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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547750/management-of-long-term-therapy-with-biological-drugs-in-psoriatic-patients-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-real-life-setting
#1
Andrea Conti, Stefano Piaserico, Paolo Gisondi, Giulia Odorici, Giovanna Galdo, Claudia Lasagni, Giovanni Pellacani
Psoriatic patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) need a prophylaxis before starting a treatment with biological drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of prophylaxis of LTBI in psoriatic patients receiving long-term biological drugs. The study included 56 patients (42 male and 14 female) affected by moderate-to-severe psoriasis (mean PASI: 12.8 ± 6.9 SD) treated with anti-TNF-α and/or anti IL 12, 23 and/or anti-CD11 drugs with a diagnosis of LTBI. LTBI diagnosis was based on tuberculin skin test and/or QuantiFERON TB Gold test positivity and chest X-ray suggestive, without clinical, or microbiological evidence of active disease...
May 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511392/the-diagnostic-value-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-antigen-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#2
Agustin Iskandar, Erlin Nursiloningrum, Maimun Zulhaidah Arthamin, Ery Olivianto, Mas Slamet Chandrakusuma
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505015/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#3
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine- versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine versus efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/mL at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (P = 0...
June 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482418/-cerebrospinal-fluid-adenosine-deaminase-and-its-dynamic-changes-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#4
X L Li, L P Ma, H M Chen, L Q Zhang, X G Wu, M Q Gao
Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in tuberculous meningitis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 139 patients (73 males, 66 females) who visited Beijing Chest Hospital for suspected TBM from January 2010 to June 2015. Of them, 99 patients were diagnosed to have TBM, with 45 males and 54 females, and a mean age of (33±15) years. Forty patients were diagnosed as having Non-TBM, with 28 males and 12 females, and a mean age of (35±18) years...
May 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472255/clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculous-meningitis-treated-with-an-intensified-antituberculosis-regimen
#5
A Dorothee Heemskerk, Mai Thi Hoang Nguyen, Ha Thi Minh Dang, Chau Van Vinh Nguyen, Lan Huu Nguyen, Thu Dang Anh Do, Thuong Thuy Thuong Nguyen, Marcel Wolbers, Jeremy Day, Thao Thi Phuong Le, Bang Duc Nguyen, Maxine Caws, Guy E Thwaites
Background.: Drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is difficult to diagnose and treat. Mortality is high and optimal treatment is unknown. We compared clinical outcomes of drug-resistant and -susceptible TBM treated with either standard or intensified antituberculosis treatment. Methods.: We analyzed the influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance on the outcomes of patients with TBM enrolled into a randomized controlled trial comparing a standard, 9-month antituberculosis regimen (containing rifampicin 10 mg/kg/day) with an intensified regimen with higher-dose rifampicin (15 mg/kg/day) and levofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) for the first 8 weeks...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#6
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441064/bacillus-calmette-guerin-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-by-preventing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Xinrui Tian, Xinli Tian, Rujie Huo, Qin Chang, Guoping Zheng, Yan Du, Yan Chen, Bo Niu
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a potent agent for the prevention of tuberculosis. Current studies have regarded BCG as an immunomodulator. However, there is little information on whether it can be used to inhibit airway inflammation and airway remodeling caused by asthma. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in airway inflammation and airway remodeling as well as the possible therapeutic mechanism of BCG for the treatment of asthma. Wistar rats were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin for 2 weeks or 8 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429905/maintenance-vitamin-d3-dosage-requirements-in-chinese-women-with-post-menopausal-osteoporosis-living-in-the-tropics
#8
Yogeswari Venugopal, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad Hatta, Nurbazlin Musa, Siti Abdul Rahman, Jeyakantha Ratnasingam, Sharmila Sunita Paramasivam, Lee Ling Lim, Luqman Ibrahim, Karen Choong, Alexander Tb Tan, Karuthan Chinna, Siew Pheng Chan, Shireene R Vethakkan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419514/activation-of-tlr7-inhibition-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-survival-by-autophagy-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#9
Meng Bao, Zhengjun Yi, Yurong Fu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regulation of TLR7 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival in macrophages. TLR7 expression in macrophages infected by Mtb was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Regulation of TLR7 was achieved by single strand RNA (ssRNA) or siRNA. The effects of TLR7 on Mtb survival and cell viability were detected by acid fast staining and cell counting kit-8, respectively. Cell ultrastructure was observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and autophagy related protein LC3 was analyzed by Western blotting...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416342/long-term-safety-and-tolerability-of-apremilast-in-patients-with-psoriasis-pooled-safety-analysis-for-%C3%A2-156%C3%A2-weeks-from-2-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trials-esteem-1-and-2
#10
Jeffrey Crowley, Diamant Thaçi, Pascal Joly, Ketty Peris, Kim A Papp, Joana Goncalves, Robert M Day, Rongdean Chen, Kamal Shah, Carlos Ferrándiz, Jennifer C Cather
BACKGROUND: Randomized, controlled trials demonstrated efficacy and safety of apremilast for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVE: Assess long-term safety of oral apremilast in psoriasis patients. METHODS: Safety findings are reported for 0 to ≥156 weeks from the Efficacy and Safety Trial Evaluating the Effects of Apremilast in Psoriasis (ESTEEM) 1 and 2. RESULTS: The 0 to ≥156-week apremilast-exposure period included 1184 patients treated twice daily with apremilast 30 mg (1902...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406806/improved-hiv-and-tb-knowledge-and-competence-among-mid-level-providers-in-a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-one-on-one-mentorship-for-task-shifting
#11
Sarah Naikoba, Kaggwa Dan Senjovu, Pallen Mugabe, Carey McCarthy, Patricia L Riley, Damazo Trevor Kadengye, Shona Dalal
INTRODUCTION: Health worker shortages pose a challenge to the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in Uganda. Training mid-level providers (MLP) in the provision of HIV and TB treatment can expand existing health workforce capacity and access to HIV services. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of, on-site clinical mentorship for HIV and TB care at 10 health facilities in rural Uganda. Twenty MLP and were randomly assigned to an intervention of eight hours a week of one on one mentorship, every six weeks over a nine month period; and another twenty to the control of no clinical mentorship...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#12
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373190/delamanid-kills-dormant-mycobacteria-in-vitro-and-in-the-guinea-pig-model-of-tuberculosis
#13
Xiuhao Chen, Hiroyuki Hashizume, Tatsuo Tomishige, Izuru Nakamura, Miki Matsuba, Mamoru Fujiwara, Ryuki Kitamoto, Erina Hanaki, Yoshio Ooba, Makoto Matsumoto
TB treatment is long and requires multiple drugs, likely due to various phenotypes of TB bacilli with variable drug-susceptibility. Drugs with broad activity are urgently needed. The study aimed to evaluate delamanid's activity against growing or dormant bacilli in vitro as well as in vivo Culture of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo under aerobic and anaerobic condition was used to study delamanid's activity against growing and dormant bacilli, respectively. Delamanid exhibited significant bactericidal activity against replicating and dormant bacilli at or above the concentrations of 0...
April 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367796/contact-investigation-after-a-fatal-case-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-in-an-aircraft-germany-july-2013
#14
Maria An der Heiden, Barbara Hauer, Lena Fiebig, Gisela Glaser-Paschke, Markus Stemmler, Claudia Simon, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Andreas Gilsdorf, Walter Haas
In July 2013, a passenger died of infectious extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) on board of an aircraft after a 3-hour flight from Turkey to Germany. Initial information indicated the patient had moved about the aircraft coughing blood. We thus aimed to contact and inform all persons exposed within the aircraft and to test them for newly acquired TB infection. Two-stage testing within 8 weeks from exposure and at least 8 weeks after exposure was suggested, using either interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) or tuberculin skin test (TST)...
March 23, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340562/drug-induced-liver-injury-from-antituberculous-treatment-a-retrospective-study-from-a-large-tb-centre-in-the-uk
#15
Aula Abbara, Sarah Chitty, Jennifer K Roe, Rohma Ghani, Simon M Collin, Andrew Ritchie, Onn Min Kon, John Dzvova, Harriet Davidson, Thomas E Edwards, Charlotte Hateley, Matthew Routledge, Jim Buckley, Robert N Davidson, Laurence John
BACKGROUND: We describe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) secondary to antituberculous treatment (ATT) in a large tuberculosis (TB) centre in London; we identify the proportion who had risk factors for DILI and the timing and outcome of DILI. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients who developed DILI whilst on treatment for active TB; patients with active TB without DILI were selected as controls. Comprehensive demographic and clinical data, management and outcome were recorded...
March 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337514/effect-of-sequential-treatment-with-bisphosphonates-after-teriparatide-in-ovariectomized-rats-a-direct-comparison-between-risedronate-and-alendronate
#16
Tetsuo Yano, Mei Yamada, Daisuke Inoue
Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant human parathyroid hormone N-terminal fragment (1-34), is a widely used bone anabolic drug for osteoporosis. Sequential treatment with antiresorptives such as bisphosphonates after TPTD discontinuation is generally recommended. However, relative effects of bisphosphonates have not been determined. In the present study, we directly compared effects of risedronate (RIS) and alendronate (ALN) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, structural property and strength in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, when administered after TPTD...
March 23, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335544/combination-effect-of-antituberculosis-drugs-and-ethanolic-extract-of-selected-medicinal-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#17
Prabasiwi Nur Fauziyah, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dhyan Kusuma Ayuningtyas
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323755/cyp2b6-genotype-directed-dosing-is-required-for-optimal-efavirenz-exposure-in-children-3-36-months-with-hiv-infection
#18
Carolyn Bolton Moore, Edmund V Capparelli, Pearl Samson, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Carol Worrell, Barbara Heckman, Lynette Purdue, Stephen A Spector, Alex Benns, William Borkowsky, Amy Loftis, Elizabeth Hawkins, Carole Wallis, Ellen G Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: To determine safety-specific, efficacy-specific and genotypic-specific dose requirements of efavirenz (EFV) in children aged 3 to less than 36 months with HIV infection. DESIGN: IMPAACT P1070 was a 24-week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3 to less than 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1). METHODS: CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined, and intensive pharmacokinetics was performed at week 2...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318340/characteristic-plethysmographic-findings-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-copd
#19
Edgar Ramírez-Ramírez, Armando Torres-Ramírez, Jesús Alquicira-Mireles, Abraham Cañavera-Constantino, Patricia Segura-Medina, Martha Montaño-Ramírez, Carlos Ramos-Abraham, Mario H Vargas, José Luis Arreola-Ramírez
AIM OF THE STUDY: Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke generates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in guinea pigs, but a comprehensive evaluation of changes in lung function, as assessed by barometric whole body plethysmography (WBP), is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke of 20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, during 10 weeks (COPD group, n = 8), and were compared with unexposed female guinea pigs of the same age (control group, n = 8)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299403/effects-of-ifn-%C3%AE-1a-and-ifn-%C3%AE-1b-treatment-on-the-expression-of-cytokines-inducible-nos-nos-type-ii-and-myelin-proteins-in-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska, Adam Stepień, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Józef Langfort, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra)...
March 15, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
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