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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337514/effect-of-sequential-treatment-with-bisphosphonates-after-teriparatide-in-ovariectomized-rats-a-direct-comparison-between-risedronate-and-alendronate
#1
Tetsuo Yano, Mei Yamada, Daisuke Inoue
Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant human parathyroid hormone N-terminal fragment (1-34), is a widely used bone anabolic drug for osteoporosis. Sequential treatment with antiresorptives such as bisphosphonates after TPTD discontinuation is generally recommended. However, relative effects of bisphosphonates have not been determined. In the present study, we directly compared effects of risedronate (RIS) and alendronate (ALN) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, structural property and strength in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, when administered after TPTD...
March 23, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335544/combination-effect-of-antituberculosis-drugs-and-ethanolic-extract-of-selected-medicinal-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#2
Prabasiwi Nur Fauziyah, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dhyan Kusuma Ayuningtyas
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323755/cyp2b6-genotype-directed-dosing-is-required-for-optimal-efavirenz-exposure-in-children-3-to-36-months-with-hiv-infection
#3
Carolyn Bolton Moore, Edmund V Capparelli, Pearl Samson, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Carol Worrell, Barbara Heckman, Lynette Purdue, Stephen A Spector, Alex Benns, William Borkowsky, Amy Loftis, Elizabeth Hawkins, Carole Wallis, Ellen G Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: To determine safety, efficacy and genotypic-specific dose requirements of EFV in children aged 3 - <36 months of age with HIV infection with or without TB co-infection. DESIGN: IMPAACT P1070 was a 24 week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3- < 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1). METHODS: CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined and intensive PK's were performed at week 2...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318340/characteristic-plethysmographic-findings-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-copd
#4
Edgar Ramírez-Ramírez, Armando Torres-Ramírez, Jesús Alquicira-Mireles, Abraham Cañavera-Constantino, Patricia Segura-Medina, Martha Montaño-Ramírez, Carlos Ramos-Abraham, Mario H Vargas, José Luis Arreola-Ramírez
AIM OF THE STUDY: Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke generates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in guinea pigs, but a comprehensive evaluation of changes in lung function, as assessed by barometric whole body plethysmography (WBP), is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke of 20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, during 10 weeks (COPD group, n = 8), and were compared with unexposed female guinea pigs of the same age (control group, n = 8)...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299403/effects-of-ifn-%C3%AE-1a-and-ifn-%C3%AE-1b-treatment-on-the-expression-of-cytokines-inducible-nos-nos-type-ii-and-myelin-proteins-in-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska, Adam Stepień, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Józef Langfort, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra)...
March 15, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289388/hla-b-57-allele-is-associated-with-concomitant-anti-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drugs-induced-liver-toxicity-in-ethiopians
#6
Zelalem Petros, Junko Kishikawa, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Abiy Habtewold, Eleni Aklillu
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a known adverse effect of both anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Recent studies highlight the implications of genetic predispositions to DILI. We performed a case-control study to identify Human Leukocyte Antigen-B (HLA-B) variant alleles associated with anti-TB and ARV co-treatment induced liver toxicity in Ethiopian TB and HIV co-infected patients. A total of 495 newly diagnosed TB and HIV co-infected patients were enrolled and received rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based ARV therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281839/glycemic-control-protects-against-trabecular-bone-microarchitectural-damage-in-a-juvenile-male-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes
#7
Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de Oliveira, Túlio Luiz Durigan Basso, Lucas Amaral Fontanari, Ana Paula de Souza Faloni, Élcio Marcantonio, Silvana Regina Perez Orrico
PURPOSE: To determine which features of the bone microarchitecture are affected by established diabetes mellitus (DM) and the effectiveness of glycemic control in the protection of bone tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty juvenile Wistar male rats were divided into three groups of 20 animals: a control group (C) that included healthy animals, a diabetic group (D) that included animals with induced diabetes, and a controlled diabetic group (CD) that included animals with induced diabetes that were treated with insulin...
March 10, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250792/traditional-chinese-medicine-bionic-tiger-bone-powder-for-the-treatment-of-ai-associated-musculoskeletal-symptoms
#8
Yifan Li, Zhenhua Zhang, Feifei Cui, Jialing Liu, Yitong Wang, Juling Jiang, Wenxin Ma, Wenping Lu
Background. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer; however AIMSS (AI-Associated Musculoskeletal Symptoms) can negatively affect quality of life and compliance. Most patients in China moved to TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) for help. TB (tiger bone) is used to treat bone disease, whose main ingredients are calcium and collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the TB prevented AIMSS in postmenopausal women with ER/PR+ breast cancer. Methods. We conducted a randomized, blind, controlled study of comparing TB versus placebo for 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with breast cancer who have taken AI for less than a month...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240566/bayesian-adaptive-randomization-in-a-clinical-trial-to-identify-new-regimens-for-mdr-tb-the-endtb-trial
#9
M Cellamare, M Milstein, S Ventz, E Baudin, L Trippa, C D Mitnick
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based optimization of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), including integration of new drugs, is urgent. Such optimization would benefit from efficient trial designs requiring fewer patients. Implementation of such innovative designs could accelerate improvements in and access to MDR-TB treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the application, advantages, and challenges of Bayesian adaptive randomization in a Phase III non-inferiority trial of MDR-TB treatment...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218329/dopamine-assisted-fixation-of-drug-loaded-polymeric-multilayers-to-osteoarticular-implants-for-tuberculosis-therapy
#10
Dan Li, Litao Li, Yunlong Ma, Yaping Zhuang, Dawei Li, Hong Shen, Xing Wang, Fei Yang, Yuanzheng Ma, Decheng Wu
Currently, the major issues in the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) after implant placement are low drug concentration at the infected focus and drug resistance resulting from the long-term chemotherapy. The application of drug-loaded polymeric multilayers on implantable devices offers a promising solution to the problems. Herein, a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel film embedded with isoniazid (INH)-loaded alginate microparticles was fixed to Ti implants via adhesive polydopamine, subsequently capped by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) membranes for the sustained and localized delivery of the anti-TB drug...
February 20, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#12
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
February 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207542/rifampicin-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-treatment-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Guo Chen, Jian-Qing He
RATIONALE: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by daily rifampicin therapy is rare, especially the patient is absent of malignancy, severe infection, and prior exposure to rifampicin. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of DIC induced by daily rifampicin treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A 22-year-old, previously healthy man received an anti-tuberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide on the daily dose recommended by the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines after a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193240/substitution-of-ethambutol-with-linezolid-during-the-intensive-phase-of-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicenter-randomized-open-label-phase-ii-trial
#14
Ji Yeon Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Jung-Kyu Lee, Ho Il Yoon, Ina Jeong, Eunyoung Heo, Young Sik Park, Jae Ho Lee, Sung Soo Park, Sang-Min Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jinwoo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Jong Sun Park, Joon-Sung Joh, Young-Jae Cho, Yeon Joo Lee, Se Joong Kim, Young Ran Hwang, Hyeonjeong Kim, Jongeun Ki, Hyungsook Choi, Jiyeon Han, Heejung Ahn, Seokyung Hahn, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, substantially improves treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We started a trial to test whether the use of linezolid instead of ethambutol could increase the rate of sputum culture conversion as of 8 weeks of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a phase II, multicenter, randomized study with three arms. We are enrolling patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without rifampicin resistance screened by the Xpert MTB/RIF® assay...
February 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177725/effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-supplementation-on-muscle-thickness-and-strength-in-resistance-trained-men
#15
Adam M Gonzalez, Katie M Sell, Jamie J Ghigiarelli, Christopher F Kelly, Edward W Shone, Matthew R Accetta, Jamie B Baum, Gerald T Mangine
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation on muscle thickness and strength following an 8 week supervised resistance-training program. Fifteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 3.5 years; 80.6 ± 8.7 kg; 178.1 ± 5.6 cm; 14.6% ± 8.8% body fat) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA or a placebo (PL). Testing was carried out before (PRE) and after (POST) training/supplementation for muscle thickness and strength. Muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were measured via ultrasonography, along with 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat, deadlift, and bench press...
January 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169940/role-of-posterior-stabilization-and-transpedicular-decompression-in-the-treatment-of-thoracic-and-thoracolumbar-tb-a-retrospective-evaluation
#16
Areena R D'souza, Bibhudendu Mohapatra, Murari L Bansal, Kalidutta Das
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of posterior pedicle-screw fixation with transpedicular decompression in 21 cases of thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) in terms of functional, neurological, and radiologic outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal TB is predominantly an anterior disease that can lead to kyphotic deformity. Hence, anterior debridement and fusion was considered as the gold standard...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166913/novel-risk-factors-and-early-detection-of-anti-tubercular-treatment-induced-liver-injury-looking-beyond-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#17
Muzamil Latief, Waseem Raja Dar, Najeebullah Sofi, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar, Basharat Kasana, Moomin Hussain, Faheem Arshad, Bashir Ahmad Shah, Parvaiz Ahmad Koul
INTRODUCTION: ATT remains the standard treatment for tuberculosis. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a long-standing concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) infection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence and risk factors of DILI in patients on ATT by regular clinical and biochemical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 200 patients, in whom ATT was started, were enrolled in the study. None of the patients with established risk factor for DILI as recognized by ATS guidelines was included in our study population...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161460/tuberculosis-associated-mortality-in-a-prospective-cohort-in-sub-saharan-africa-association-with-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Ramadhani Mwiru, Mecky I Matee, Martin Rao, Wafaie W Fawzi, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus J Maeurer, Ferdinand Mugusi
OBJECTIVE: Nine out of ten tuberculosis deaths occur in tuberculosis-burdened countries, particularly Sub Saharan Africa. In these setting mortality has not been fully described. We describe the magnitude and pattern of TB mortality in Tanzania. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted among HIV infected and uninfected pulmonary tuberculosis patients from time of anti-TB treatment initiation to completion. Patients were censored at the time of treatment completion, or at their last visit for those who did not complete TB treatment...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157463/use-of-antiretrovirals-in-hiv-infected-children-in-a-tuberculosis-prevention-trial-impaact-p1041
#19
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155286/wildlife-livestock-interactions-and-risk-areas-for-cross-species-spread-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#20
Natascha V Meunier, Peregrine Sebulime, Richard G White, Richard Kock
The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database...
January 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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