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phenylalanine metabolism

A Loras, M Trassierra, D Sanjuan-Herráez, M C Martínez-Bisbal, J V Castell, G Quintás, J L Ruiz-Cerdá
Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) is among the most frequent malignant cancers worldwide. NMIBC is treated by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and intravesical therapies, and has the highest recurrence rate among solid tumors. It requires a lifelong patient monitoring based on repeated cystoscopy and urinary cytology, both having drawbacks that include lack of sensitivity and specificity, invasiveness and care costs. We conducted an investigative clinical study to examine changes in the urinary metabolome of NMBIC patients before and after TURBT, as well during the subsequent surveillance period...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liang Chen, Shilai Shi, Ninfei Jiang, Hira Khanzada, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Changlan Zhu, Xiaosong Peng, Jie Xu, Yujin Chen, Qiuying Yu, Xiaopeng He, Junru Fu, Xiaorong Chen, Lifang Hu, Linjuan Ouyang, Xiaotang Sun, Haohua He, Jianmin Bian
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play a vital role in several gene regulatory networks involved in the various biological processes in plants related to stress response. However, systematic analyses of lncRNAs expressed in rice Cadmium (Cd) stress are seldom studied. Thus, we presented the characterization and expression of lncRNAs in rice root development at an early stage in response to Cd stress. RESULTS: The lncRNA deep sequencing revealed differentially expressed lncRNAs among Cd stress and normal condition...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Chan Hee Mok, Crystal L Levesque, Kristine L Urschel
Threonine has been reported to be the second limiting amino acid in typical equine diets, but its actual requirement has not been determined in horses. To evaluate amino acid metabolism and requirements, the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method has been successfully used in other species. The objective of this research was to estimate threonine requirements in mature horses fed timothy hay and concentrate in 4:1 ratio using the IAAO method. Six Thoroughbred mares (579.9 ± 46.7 kg) received each of 6 levels of threonine intake, 41, 51, 61, 70, 80 and 89 mg/kg BW/day, in a randomly determined order...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Amany K Elshorbagy, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl Turner, Helga Refsum, Leonie K Heilbronn
Background: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes. Objective: We investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption. Methods: Forty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean ± SEM) of 25.6 ± 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
XiaoCui Li, MingHong Yin, JinPing Gu, YanYan Hou, FuJu Tian, Feng Sun
BACKGROUND Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics have been deployed to detect novel differential metabolites in cases with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty patients who had recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs) and 51 control patients (age, gestational age, and body mass index (BMI) match) were enrolled in this study. Untargeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS were combined to discover and validate the different metabolomic profiles between groups...
June 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Martina A Steurer, Scott Oltman, Rebecca J Baer, Sky Feuer, Liang Liang, Randi A Paynter, Larry Rand, Kelli K Ryckman, Roberta L Keller, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
BACKGROUND: There is an emerging evidence that pulmonary hypertension is associated with amino acid, carnitine, and thyroid hormone aberrations. We aimed to characterize metabolic profiles measured by the newborn screen (NBS) in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) METHODS: Nested case-control study from population-based database. Cases were infants with ICD-9 code for PPHN receiving mechanical ventilation. Controls receiving mechanical ventilation were matched 2:1 for gestational age, sex, birth weight, parenteral nutrition administration, and age at NBS collection...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Wei Li, Yun Yang, Chong Qiao, Guolin Zhang, Yinggang Luo
Galanthamine (GAL), the well-known Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, is a clinically used drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. L-Phenylalanine (Phe) and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) were enzymatically transformed into the catechol portion of GAL. Herein, a Phe ammonia-lyase-encoding gene LrPAL3 and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase-encoding gene LrC4H were cloned from Lycoris radiata, a GAL-producing plant. LrPAL3 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. LrPAL3 catalyzes the forward deamination conversion of L-Phe into trans-CA...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Reza Alibakhshi, Keivan Moradi, Mostafa Biglari, Samaneh Shafieenia
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common known inherited metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the status of molecular defects in phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH ) gene in western Iranian PKU patients (predominantly from Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces) during 2014-2016. Additionally, the results were compared with similar studies in Iran. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene was performed in 18 western Iranian PKU patients...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Feiran Wang, Haitao Shi, Shuxiang Wang, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) and supplementing with certain amino acids (AAs) has been known as a potential solution to improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in dairy production. Thus understanding how AAs are utilized in various sites along the gut is critical. AA flow from the intestine to portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver then to the mammary gland was elaborated in this article. Recoveries in individual AA in PDV and liver seem to share similar AA pattern with input: output ratio in mammary gland, which subdivides essential AA (EAA) into two groups, lysine (Lys) and branched-chain AA (BCAA) in group 1, input: output ratio > 1; methionine (Met), histidine (His), phenylalanine (Phe) etc...
June 10, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Federica Romano, Gaia Meoni, Valeria Manavella, Giacomo Baima, Leonardo Tenori, Stefano Cacciatore, Mario Aimetti
BACKGROUND: Recent findings about the differential gene expression signature of periodontal lesions have raised the hypothesis of distinctive biological phenotypes expressed by generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) patients. Therefore, this cross-sectional investigation was planned, primarily, to determine the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis of unstimulated whole saliva to discriminate GCP and GAgP disease-specific metabolomic fingerprint and, secondarily, to assess potential metabolites discriminating periodontitis patients from periodontally healthy individuals (HI)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Stefan Kölker
Amino acids are involved in various metabolic pathways and some of them also act as neurotransmitters. Since biosynthesis of L-glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) requires 2-oxoglutarate while 3-phosphoglycerate is the precursor of L-glycine and D-serine, evolutionary selection of these amino acid neurotransmitters might have been driven by their capacity to provide important information about the glycolytic pathway and Krebs cycle. Synthesis and recycling of amino acid neurotransmitters as well as composition and function of their receptors are often compromised in inherited metabolic diseases...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jumpei Sasabe, Masataka Suzuki
Mammalian innate and adaptive immune systems use the pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors, to detect conserved bacterial and viral components. Bacteria synthesize diverse D-amino acids while eukaryotes and archaea generally produce two D-amino acids, raising the possibility that many of bacterial D-amino acids are bacteria-specific metabolites. Although D-amino acids have not been identified to bind to any known pattern recognition receptors, D-amino acids are enantioselectively recognized by some other receptors and enzymes including a flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) in mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chenyu Yang, Yingbo Liang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
BACKGROUND: BcGs1, a cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE), was originally derived from Botrytis cinerea. Our previous study revealed that BcGs1 could trigger defense responses and protect plants against various pathogens. We researched the defense response mechanism underlying this BcGs1 elicitation in tomato. RESULTS: We revealed that the two domains were required for BcGs1's full necrosis activity. According to analysis and quantitative real-time PCR of the up-regulated proteins and genes filtered by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome approach, oxidative metabolism and phenylpropanoid metabolism were speculated to be involved in BcGs1-triggered defense response in tomato...
June 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
J Rusnak, M Behnes, A Saleh, C Fastner, K Sattler, C Barth, A Wenke, B Sartorius, K Mashayekhi, U Hoffmann, G Yuecel, S Lang, M Borggrefe, I Akin
BACKGROUND: Interventional closure of left atrial appendage (LAAC) represents an alternative for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Whether LAAC may affect metabolomic pathways has not been investigated yet. This study evaluates the impact of LAAC on the metabolism of essential amino acids, kynurenine and creatinine. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples of prospectively enrolled patients undergoing successful LAAC were taken before (T0) and 6 months after (T1, mid-term follow-up)...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Zhuoling An, Chao Li, Yali Lv, Pengfei Li, Cheng Wu, Lihong Liu
Metabolic pathway disturbances associated with drug-induced liver injury remain unsatisfactorily characterized. Diagnostic biomarkers for hepatotoxicity have been used to minimize drug-induced liver injury and to increase the clinical safety. A metabolomics strategy using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) analyses and multivariate statistics was implemented to identify potential biomarkers for hydrazine-induced hepatotoxicity. The global serum and urine metabolomics of 30 hydrazine-treated rats at 24 or 48 h postdosing and 24 healthy rats were characterized by a metabolomics approach...
2018: Disease Markers
Chunguo Wang, Chenyue Liu, Min Wang, Quantao Ma, Yaqi Li, Ting Wang, Baosheng Zhao
Kudiezi injection (KDZI), also known as Diemailing injection, is a traditional Chinese medicine injection of the composite plant Ixeris sonchifolia Hance (also known as Kudiezi), and has been widely used to treat coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, and cerebral infarction, but its pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. This study is designed to explore the effects of KDZI on middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) rats, and to identify metabolic features of cerebral ischemia reperfusion by using a nontargeted metabolic profiling method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS)...
May 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daoyi Guo, Lihua Zhang, Sijia Kong, Zhijie Liu, Xun Li, Hong Pan
Rose-like odor 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and its more fruit-like ester 2-phenylethyl acetate (2-PEAc) are two important aromatic compounds and have wide applications. In the past, 2-PE and 2-PEAc were mainly produced from l-phenylalanine. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to de novo biosynthesis of 2-PE and 2-PEAc from glucose: first, overexpression of deregulated 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase aroG fbr and chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase pheA fbr for increasing phenylpyruvate production in E...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wenxing Liu, Fei Mu, Tianlong Liu, Hang Xu, Jianzhong Chen, Na Jia, Yikai Zhang, Fang Dou, Lei Shi, Yuwen Li, Aidong Wen, Yi Ding
Terminalia chebula (TC), a kind of Combretaceae, is a widely used herb in India and East Asia to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, the potential mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of TC at the metabonomics level is still not unclear. The present study focused on the effects of TC on metabonomics in stroke model. In our study, rats were divided randomly into Sham, Model, and TC groups. The TC group were intragastricly administered with TC for 7 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) operation...
May 28, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Sixiu Liu, Shanshan Liang, Hua Liu, Lei Chen, Lingshuang Sun, Meng Wei, Hongli Jiang, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated...
May 22, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Frank Vrieling, Katharina Ronacher, Léanie Kleynhans, Erik van den Akker, Gerhard Walzl, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for development of tuberculosis (TB), however the underlying molecular foundations are unclear. Since lipids play a central role in the development of both DM and TB, lipid metabolism may be important for TB-DM pathophysiology. METHODS: A 1 H NMR spectroscopy-based platform was used to determine 225 lipid and other metabolic intermediates in plasma samples of healthy controls (n = 50) and patients with TB (n = 50), DM (n = 50) or TB-DM (n = 27)...
May 17, 2018: EBioMedicine
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