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phenylalanine metabolism

Yanan Zong, Ning Liu, Shanshan Ma, Ying Bai, Fangxia Guan, Xiangdong Kong
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited metabolic disease, an autosomal recessive disorder affecting >10,000 newborns each year globally. It can be caused by over 1000 different naturally occurring mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We analyzed three novel naturally occurring PAH gene variants: p.Glu178Lys (c.532G>A), p.Val245Met (c.733G>A) and p.Ser250Phe (c.749C>T). The mutant effect on the PAH enzyme structure and function was predicted by bioinformatics software...
April 10, 2018: Gene
Lidia Borghi, Elisabetta Salvatici, Giuseppe Banderali, Enrica Riva, Marcello Giovannini, Elena Vegni
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disorder that leads to severe neurological abnormalities unless early treated with a strict phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. The parents' involvement in PKU management is crucial and could lead to psychological distress; however, few studies have explored the parents' psychological wellbeing. The study aimed to: 1) evaluate the presence of psychological distress and impaired quality of life among parents of children with PKU, assessing the load of the diagnosis and the load of the treatment management; 2) explore the associations with their children's blood-Phe levels...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Walquíria F Teixeira, Evandro B Fagan, Luis H Soares, Jérssica N Soares, Klaus Reichardt, Durval D Neto
The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V4 growth stage...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhaoyue Wang, Mingyue Jiang, Xuena Guo, Zhaozheng Liu, Xiuping He
BACKGROUND: 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic compound with a lovely rose-like scent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a desirable microbe for 2-PE production but its natural yield is not high, and one or two crucial genes' over-expression in S. cerevisiae did not improve 2-PE greatly. RESULTS: A new metabolic module was established here, in which, permease Gap1p for L-phenylalanine transportation, catalytic enzymes Aro8p, Aro10p and Adh2p in Ehrlich pathway respectively responsible for transamination, decarboxylation and reduction were assembled, besides, glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh2p was harbored for re-supplying another substrate 2-oxoglutarate, relieving product glutamate repression and regenerating cofactor NADH...
April 11, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Jordi Merino, Aaron Leong, Ching-Ti Liu, Bianca Porneala, Geoffrey A Walford, Marcin von Grotthuss, Thomas J Wang, Jason Flannick, Josée Dupuis, Daniel Levy, Robert E Gerszten, Jose C Florez, James B Meigs
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identifying the metabolite profile of individuals with normal fasting glucose (NFG [<5.55 mmol/l]) who progressed to type 2 diabetes may give novel insights into early type 2 diabetes disease interception and detection. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study among 1150 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort participants, age 40-65 years, with NFG. Plasma metabolites were profiled by LC-MS/MS. Penalised regression models were used to select measured metabolites for type 2 diabetes incidence classification (training dataset) and to internally validate the discriminatory capability of selected metabolites beyond conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors (testing dataset)...
April 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Lysiane Boulet, Gérard Besson, Patrice Faure, Véronique Ducros, Christelle Corne
Phenylketonuria (PKU, OMIM 261600) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; EC If untreated, the disease leads to an important intellectual disability (IQ <50). Although many facts are common between phenylalanine (Phe) and tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, little is known about Trp metabolism modification in PKU. Our aim was to evaluate the modifications of Trp metabolism in a phenylketonuric population. A monocentric study was conducted between October 2016 and March 2017...
April 1, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Bing Wang, Huizeng Sun, Xuehui Wu, Linshu Jiang, Le Luo Guan, Jianxin Liu
The present study aimed to identify metabolic signature changes of the arteriovenous metabolome and the new metabolites that involved in mammary biological process during milk synthesis. GC/MS-based metabolomics profiling of arteriovenous plasma from 30 lactating dairy cows fed three diets identified a total of 144 metabolites. Phenylalanine and tyrosine, involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism, were shown higher expression in the artery than in the vein based on both GC/MS and targeted analysis for cows fed both alfalfa hay diet and rice straw diet...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei-Lun Hung, Yu Wang
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is considered the most serious citrus disease in the world. CLas infection has been shown to greatly affect metabolite profiles in citrus fruits. However, due to uneven distribution of CLas throughout the tree, and a minimum bacterial titer requirement for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection, the infected trees may test false negative. To prevent this, metabolites of healthy Hamlin oranges (CLas-) obtained from the citrus undercover protection systems (CUPS) were investigated...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Izabook Gutierrez-Urrutia, Matthieu J Miossec, Sandro L Valenzuela, Claudio Meneses, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Ignacio Poblete-Castro
We describe the genome sequence of Pseudomonas reinekei MT1 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans MT3, the most abundant members of a bacterial community capable of degrading chloroaromatic compounds. The MT1 genome contains open reading frames encoding enzymes responsible for the catabolism of chlorosalicylate, methylsalicylate, chlorophenols, phenol, benzoate, p-coumarate, phenylalanine, and phenylacetate. On the other hand, the MT3 strain genome possesses no ORFs to metabolize chlorosalicylates; instead the bacterium is capable of metabolizing nitro-phenolic and phenolic compounds, which can be used as the only carbon and energy source by MT3...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Yonghong Ge, Meilin Wei, Canying Li, Yanru Chen, Jingyi Lv, Kun Meng, Wenhui Wang, Jianrong Li
BACKGROUND: Blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the important diseases of apple fruit during storage. The ε-poly-L-lysine (PL) consists of ε-amino and α-hydroxyl, has been used in food preservation. In this study, apple fruits (cv. Fuji) were used as materials to study the effects of PL at different concentration dipping treatment on lesion diameter of fruit inoculated with P. expansum to screen the optimal concentration to control blue mould. The effects of PL at optimal concentration on reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and phenylpropanoid pathway was also studied in this paper...
March 31, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yan Liu, Erchao Li, Chang Xu, Yujie Su, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Xiaodan Wang
The fish brain plays an important role in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change. However, few studies stem from the perspective of whole transcriptome change in a fish brain and its response to long-term hypersaline stress. This study compares the differential transcriptomic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) maintained for 8 weeks in brackish water (16 practical salinity units, psu) and in freshwater. Fish brains from each treatment were collected for RNA-seq analysis to identify potential genes and pathways responding to hypersaline stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xue Liu, Xiao-Bo Li, Jianlan Jiang, Zhen-Ning Liu, Bin Qiao, Fei-Fei Li, Jing-Sheng Cheng, Xiaocui Sun, Ying-Jin Yuan, Jianjun Qiao, Guang-Rong Zhao
Synthetic microbial coculture to express heterologous biosynthetic pathway for de novo production of medicinal ingredients is an emerging strategy for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Here, taking efficient production of salidroside as an example of glycosides, we design and construct a syntrophic Escherichia coli-E. coli coculture composed of the aglycone (AG) strain and the glycoside (GD) strain, which convergently accommodate biosynthetic pathways of tyrosol and salidroside, respectively. To accomplish this the phenylalanine-deficient AG strain was engineered to utilize xylose preferentially and to overproduce precursor tyrosol, while the tyrosine-deficient GD strain was constructed to consume glucose exclusively and to enhance another precursor UDP-glucose availability for synthesis of salidroside...
March 26, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Manish B Shah, Qinghai Zhang, James R Halpert
The over two dozen CYP2B structures of human, rabbit, and woodrat enzymes solved in the last decade have significantly enhanced our understanding of the structure-function relationships of drug metabolizing enzymes. More recently, an important role has emerged for halogen-π interactions in the CYP2B6 active site in substrate selectivity, explaining in part the preference for halogenated ligands as substrates. The mechanism by which such ligands interact with CYP2B enzymes involves conserved phenylalanine side chains, in particular F108, F115, or F297, in the active site, which form π bonds with halogens...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoling Tong, Pingfeng Liang, Songyuan Wu, Yuanhao Li, Liang Qiao, Hai Hu, Zhonghuai Xiang, Cheng Lu, Fangyin Dai
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH ) gene or by defects in the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis pathway. Here, by positional cloning, we report that the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase ( PTPS ) gene, encoding a key enzyme of BH4 biosynthesis, is responsible for the alc (albino C) mutation that displays pale body color, head shaking, and eventually lethality after the first molting in silkworm. Compared to wild type, the alc mutant produced more substrates (phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr)) and generated less DOPA and dopamine...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nemesio Villa-Ruano, Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle, L Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo, Nury Pérez-Hernández, Manuel Velázquez-Ponce, Victor M Arcos-Adame, Elvia Becerra-Martínez
Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV) is associated with an outbreak of curly top in chili pepper, tomato and other Solanaceae species, which can cause severe crop losses. The aim of this work was to obtain the1 H NMR metabolomic profiling of both healthy chili peppers (cv. mirasol) and infected chili peppers with BMCTV in order to find chemical markers associated to the infection process. Significant differences were found between the two groups, according to principal component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis...
April 2018: Food Research International
Senay Yildiz Celik, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gurses, Betul Baykan, Aysen Gokyigit
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common form of amino acid metabolism disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. The brain damage can be prevented by early diagnosis and a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Untreated or late-treated patients may show mental retardation and other cognitive dysfunctions, as well as motor disability and/or epilepsy. METHODS: Three patients with PKU and epilepsy were recognized to have reflex epileptic features, and there were ten consecutive adult patients with PKU and epilepsy who were evaluated retrospectively...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yawen Liu, Xinhong Wang, Yongyu Li, Xixi Chen
Toxicological effects of sulfamethazine (SM2 ) have garnered increasing concern due to its wide applications in aquaculture and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most studies have main focused on freshwater fish (i.e. zebrafish), while information regarding effects of SM2 on marine species is still scarce. Here, the hepatotoxicities in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) with an increasing SM2 concentration exposures (0.01 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 1 mg/L) were assessed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) based metabolomics...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jin Liang, Jiang Liu, Reid Brown, Meirong Jia, Ke Zhou, Reuben J Peters, Qiang Wang
The astounding structural and biological diversity of the large class of terpenoid natural products are imparted by both their complex hydrocarbon backbones and further elaboration by the addition of multiple hydroxyl groups, which provide both solubility and specific binding properties. While the role of terpene synthases in generating hydrocarbons with complex backbones is well known, these also are known to generate (singly) hydroxylated products by the addition of water prior to terminating deprotonation...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Camila Gómez, Thomas Larsen, Brian Popp, Keith A Hobson, Carlos Daniel Cadena
Tools to study seasonal changes in animal diets are needed to address a wide range of ecological questions. This is especially true of migratory animals that experience distinct environments where diets may be substantially different. However, tracking diets of individuals that move vast distances has proven difficult. Compound-specific isotope analysis has emerged as a valuable tool to study diets but has been little used to study dietary changes of migratory animals. Using this technique, we quantify seasonal variation in the annual diet of a migratory songbird (gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus) and test the hypothesis that migrants change their diet in response to the energetic requirements of different periods of the annual cycle...
March 22, 2018: Oecologia
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
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