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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742150/efficacy-of-parenteral-vaccination-against-tuberculosis-with-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-in-experimentally-challenged-goats
#1
Claudia Arrieta-Villegas, Tania Perálvarez, Enric Vidal, Zoë Puighibet, Xavier Moll, Albert Canturri, Iker A Sevilla, Yvonne Espada, Ramón A Juste, Mariano Domingo, Bernat Pérez de Val
Tuberculosis (TB) in animals is a re-emerging disease with a wide range of hosts that causes large economic losses in livestock. Goats are particularly susceptible to TB and, in endemic areas, vaccination may be a valuable measure to control the disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral vaccination of goats with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB) vaccine, and compare it to M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Twenty-four goat kids were divided in 3 groups as following: HIMB vaccinated group (n = 8), BCG vaccinated group (n = 8) and unvaccinated group (n = 8)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739378/higher-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-are-associated-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-low-income-tropical-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Tsitsi Bandason, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: The inherent risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected individuals is further enhanced by hypovitaminosis D. Interventions that offset HIV-associated immune deterioration potentially arrest disease progression and incidence of opportunistic infections including TB. Despite conflicting reports on association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and risk of TB, vitamin D (VD) supplementation remains a promising intervention. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study on 145 HIV+ /pulmonary TB+ (PTB) and 139 HIV+ /PTB- hospitalised patients to investigate association of vitamin D status and risk of PTB...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732382/common-variation-in-nlrp3-is-associated-with-early-death-and-elevated-inflammasome-biomarkers-among-advanced-hiv-tb-co-infected-patients-in-botswana
#3
Shruthi Ravimohan, Kebatshabile Nfanyana, Neo Tamuhla, Caroline T Tiemessen, Drew Weissman, Gregory P Bisson
Background: Elevated inflammation is associated with early mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the sources of immune activation are unclear. We hypothesized that common variation in innate immune genes contributes to excessive inflammation linked to death. As single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammasome pathway genes can increase risk for inflammatory diseases, we investigated their association with early mortality among a previously described cohort of HIV/TB patients initiating ART in Botswana...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707322/incremental-cost-effectiveness-of-the-second-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Guirong Wang, Shuqi Wang, Guanglu Jiang, Yuhong Fu, Yuanyuan Shang, Hairong Huang
Background: Due to the non-homogeneity of specimens collected from tuberculosis (TB) suspects, repeated Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) may have potential clinical benefits. Incremental cost-effectiveness was analyzed for the second Xpert assay to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. Methods: Specimens were collected from 1,063 pulmonary TB (PTB) and 398 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) suspects, who had two Xpert tests sequentially within one week...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696707/daily-adjunctive-therapy-with-vitamin-d-3-and-phenylbutyrate-supports-clinical-recovery-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-ethiopia
#5
Amsalu Bekele, Nebiat Gebreselassie, Senait Ashenafi, Endale Kassa, Getachew Aseffa, Wondwossen Amogne, Meron Tefera, Abraham Aseffa, Alemayehu Worku, Rubhana Raqib, Birgitta Agerberth, Ulf Hammar, Peter Bergman, Getachew Aderaye, Jan Andersson, Susanna Brighenti
OBJECTIVE: Immunotherapy using vitamin D (vitD3 ) and phenylbutyrate (PBA), may support standard drug regimens used to treat infectious diseases. We investigated if vitD3 +PBA enhanced clinical recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients with smear-positive or smear-negative TB received daily oral supplementation with 5000IU vitD3 and 2×500mg PBA or placebo for 16 weeks, together with 6-months chemotherapy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691363/detection-of-circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-dna-by-droplet-digital-pcr-for-vaccine-evaluation-in-challenged-monkeys-and-tb-diagnosis
#6
Neng Song, Yang Tan, Lingyun Zhang, Wei Luo, Qing Guan, Ming-Zhe Yan, Ruiqi Zuo, Weixiang Liu, Feng-Ling Luo, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is emerging as a more serious pathogen due to the increased multidrug-resistant TB and co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of an effective and sensitive detection method is urgently needed for bacterial load evaluation in vaccine development, early TB diagnosis, and TB treatment. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a newly developed sensitive PCR method for the absolute quantification of nucleic acid concentrations. Here, we used ddPCR to quantify the circulating virulent M...
April 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685141/sinew-acupuncture-for-knee-osteoarthritis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#7
Kwok Yin Au, Haiyong Chen, Wing Chung Lam, Chiu On Chong, Andrew Lau, Varut Vardhanabhuti, Kin Cheung Mak, Fei Jiang, Wing Yi Lam, Fung Man Wu, Hiu Ngok Chan, Yan Wah Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung Ng, Eric Tat-Chi Ziea, Lixing Lao
BACKGROUND: Sinew acupuncture is a new modality of acupuncture in which needles are inserted into acupoints, ashi points or spasm points of sinew and muscles along the meridian sinew pathway. A previous observational study revealed that sinew acupuncture has immediate analgesic effects on various soft tissue injuries, including knee injuries. However, no rigorous trials have been conducted. This study aims to examine whether sinew acupuncture can safely relieve pain and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and improve patients' functional movement and quality of life...
April 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670618/bcg-and-adverse-events-in-the-context-of-leprosy
#8
Renate Richardus, Anouk van Hooij, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663959/quality-assurance-of-rifampicin-containing-fixed-drug-combinations-in-south-africa-dosing-implications
#9
R Court, M T Chirehwa, L Wiesner, B Wright, W Smythe, N Kramer, H McIlleron
SETTING: Rifampicin (RMP) drives treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Low RMP concentrations increase the risk of poor outcomes, and drug quality needs to be excluded as a contributor to low RMP exposure. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We performed an open-label, three-way cross-over study of three licensed RMP-containing formulations widely used in South Africa to evaluate the bioavailability of RMP in a two-drug fixed-dose combination tablet (2FDC) and a four-drug FDC (4FDC) against a single-drug reference...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663957/high-utility-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-ethiopian-prison
#10
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661112/osteoporotic-effect-on-bone-repair-in-lumbar-vertebral-body-defects-in-a-rat-model
#11
Munehiro Sakata, Hitoshi Tonomura, Tomonori Itsuji, Hidenobu Ishibashi, Ryota Takatori, Yasuo Mikami, Masateru Nagae, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
INTRODUCTION: The number of patients who suffered from osteoporotic vertebral fractures is increasing. Osteoporosis has been reported to affect the healing process using long bone models. However, few studies have reported using vertebrae. In this study, we created a bone defect in the anterior part of vertebral body in ovariectomized rat and evaluated the healing process. METHODS: Fifty-six 12-week old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into ovariectomy (OVX) and sham operation groups...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617083/retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-nephroureterectomy-with-distal-and-intramural-ureter-resection-for-a-tuberculous-non-functional-kidney
#12
Canqiang Li, Yi Yang, Le Xu, Minjie Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of total retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with urinary-bladder junction resection for a tuberculous non-functional kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 27 individuals diagnosed with unilateral non-functional kidney secondary to tuberculosis were treated between June 2011 and June 2015. All patients had normal renal function on the contralateral side and underwent the standard four-drug anti-tuberculosis treatment for at least four weeks before surgery...
April 3, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592805/liver-toxicity-associated-with-tuberculosis-chemotherapy-in-the-remoxtb-study
#13
Conor Duncan Tweed, Genevieve Helen Wills, Angela M Crook, Rodney Dawson, Andreas H Diacon, Cheryl E Louw, Timothy D McHugh, Carl Mendel, Sarah Meredith, Lerato Mohapi, Michael E Murphy, Stephen Murray, Sara Murthy, Andrew J Nunn, Patrick P J Phillips, Kasha Singh, M Spigelman, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common complication of tuberculosis treatment. We utilised data from the REMoxTB clinical trial to describe the incidence of predisposing factors and the natural history in patients with liver enzyme levels elevated in response to tuberculosis treatment. METHODS: Patients received either standard tuberculosis treatment (2EHRZ/4HR), or a 4-month regimen in which moxifloxacin replaced either ethambutol (isoniazid arm, 2MHRZ/2MHR) or isoniazid (ethambutol arm, 2EMRZ/2MR)...
March 28, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587840/risk-factors-affecting-the-mortality-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-cart-era-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-china
#14
Yong-Jia Ji, Pei-Pei Liang, Jia-Yin Shen, Jian-Jun Sun, Jun-Yang Yang, Jun Chen, Tang-Kai Qi, Zhen-Yan Wang, Wei Song, Yang Tang, Li Liu, Ren-Fang Zhang, Yin-Zhong Shen, Hong-Zhou Lu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection still places a great burden on HIV-infected individuals in China and other developing countries. Knowledge of the survival of HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) would provide important insights for the clinical management of this population, which remains to be well described in current China. METHODS: HIV-infected patients with PTB admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January 2011 to December 2015 were retrospectively enrolled...
March 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577595/comparison-of-different-grafting-materials-for-treatment-of-bone-defect-distal-to-the-molar-in-canine
#15
Jing Ge, Chi Yang, Yong Wang, Jiawei Zheng, Hongfei Hua, Jun Zhu
BACKGROUND: The extraction of impacted mandibular 3rd molar is highly related to bone defect distal to the adjacent 2nd molar. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different grafting materials for the treatment of bone defect distal to the mandibular molar in canine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 beagle dogs, bilateral mandibular 2nd and 3rd molars were extracted and entire mesial bone of the 2nd molar extracted socket was surgically removed...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557350/acute-presentation-of-koch-s-abdomen-in-children-our-experience
#16
Basant Kumar, Vijai Dutta Upadhyaya, Sandeep Kumar Rahul, Laxmi Kant Bharti, Ram Nawal Rao, Sheo Kumar
Background: To analyse our experience with acute presentations of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) in children for early diagnosis and management. Materials and Methods: From December 2010 to April 2016, available electronic and operation theatre (OT) records of 17 patients with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal TB were analysed retrospectively. Parameters reviewed were age, sex, presentations, diagnostic investigations, surgery/intervention performed, final outcome and follow-up...
July 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547438/multitype-violence-exposures-and-adolescent-antiretroviral-nonadherence-in-south-africa
#17
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive adolescents have low-ART adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity, and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART adherence with adolescent violence victimization by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
May 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546302/theobromine-is-responsible-for-the-effects-of-cocoa-on-the-antibody-immune-status-of-rats
#18
Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell
Background: A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. Objectives: This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514175/delayed-sputum-conversion-in-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-with-low-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-concentrations
#19
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Amrei von Braun, Mohammed Lamorde, Bruno Ledergerber, Allan Buzibye, Lars Henning, Joseph Musaazi, Ursula Gutteck, Paolo Denti, Miné de Kock, Alexander Jetter, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Nadia Eberhard, Joshua Matovu, Moses Joloba, Daniel Muller, Yukari C Manabe, Moses R Kamya, Natascia Corti, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan S Fehr
Background: The relationship between concentrations of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, sputum conversion and treatment outcome remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and sputum conversion among TB-HIV co-infected patients on first-line anti-TB drugs. Method: We enrolled HIV-infected Ugandans with pulmonary TB. Estimation of first-line anti-TB drug concentrations was performed 1, 2, and 4 hours after drug intake at 2, 8, and 24 weeks of TB treatment...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483112/plasma-levels-of-rifampin-correlate-with-the-tuberculosis-drug-activity-assay
#20
Katarina Niward, Linnea Ek Blom, Lina Davies Forsman, Judith Bruchfeld, Erik Eliasson, Thomas Schön, Erja Chryssanthou, Jakob Paues
The plasma tuberculosis drug activity (TDA) assay may be an alternative tool for therapeutic drug monitoring in resource-limited settings. In tuberculosis (TB) patients ( n = 30), TDA and plasma levels of first-line drugs were analyzed 2 h postdose, 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Patients with plasma levels of rifampin lower than 8 mg/liter had a significantly lower median TDA (1.40 versus 1.68, P = 0.0013). TDA may be used to identify TB patients with suboptimal rifampin levels during TB treatment.
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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