortality-by-presumptive-tuberculosis-therapy-study-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Yukari C Manabe, William Worodria, Frank van Leth, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Josefo Ferro, Nadine Pakker, Matthias Frank, Martin P Grobusch, Robert Colebunders, Frank Cobelens
Early mortality after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs in 9-39% of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. A significant proportion of deaths are attributable to tuberculosis (TB). Low baseline CD4 T-cell count and low body mass index (BMI) are strongly associated with early mortality. We hypothesized that initiation of ART concurrent with presumptive anti-TB chemotherapy in high-risk patients would reduce mortality within the first 6 months by treating unrecognized TB. From October 2011 to December 2012, ART-naive, smear-negative participants with a CD4 T-cell count < 50 cells/μL and BMI < 18 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to undergo either empiric four-drug anti-TB treatment followed 2 weeks later by efavirenz-based ART (N = 23) (ART + TB) or ART only (N = 20)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893931/infliximab-induced-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-uc-experience-from-a-country-with-high-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-india
#17
Amarender S Puri, Devendra Desai, Ajit Sood, Sanjeev Sachdeva
BACKGROUND & AIM: Tuberculosis (TB) is a well-recognized iatrogenic adverse event following administration of biologic therapy given for a variety of clinical indications. There is paucity of data on the development of TB following use of biologics from countries with a high prevalence of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of development of TB following biological therapy in a country, which is highly endemic for TB. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from 3 referral IBD centers to evaluate the risk of development of TB following biological therapy for patients with UC...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880629/suicidal-ideation-and-interpersonal-needs-factor-structure-of-a-short-version-of-the-interpersonal-needs-questionnaire-in-an-at-risk-military-sample
#18
Nicholas P Allan, Daniel F Gros, Melanie A Hom, Thomas E Joiner, Tracy Stecker
OBJECTIVE: The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that perceived burdensomeness (PB; i.e., the belief that others would be better off if one were dead) and thwarted belongingness (TB; i.e., the belief that one lacks meaningful social connections) are both necessary risk factors for the development of suicidal ideation. To test these relations, measures are needed that are well validated, especially in samples of at-risk adults. METHOD: The current study was designed to examine the factor structure of an eight-item version of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) in a sample of 405 U...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#19
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865403/propidium-monoazide-and-xpert-mtb-rif-to-quantify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cells
#20
Xavier A Kayigire, Sven O Friedrich, Miriam N Karinja, Lize van der Merwe, Neil A Martinson, Andreas H Diacon
Propidium monoazide (PMA) penetrates non-viable cells with compromised membranes. PMA has been proposed to improve the specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) for the detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study assessed the effect of PMA on Xpert cycle thresholds (CT) of M. tuberculosis made non-viable under antibiotic pressure. In vitro, we measured the difference between CT with and without PMA (ΔCT) in liquid cultures treated with one of six anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin, moxifloxacin) and found significant ΔCT only with isoniazid and ethambutol for pan-susceptible M...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
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