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phenylalanine metabolism

Surya Narayan Pradhan, Aleena Das, Ramovatar Meena, Ranjan Kumar Nanda, Paulraj Rajamani
Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Bingxian Yang, Qijie Guan, Jingkui Tian, Setsuko Komatsu
: High level of UV-B irradiation followed by dark treatment (HUV-B+D) causes accumulation of secondary metabolites in Clematis terniflora DC. To investigate the response mechanism under HUV-B+D, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed in leaves of C. terniflora. The number of genes related to tetrapyrrole synthesis, amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mitochondrial electron transport chains was hierarchically changed in leaves of C. terniflora under HUV-B+D...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Mary Anne D Chiong, Marilyn A Tan, Cynthia P Cordero, Esphie Grace D Fodra, Judy S Manliguis, Cristine P Lopez, Leslie Michelle M Dalmacio
BACKGROUND: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the country. The cause of the neuropathology is still not well established although accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and alteration in large neutral amino acids (LNAA) as well as energy deprivation are suggested. It is therefore the aim of this study to determine the plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of patients with MSUD and correlate the findings with their neurologic features...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
W Wu, J Xie, H Zhang
Dietary fibers (DFs), widely used as food additives to replace fat, can benefit metabolic disorders. Soluble and highly fermentable inulin (INU) and insoluble and less fermentable microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have hypolipidemic or cholesterol-lowering effects, respectively. The current study was aimed at identifying plasma metabolite signatures and metabolic pathways associated with inclusion of DFs with different physiochemical properties, which will lead to a better understanding of functional pathways for DFs to improve metabolic health...
October 18, 2016: Food & Function
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kamini Dangat, Deepti Upadhyay, Anitha Kilari, Uma Sharma, Nisha Kemse, Savita Mehendale, Sanjay Lalwani, Girija Wagh, Sadhana Joshi, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the metabolic profile of milk on day 3 and at the 6th month of lactation in mothers with preeclampsia (PE) and normotensive mothers. STUDY DESIGN: Women with PE (n=29) and control women (n=31) were recruited for this study. Milk was collected on day 3 and at the 6th month of lactation. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to identify 25 milk metabolites (alpha-lactose, beta-lactose, oligosaccharides, myo-inositol, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, acetone, citrate, creatine, phosphocreatine, acetate, choline, lactate, lipid, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine)...
October 12, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Sara Mazzucco, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Stefano Lazzer, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Joern Rittweger, Mladen Gasparini, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Narici
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (D5Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Orsolya K Gondor, Tibor Janda, Vilmos Soós, Magda Pál, Imre Majláth, Malay K Adak, Ervin Balázs, Gabriella Szalai
Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chaoyang Zhou, Lingling Shi, Bin Ye, Haichao Feng, Ji Zhang, Ruifu Zhang, Xin Yan
Aside from applications in the production of commercial enzymes and metabolites, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is also an important group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that supports plant growth and suppresses phytopathogens. A host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker would enable rapid genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering, accelerating the study of B. amyloliquefaciens and its development as both a microbial cell factory and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, a host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker pheS (*) was constructed through a point mutation of the gene pheS, which encodes the α-subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Bacillus subtilis strain 168...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qingnan Chu, Zhimin Sha, Takuji Nakamura, Norikuni Oka, Mitsuru Osaki, Toshihiro Watanabe
In this study, we determined the capacity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Hoyoharuka) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to utilize different forms of nitrogen (N) in a rhizobox experiment. We assessed the distribution of different forms of N and microbial metabolism in the rhizosphere. Seedlings were grown for 35 days without N or with 130 mg N kg-1 soil as ammonium sulfate or farmyard cattle manure. We detected no treatment-dependent changes in biomass production in the roots and shoots of the soybeans...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Huazhe Si, Xiaoxu Wang, Wenxi Qian, Zhigang Zhang, Guangyu Li
The rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. However, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. Here, we used sika deer (Cervus nippon) and elk (Cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (SEH) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (ESH). Then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybrid offspring...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Menelaos G Kanakis, Helen Michelakakis, Petros Petrou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Ilias Georgalas
BACKGROUND: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder, affecting the metabolism of branched chain amino-acids (Valine, Leukine, Isoleukine). We present a rare case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a MSUD patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We performed amino acid analysis of aqueous humour, vitreous and serum samples obtained during surgery from a 24 year old female MSUD patient successfully operated on RRD. Serum values for a-amino-butyric acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, ornithine and histidine were low, while values for citrulline, methionine and lysine were borderline low, all attributed to the patient's special diet...
October 3, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Øivind Midttun, Adrian McCann, Ove Aarseth, Marit Krokeide, Gry Kvalheim, Klaus Meyer, Per Magne Ueland
Targeted metabolic profiling characterized by complementary platforms, multiplexing and low volume consumption are increasingly used for studies using biobank material. Using liquid-liquid extraction, we developed a sample workup suitable for quantification of 6 fat- and 26 water-soluble biomarkers. 50μL of serum/plasma was mixed with dithioerythritol, ethanol and isooctane/chloroform. The organic layer was used for analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol (E), γ-tocopherol (E) and phylloquinone (K1) by LC-MS/MS...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Valentina Di Pietro, Stefano Signoretti, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
In this study, concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and amino group containing compounds (AGCC) following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, mTBI; severe TBI, sTBI) were evaluated. After 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hr aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), histidine (His), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), citrulline (Cit), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), l-cystathionine (l-Cystat), valine (Val), methionine (Met), tryptophane (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), ornithine (Orn), lysine (Lys), plus N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Pierre Simonet, Karen Gaget, Nicolas Parisot, Gabrielle Duport, Marjolaine Rey, Gérard Febvay, Hubert Charles, Patrick Callaerts, Stefano Colella, Federica Calevro
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a key tyrosine-biosynthetic enzyme involved in neurological and melanin-associated physiological processes. Despite extensive investigations in holometabolous insects, a PAH contribution to insect embryonic development has never been demonstrated. Here, we have characterized, for the first time, the PAH gene in a hemimetabolous insect, the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses confirmed that ApPAH is closely related to metazoan PAH, exhibiting the typical ACT regulatory and catalytic domains...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gaokun Qiu, Yan Zheng, Hao Wang, Jie Sun, Hongxia Ma, Yang Xiao, Yizhun Li, Yu Yuan, Handong Yang, Xiulou Li, Xinwen Min, Ce Zhang, Chengwei Xu, Yue Jiang, Xiaomin Zhang, Meian He, Ming Yang, Zhibin Hu, Huiru Tang, Hongbing Shen, Frank B Hu, An Pan, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics studies in Caucasians have identified a number of novel metabolites in association with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, few prospective metabolomic studies are available in Chinese populations. In the present study, we sought to identify novel metabolites consistently associated with incident T2D in two independent cohorts of Chinese adults. METHODS: We performed targeted metabolomics (52 metabolites) of fasting plasma samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two prospective case-control studies nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort and Jiangsu Non-communicable Disease (JSNCD) cohort...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Qingzhu Hua, Qianjun Zhou, Susheng Gan, Jingyu Wu, Canbin Chen, Jiaqiang Li, Yaoxiong Ye, Jietang Zhao, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hua Dai, Yin-Yin Xia, Ting-Li Han Ting-Li Han, Philip N Baker Philip N Baker, Xu Tang, Rui-Yuan Zhang, Hang DU, Tong-Jian Cai, Shu-Qun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on cerebral cortex and serum metabolics of mice and explore the mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. METHODS: Twelve 3-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into exposure group and control group and exposed to sodium arsenite (50 mg/L) via drinking water and deionized water for 12 weeks, respectively. After the exposure, arsenic level in the cerebrum was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Fu-Lien Hsieh, Louise Turner, Jani Reddy Bolla, Carol V Robinson, Thomas Lavstsen, Matthew K Higgins
CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in fatty acid metabolism, innate immunity and angiogenesis. It interacts with lipoprotein particles and facilitates uptake of long chain fatty acids. It is also the most common target of the PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, tethering parasite-infected erythrocytes to endothelial receptors. This prevents their destruction by splenic clearance and allows increased parasitaemia. Here we describe the structure of CD36 in complex with long chain fatty acids and a CD36-binding PfEMP1 protein domain...
2016: Nature Communications
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