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phenylalanine metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345670/domain-dependent-effects-of-insulin-and-igf-1-receptors-on-signalling-and-gene-expression
#1
Weikang Cai, Masaji Sakaguchi, Andre Kleinridders, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Del Pino, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Brian T O'Neill, Alfred K Ramirez, Hui Pan, Jonathon N Winnay, Jeremie Boucher, Michael J Eck, C Ronald Kahn
Despite a high degree of homology, insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) mediate distinct cellular and physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate how domain differences between IR and IGF1R contribute to the distinct functions of these receptors using chimeric and site-mutated receptors. Receptors with the intracellular domain of IGF1R show increased activation of Shc and Gab-1 and more potent regulation of genes involved in proliferation, corresponding to their higher mitogenic activity. Conversely, receptors with the intracellular domain of IR display higher IRS-1 phosphorylation, stronger regulation of genes in metabolic pathways and more dramatic glycolytic responses to hormonal stimulation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331578/trophic-discrimination-factor-of-nitrogen-isotopes-within-amino-acids-in-the-dobsonfly-protohermes-grandis-megaloptera-corydalidae-larvae-in-a-controlled-feeding-experiment
#2
Naoto F Ishikawa, Fumio Hayashi, Yoko Sasaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi
The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326087/arabidopsis-nac-transcription-factor-jungbrunnen1-exerts-conserved-control-over-gibberellin-and-brassinosteroid-metabolism-and-signaling-genes-in-tomato
#3
Sara Shahnejat-Bushehri, Annapurna D Allu, Nikolay Mehterov, Venkatesh P Thirumalaikumar, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Salma Balazadeh
The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (AtJUB1) regulates growth by directly repressing GA3ox1 and DWF4, two key genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, respectively, leading to GA and BR deficiency phenotypes. AtJUB1 also reduces the expression of PIF4, a bHLH transcription factor that positively controls cell elongation, while it stimulates the expression of DELLA genes, which are important repressors of growth. Here, we extend our previous findings by demonstrating that AtJUB1 induces similar GA and BR deficiency phenotypes and changes in gene expression when overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326069/different-bacterial-communities-involved-in-peptide-decomposition-between-normoxic-and-hypoxic-coastal-waters
#4
Shuting Liu, Boris Wawrik, Zhanfei Liu
Proteins and peptides are key components of the labile dissolved organic matter pool in marine environments. Knowing which types of bacteria metabolize peptides can inform the factors that govern peptide decomposition and further carbon and nitrogen remineralization in marine environments. A (13)C-labeled tetrapeptide, alanine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (AVFA), was added to both surface (normoxic) and bottom (hypoxic) seawater from a coastal station in the northern Gulf of Mexico for a 2-day incubation experiment, and bacteria that incorporated the peptide were identified using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317865/complete-genome-sequencing-and-antibiotics-biosynthesis-pathways-analysis-of-streptomyces-lydicus-103
#5
Nan Jia, Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Luo, Feng Gao, Ying-Jin Yuan
More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300592/new-peptide-inhibitors-modulate-the-self-assembly-of-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-residues-11-20-in-vitro
#6
Yexuan Mao, Lanlan Yu, Ran Yang, Chuanguo Ma, Lingbo Qu, Peter de B Harrington
The structural transition and misfolding of human islet amyloid polypeptide may cause a common metabolic disease Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventeen peptides have been synthesized, possessing different lengths, compositions, and peptide conformation. In this study, the mechanism of these peptides on inhibiting the formation of hIAPP11-20 amyloid fibrils was investigated using a conventional ThT fluorescence assay and microscale thermophoresis. The results showed that short peptides AT, SA, RF, KS, KT and KN, and cyclic peptides cyclic-KS, cyclic-KT and cyclic-KN displayed considerable inhibitory effect on hIAPP11-20 fibril formation and a strong affinity for hIAPP11-20...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292760/phenylalanine-isotope-pulse-method-to-measure-effect-of-sepsis-on-protein-breakdown-and-membrane-transport-in-the-pig
#7
Gabriella A M Ten Have, Marielle Pkj Engelen, Robert R Wolfe, Nicolaas E P Deutz
The primed-continuous (PC) phenylalanine (Phe) stable isotope infusion methodology is often used as a proxy for measuring whole body protein breakdown (WbPB) in sepsis. It is unclear, if WbPB data obtained by an easy-to-use single IV Phe isotope pulse administration (PULSE) are comparable to those by PC. Compartmental modeling with PULSE could provide us more insight in WbPB in sepsis. Therefore, in the present study, we compared PULSE with PC as proxy for WbPB in an instrumented pig model with Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced severe sepsis (Healthy: n=9; Sepsis: n=13)...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282402/formulation-and-pegylation-optimization-of-the-therapeutic-pegylated-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-for-the-treatment-of-phenylketonuria
#8
Sean M Bell, Dan J Wendt, Yanhong Zhang, Timothy W Taylor, Shinong Long, Laurie Tsuruda, Bin Zhao, Phillip Laipis, Paul A Fitzpatrick
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic metabolic disease in which the decrease or loss of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity results in elevated, neurotoxic levels of phenylalanine (Phe). Due to many obstacles, PAH enzyme replacement therapy is not currently an option. Treatment of PKU with an alternative enzyme, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), was first proposed in the 1970s. However, issues regarding immunogenicity, enzyme production and mode of delivery needed to be overcome. Through the evaluation of PAL enzymes from multiple species, three potential PAL enzymes from yeast and cyanobacteria were chosen for evaluation of their therapeutic potential...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275929/in-silico-and-in-vitro-investigation-on-the-phenylalanine-metabolites-interactions-with-hexokinase-of-rat-s-brain-mitochondria
#9
Nasrin Ziamajidi, Shirin Jamshidi, Abdolvahab Ehsani-Zonouz
Hexokinase (HK) is the first enzyme of glycolysis pathway. In brain, most dominant form of HK, HK-I, binds reversibly to the outer mitochondria membrane. Those metabolites that affect binding or releasing of the enzyme from the mitochondria have regulatory effect on glucose consumption of the cell. In this study destructive effect of phenylalanine and its metabolites in relation to glucose metabolism in brain have been studied. The results show that phenylpyruvic acid decreases the activity of enzyme in the presence and absence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and increases the release of the enzyme from mitochondria, whereas phenylalanine and phenyllactic acid have no such effects...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274259/development-of-the-us-english-version-of-the-phenylketonuria-quality-of-life-pku-qol-questionnaire
#10
Elaina Jurecki, Amy Cunningham, Vanessa Birardi, Grégory Gagol, Catherine Acquadro
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a defect in the metabolism of phenylalanine (PHE) resulting in elevated blood and brain PHE levels, and leading to cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial problems. The phenylketonuria - quality of life (PKU-QOL) questionnaire was the first self-administered disease-specific instrument developed to assess the impact of PKU and its treatment on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients and their caregivers...
March 9, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270442/a-four-compartments-compartmental-model-to-assess-net-whole-body-protein-breakdown-using-a-pulse-of-phenylalanine-and-tyrosine-stable-isotopes-in-humans
#11
Alvise Mason, Marielle Pkj Engelen, Ivan Ivanov, Gianna M Toffolo, Nicolaas E P Deutz
The stable isotopes of Phenylalanine (Phe) and Tyrosine (Tyr) are often used to study whole body protein metabolism in humans. Non-compartmental approaches give limited physiological insight in the compartmental characteristics. We therefore developed a mathematical model of Phe/Tyr metabolism to describe protein fluxes using stable tracer dynamic data in plasma following iv bolus of L-[ring-(13)C6]-Phe and L-[ring-(2)H4]-Tyr in healthy subjects. The model consists of four compartments describing Phe/Tyr kinetics...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268188/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-neurochemical-alterations-in-the-brain-of-adolescent-rats-following-acute-methylphenidate-administration
#12
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Fay Probert, Tyra S C Zetterström
The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is increasingly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is little evidence for common brain pathology in ADHD, some studies suggest a right hemisphere dysfunction among people diagnosed with the condition. However, in spite of the high usage of MPH in children and adolescents, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given that MPH blocks the neuronal transporters for dopamine and noradrenaline, most research into the effects of MPH on the brain has largely focused on these two monoamine neurotransmitter systems...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265277/expression-pattern-of-erf-gene-family-under-multiple-abiotic-stresses-in-populus-simonii-%C3%A3-p-nigra
#13
Wenjing Yao, Xuemei Zhang, Boru Zhou, Kai Zhao, Renhua Li, Tingbo Jiang
Identification of gene expression patterns of key genes across multiple abiotic stresses is critical for mechanistic understanding of stress resistance in plant. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra under respective stresses of NaCl, KCl, CdCl2, and PEG. On the basis of RNA-Seq, we detected 247 DEGs that are shared by the four stresses in wild type poplar, and mRNA abundance of the DEGs were validated in transgenic poplar overexpressing ERF76 gene by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263884/comparison-of-whole-animal-costs-of-protein-synthesis-among-polar-and-temperate-populations-of-the-same-species-of-gammarid-amphipod
#14
S P S Rastrick, N M Whiteley
Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate...
March 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263053/water-soluble-fullerene-derivatives-as-brain-medicine-surface-chemistry-determines-if-they-are-neuroprotective-and-antitumor
#15
Fu-Yu Hsieh, A V Zhilenkov, I I Voronov, E A Khakina, D V Mischenko, Pavel A Troshin, Shan-Hui Hsu
Delivering drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) is a major challenge in treating CNS-related diseases. Nanoparticles that can cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) are potential tools. In this study, water-soluble C60 fullerene derivatives with different types of linkages between the fullerene cage and the solubilizing addend were synthesized (compounds 1-3: C-C bonds, compounds 4-5: C-S bonds, compound 6: C-P bonds, and compounds 7-9: C-N bonds). Fullerene derivatives 1-6 were observed to induce neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in vitro and rescue the function of injured CNS in zebrafish...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252223/chronic-effects-of-copper-in-oysters-crassostrea-hongkongensis-under-different-exposure-regimes-as-shown-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#16
Chen Cao, Wen-Xiong Wang
Traditional metal toxicity tests on organisms have mainly focused on continuous exposure at a fixed concentration. However, organisms are more likely exposed to pollutants intermittently in estuarine environments that are significantly impacted by anthropogenic activity. The present study examined whether different copper (Cu) exposure regimes at an equivalent dose can induce different metabolomics effects on the oysters. An estuarine oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis was exposed to Cu continuously or intermittently at an equal dose (time × concentration) for 6 wk...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243831/biochemical-response-of-hybrid-black-poplar-tissue-culture-populus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-canadensis-on-water-stress
#17
B M Popović, D Štajner, R Ždero-Pavlović, I Tari, J Csiszár, Á Gallé, P Poór, V Galović, B Trudić, S Orlović
In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240926/the-impact-of-phenylalanine-levels-on-cognitive-outcomes-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-effects-across-tasks-and-developmental-stages
#18
Cristina Romani, Liana Palermo, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Tarekegn Geberhiwot
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe), leading to its accumulation in the brain. Phe levels can be controlled following a protein-free diet, but cognitive impairments are still present. A number of questions remain to be answered related to which type of metabolic control is important, the age when it is important, the cognitive functions which are most affected and, the best tests to use to monitor cognitive health. METHOD: We investigated the impact of metabolic control at different ages on cognitive performance in 37 early treated adults with PKU...
March 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238459/linking-sources-to-early-effects-by-profiling-urine-metabolome-of-residents-living-near-oil-refineries-and-coal-fired-power-plants
#19
Chi-Hsin Sally Chen, Tzu-Hsuen Yuan, Ruei-Hao Shie, Kuen-Yuh Wu, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: This study aims at identifying metabolic changes linking external exposure to industrial air toxics with oxidative stress biomarkers. METHODS: We classified 252 study subjects as 111 high vs. 141 low exposure subjects by the distance from their homes to the two main emission sources, oil refineries and coal-fired power plants. We estimated individual's external exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by dispersion and kriging models, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238072/gill-damage-and-neurotoxicity-of-ammonia-nitrogen-on-the-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum
#20
Ming Cong, Huifeng Wu, Haiping Yang, Jianmin Zhao, Jiasen Lv
Ammonia nitrogen has been a potential menace to aquatic animals along the coastline of China. Presently, the toxicological effects of ammonia nitrogen were mainly concentrated on fishes, while little attention has been paid to molluscs. In this study, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum was used as the target animal to investigate the toxic effects of ammonia nitrogen. Our results showed that ammonia exposure could significantly reduce the integrity of lysosomes in a dose-dependent manner. Metabolite analysis revealed that exposure doses and duration time of ammonia nitrogen could affect the variation profiles of gill metabolites...
February 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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