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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316546/tuberculosis-associated-chylothorax-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
Srinivas Rajagopala, Roopa Kancherla, Ramanathan Palaniappan Ramanathan
Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare cause of chylothorax. We describe a case and the results of a systematic review of all reported cases of TB-chylothorax. We identified 37 cases of TB-chylothorax. The symptoms at presentation were constitutional (85.7%; 30/35), dyspnea (60.6%; 20/33), and cough (54.5%; 18/33). Chylothorax developed subsequent to the diagnosis of TB in 27.8% (10/36) of the patients, after a median of 6.75 weeks (IQR 4-9). Chylothorax developed during an immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) in 16.7% (10/36) of the patients, including immunocompetent ones...
January 9, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303416/application-of-plasma-sprayed-zirconia-coating-in-dental-implant-study-in-implant
#2
Zhengfei Huang, Zhifeng Wang, Chuanhua Li, Kaifeng Yin, Dan Hao, Jing Lan
The aim was to investigate the osseointegration of a novel coating-plasma-sprayed nanostructured zirconia (NSZ) in dental implant. Nanostructured zirconia coating on non-thread titanium implant was prepared by plasma spraying, the implant surface morphology, surface roughness and wettability were measured. In vivo, nanostructured zirconia-coated implants were inserted in rabbit tibia and animals were respectively sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation. The bond strength between implant and bone was measured by removal torque (RTQ) test...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287097/standardization-and-validation-of-real-time-pcr-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-histoplasmosis-using-three-molecular-targets-in-an-animal-model
#3
Luisa F López, César O Muñoz, Diego H Cáceres, Ángela M Tobón, Vladimir Loparev, Oliver Clay, Tom Chiller, Anastasia Litvintseva, Lalitha Gade, Ángel González, Beatriz L Gómez
Histoplasmosis is considered one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses worldwide. Until now few molecular techniques have been developed for its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate three real time PCR (qPCR) protocols for different protein-coding genes (100-kDa, H and M antigens) using an animal model. Fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues from BALB/c mice inoculated i.n. with 2.5x106 Histoplasma capsulatum yeast or PBS were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285441/high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-precipitating-hypercalcemic-crisis-in-granulomatous-disorders
#4
Vijaya Sarathi, Hareeshababu Karethimmaiah, Amit Goel
Background: Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis is often the first manifestation in patients with granulomatous disorders. Methods: We report our experience on patients presenting with hypercalcemic crisis due to granulomatous disorder and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the precipitation of hypercalcemic crisis in them. Results: The study included five patients with granulomatous disorders who presented with hypercalcemic crisis...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284421/improved-performance-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-on-sputum-sediment-samples-obtained-from-presumptive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-at-kibong-oto-infectious-diseases-hospital-in%C3%A2-tanzania
#5
Peter M Mbelele, Said Aboud, Stellah G Mpagama, Mecky I Matee
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) has significantly improved diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in resource limited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic settings. We aimed to modify the Xpert protocol to improve the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients at Kibong'oto Infectious Diseases Hospital between August and November 2015...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282005/diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-individuals-who-cannot-produce-sputum-is-urine-lipoarabinomannan-testing-the-answer
#6
Natasha F Sabur, Aliasgar Esmail, Mantaj S Brar, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Up to one third of HIV-infected individuals with suspected TB are sputum-scarce. The Alere Determine™ TB LAM Ag lateral flow strip test can be used to diagnose TB in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, how urine LAM testing should be incorporated into testing algorithms and in the context of specific patient sub-groups remains unclear. METHODS: This study represents a post hoc sub-group analysis of data from a randomized multi-center parent study...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274584/the-protective-effects-of-triptolide-on-age-related-bone-loss-in-old-male-rats
#7
Deqing Luo, Hongyue Ren, Huantang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Zunxian Huang, Hang Xian, Kejian Lian, Dasheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed that triptolide have a critical role in inhibiting osteoclast formation, bone resorption and attenuating regional osteoporosis. However, the protective role of triptolide on age-related bone loss has not been investigated. In the study, we assessed the effect of triptolide supplementation on bone microstructure and bone remolding in old male rat lumbars. METHODS: Fifty-two 22-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either triptolide treatment group or control group...
December 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273539/effectiveness-of-who-s-pragmatic-screening-algorithm-for-child-contacts-of-tuberculosis-cases-in-resource-constrained-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#8
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244108/optimal-doses-of-rifampicin-in-the-standard-drug-regimen-to-shorten-tuberculosis-treatment-duration-and-reduce-relapse-by-eradicating-persistent-bacteria
#9
Yingjun Liu, Henry Pertinez, Fatima Ortega-Muro, Laura Alameda-Martin, Thomas Harrison, Geraint Davies, Anthony Coates, Yanmin Hu
Objectives: Although high-dose rifampicin holds promise for improving tuberculosis disease control by eradication of persistent bacteria, the optimal dose of rifampicin that kills persistent bacteria and shortens the treatment duration is unknown. Methods: The Cornell mouse model was used to test the efficacy of rifampicin at elevated doses combined with isoniazid and pyrazinamide to kill actively growing and persistent bacilli and to measure relapse rate. Persistent bacteria were evaluated using Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant containing resuscitation-promoting factors...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241821/isoniazid-and-rifampicin-concentrations-in-children-with-tuberculosis-on-either-daily-or-intermittent-regimen-implications-for-the-revised-rntcp-2012-doses-in-india
#10
Jaya Ranjalkar, Sumith K Mathew, Valsan Philip Verghese, Anuradha Bose, Winsley Rose, Dulari Gupta, Denise H Fleming, Binu Susan Mathew
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal plasma drug concentrations of Anti-Tubercular Therapy (ATT) could lead to delayed response and emergence of acquired drug-resistance. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the plasma concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin in children treated for tuberculosis (TB) on daily or intermittent ATT regimen. To study the effect of the exposure of isoniazid and rifampicin on clinical outcome at the end of therapy. METHODS: Forty-one children aged 2 to 16 years, initiated on either daily or three-times a week (intermittent) ATT regimen were recruited into the study...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229272/effect-of-different-resistance-training-protocols-on-the-extracellular-matrix-of-the-calcaneal-tendon-of-rats
#11
Josete Mazon, Andrea Aparecida de Aro, Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões, Edson Rosa Pimentel
The calcaneal tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of collagen, non-collagenous glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and able to adapt to various biomechanical stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of different resistance-training protocols, such as hypertrophy, strength and resistance, on the organization of the calcaneal tendon after training. Wistar rats were divided into for groups: untrained (UT), resistance training (RT), hypertrophy training (HT), and strength training (ST)...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228918/nevirapine-versus-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-antiretroviral-naive-patients-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infections-in-india-a-multi-centre-study
#12
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Srikanth Tripathy, Sahajal Dhooria, Sanjay Ranjan, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which have also been adopted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Efavirenz-based Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is better in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV)-infected patients who are also being treated with Rifampicin-based Anti-Tuberculous Therapy (ATT). However, Efavirenz is much more expensive. We hypothesize that Nevirapine is a cheaper alternative that possesses equal efficacy as Efavirenz in HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients...
December 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209953/diagnostic-value-of-99mtc-ethambutol-scintigraphy-in-tuberculosis-compared-to-microbiological-and-histopathological-tests
#13
A H S Kartamihardja, Y Kurniawati, R Gunawan
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the world's endemic infection. TB affects the lungs and any part of the body other than the lung. The diagnosis of TB has not changed much over the decades. Ethambutol is one of the first line treatments for TB. It can be labeled using 99mTc. 99mTc-ethambutol will be accumulated in the site of TB lesion and can be imaged using gamma camera. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99mTc-ethambutol scintigraphy in detecting and localizing of TB...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tb-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#14
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary TB and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer eight key questions (KQs) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods by using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1, 1984, to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191155/provider-initiated-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-outpatient-departments-of-health-care-facilities-in-ghana-yield-by-screening-strategy-and-target-group
#15
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Ardon Toonstra, Adelaide Sackey, Knut Lonnroth, Mukund Uplekar, Samuel Danso, George Mensah, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: Meticulous identification and investigation of patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) suggestive symptoms rarely happen in crowded outpatient departments (OPDs). Making health providers in OPDs diligently follow screening procedures may help increase TB case detection. From July 2010 to December 2013, two symptom based TB screening approaches of varying cough duration were used to screen and test for TB among general outpatients, PLHIV, diabetics and contacts in Accra, Ghana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190430/evaluating-uk-national-guidance-for-screening-of-children-for-tb-a-prospective-multi-centre-study
#16
Beate Kampmann, James A Seddon, James Paton, Zohreh Nademi, Denis Keane, Bhanu Williams, Amanda Williams, Sue Liebeschutz, Anna Riddell, Jolanta Bernatoniene, Sanjay Patel, Nuria Martinez, Paddy McMaster, Robindra Basu-Roy, Steven B Welch
Rationale and Objective In order to identify infected contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended the addition of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in its 2006 TB guidelines. Treatment for TB infection was no longer recommended for children screened TST-positive but IGRA-negative. We carried out a cohort study to evaluate the risk of TB disease in this group. Methods Children exposed to an infectious case of TB in their household were recruited from 11 paediatric TB clinics...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180526/on-the-antibacterial-and-sterilizing-effect-of-benzylpenicillin-in-tuberculosis
#17
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Paula Bendet, Katherine R Martin, Kayle N Cirrincione, Pooi S Lee, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo
The modern chemotherapy era started with Fleming's discovery of benzylpenicillin. He demonstrated that benzylpenicillin did not kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Here, we found that >64 mg/L of static benzylpenicillin concentrations killed 1.16-1.43 log10 CFU/mL below starting inoculum of extracellular and intracellular Mtb over 7 days. When we added the β-lactamase-inhibitor avibactam, benzylpenicillin maximal kill (Emax) of either extracellular log-phase growth Mtb was 6.80±0.45 log10 CFU/mL at an EC50 of 15...
November 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179784/underweight-increases-the-risk-of-early-death-in-tuberculosis-patients
#18
Yung-Feng Yen, Fu-I Tung, Bo-Lung Ho, Yun-Ju Lai
Evidence regarding the association between BMI and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the impact of BMI on TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality with respect to different timing of death. All Taiwanese adults with TB in Taipei were included in a retrospective cohort study in 2012-2014. Multinomial Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the associations between BMI, cause-specific mortality and timing of death. Of 2410 eligible patients, 86·0 % (2061) were successfully treated, and TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality occurred for 2·2 % (54) and 13·9 % (335), respectively...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179285/-efficacy-of-3d-print-guide-technique-in-one-stage-posterior-approach-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-and-thoracic-tuberculosis-with-kyphosis
#19
Nazierhan Shaxika, Z G Sun, H Yuan, H Wang
Objective: To investigate the application of 3D printing technology in the treatment of patients with cervical kyphosis and paraplegia in different segments of the cervical spine after one-stage debridement, bone graft fusion and pedicle screw fixation. Methods: From January 2008 to January 2017, a total of 31 patients with thoracolumbar tuberculosis were treated in the Department of Orthopaedics, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region people's Hospital.Lesions of the thoracic spine (T1-T4) in 8 cases, (C5-C7) in 10 cases, cervical and thoracic segment in 13 cases, involving a total of 2 cases of vertebral body in 7 cases, 3 cases of vertebral body in 14 cases, 4 cases of vertebral body...
November 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178717/the-influence-of-the-utilization-time-of-brush-heads-from-different-types-of-power-toothbrushes-on-oral-hygiene-assessed-over-a-6-month-observation-period-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Jan Schmickler, Sabine Wurbs, Susanne Wurbs, Katharina Kramer, Sven Rinke, Else Hornecker, Rainer F Mausberg, Dirk Ziebolz
PURPOSE: This randomized clinical trial investigated the influence of the utilization time of brush heads from different types of power toothbrushes [oscillating rotating (OR) and sonic action (SA)93; on oral hygiene (plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation) over a 6-month observation period. METHODS: 49 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: use of the same brush head over 6 months (NR: non-replacement) or replacement of brush head every 4 weeks over 6 months (R: replacement)...
December 2016: American Journal of Dentistry
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