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Severe acute malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152260/improving-estimates-of-the-burden-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-predictions-of-caseload-for-programs-treating-severe-acute-malnutrition-experiences-from-nigeria
#1
Assaye Bulti, André Briend, Nancy M Dale, Arjan De Wagt, Faraja Chiwile, Stanley Chitekwe, Chris Isokpunwu, Mark Myatt
Background: The burden of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is estimated using unadjusted prevalence estimates. SAM is an acute condition and many children with SAM will either recover or die within a few weeks. Estimating SAM burden using unadjusted prevalence estimates results in significant underestimation. This has a negative impact on allocation of resources for the prevention and treatment of SAM. A simple method for adjusting prevalence estimates intended to improve the accuracy of burden estimates and caseload predictions has been proposed...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149905/the-kusamala-program-for-primary-caregivers-of-children-6-59-months-of-age-hospitalized-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Allison I Daniel, Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger P Voskuijl, Melissa Gladstone, Mike Bwanali, Isabel Potani, Celine Bourdon, Jenala Njirammadzi, Robert H J Bandsma
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with high mortality rates and impairments in growth and development in children that do survive. There are complex nutritional, health, and behavioural risk factors involving severely malnourished children and their primary caregivers, requiring integrated intervention approaches. METHODS: A cluster-randomized controlled trial at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-day hospital-based intervention programme directed at primary caregivers...
November 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146679/undernutrition-and-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children
#3
Suparna Ghosh-Jerath, Archna Singh, Nameet Jerath, Suruchi Gupta, Elizabeth F Racine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140236/impact-of-childhood-nutritional-status-on-pathogen-prevalence-and-severity-of-acute-diarrhea
#4
Kirkby D Tickell, Patricia B Pavlinac, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Barbra A Richardson, Jaqueline M Naulikha, Ronald K Kirera, Brett E Swierczewski, Benson O Singa, Judd L Walson
Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131554/the-pathophysiology-incidence-impact-and-treatment-of-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#5
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Mechele Fillman
PURPOSE: Opioid medications are integral in managing acute moderate-to-severe pain. Opioid analgesics bind to μ (mu), κ (kappa), or δ (delta) opioid receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract. However, opioids cause adverse effects that may interfere with their therapeutic use. Some adverse effects wane over time, but patients using opioids for acute pain struggle with opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) the entire time they take the opioid. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment strategies of OINV...
November 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120331/management-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-india-we-know-enough-to-act-and-we-should-act-now
#6
Pavitra Mohan, Sanjana Brahmawar Mohan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117103/development-and-physico-chemical-characterization-of-a-shea-butter-containing-lipid-nutrition-supplement-for-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Elizabeth M Sloffer, Shashank Gaur, Nicki J Engeseth, Juan E Andrade
Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID's A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed...
November 8, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115985/use-of-tuberculin-skin-test-for-assessment-of-immune-recovery-among-previously-malnourished-children-in-ethiopia
#8
Paluku Bahwere, Philip James, Alemseged Abdissa, Yesufe Getu, Yilak Getnet, Kate Sadler, Tsinuel Girma
OBJECTIVE: To compare levels of immunity in children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (cases) against those of community controls (controls). RESULTS: At baseline children recovering from severe acute malnutrition had lower, mid upper arm circumference (122 mm for cases and 135 mm for controls; p < 0.001), weight-for-height Z-score (- 1.0 for cases and - 0.5 for controls; p < 0.001), weight-for-age Z-score (- 2.8 for cases and - 1.1 for controls; p < 0...
November 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113618/milk-products-in-the-dietary-management-of-childhood-undernutrition-a-historical-review
#9
Veronika Scherbaum, M Leila Srour
The present narrative review outlines the use of milk products in infant and young child feeding from early history until today and illustrates how research findings and technical innovations contributed to the evolution of milk-based strategies to combat undernutrition in children below the age of 5 years. From the onset of social welfare initiatives, dairy products were provided by maternal and child health services to improve nutrition. During the last century, a number of aetiological theories on oedematous forms of undernutrition were developed and until the 1970s the dogma of protein deficiency was dominant...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092084/hormonal-correlates-and-predictors-of-nutritional-recovery-in-malnourished-african-children
#10
Helen M Nabwera, Robin M Bernstein, Schadrac C Agbla, Sophie E Moore, Momodou K Darboe, Mariama Colley, Amadou T Jallow, Richard Bradbury, Jennifer Karafin, Anthony J Fulford, Andrew M Prentice
Background: Malnourished children show variable growth responses to nutritional rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether these differences could be explained by variations in growth and energy-regulating hormones. Methods: Quasi-experimental study: Children aged 6-24 months in rural Gambia were recruited to controls if weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) > -2 (n = 22), moderate acute malnutrition if WHZ < -2 and > -3 (n = 18) or severe acute malnutrition if WHZ < -3 (n = 20)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090271/oral-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-diarrhoea-and-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#11
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Diarrhoea complicates over half of admissions to hospital with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of dehydration recommend the use of oral rehydration with ReSoMal (an oral rehydration solution (ORS) for SAM), which has lower sodium (45mmols/l) and higher potassium (40mmols/l) content than old WHO ORS. The composition of ReSoMal was designed specifically to address theoretical risks of sodium overload and potential under-treatment of severe hypokalaemia with rehydration using standard ORS...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080813/arginine-reverses-growth-hormone-resistance-through-the-inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-inflammatory-pathway
#12
Jingren Xu, Canjun Zhu, Mengyuan Zhang, Qingchun Tong, Xiaojuan Wan, Zhengrui Liao, Xingcai Cai, Yaqiong Xu, Yexian Yuan, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Qianyun Xi, Yong Xu, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone stimulates growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression and secretion. In the presence of insufficient nutrients, GH increases, whereas IGF-1 expression becomes severely suppressed, leading to GH resistance. This study aimed to explore the effect of arginine (Arg) on GH resistance during malnutrition and to describe its underlying mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with Arg for 1 h or subjected to caloric restriction with Arg supplement in drinking water for 18 days...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080380/nutritional-risk-factors-predict-severe-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-early-mortality-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Eva H Kerby, Yimei Li, Kelly D Getz, Elizabeth C Smith, Laura T Smith, Nancy J Bunin, Alix E Seif
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a pro-inflammatory state, yet data on nutritional risk factors and development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) are extremely limited. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients up to age 21 years who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from January 2011 to September 2014 to determine whether malnutrition was associated with development of aGVHD and early mortality...
October 28, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076801/quality-of-care-of-treatment-for-uncomplicated-severe-acute-malnutrition-provided-by-lady-health-workers-in-pakistan
#14
Eleanor Rogers, Muhammad Ali, Shahid Fazal, Deepak Kumar, Saul Guerrero, Imtiaz Hussain, Sajid Soofi, Jose Luis Alvarez Morán
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of care provided by lady health workers (LHW) managing cases of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the community. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quality-of-care study. SETTING: The feasibility of the implementation of screening and treatment for uncomplicated SAM in the community by LHW was tested in Sindh Province, Pakistan. An observational, clinical prospective multicentre cohort study compared the LHW-delivered care with the existing outpatient health facility model...
October 27, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072825/nutrition-and-the-transplant-candidate
#15
REVIEW
Vera C Mazurak, Puneeta Tandon, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Cirrhosis is the most common indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Malnutrition is present in at least two-thirds of patients with cirrhosis awaiting LT. It negatively impacts survival, quality of life, and the ability to respond to stressors, such as infection and surgery. Muscle wasting or sarcopenia is the most objective feature of chronic protein malnutrition in cirrhosis, and this condition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after LT. In addition to its objectivity, muscularity assessment with cross-sectional imaging studies is a useful marker of nutritional status in LT candidates, as sarcopenia reflects a chronic decline in the general physical condition, rather than acute severity of the liver disease...
November 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047381/a-critical-appraisal-of-guidelines-used-for-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-south-africa-s-referral-system
#16
Faith Nankasa Mambulu-Chikankheni, John Eyles, Ejemai Amaize Eboreime, Prudence Ditlopo
BACKGROUND: Focusing on healthcare referral processes for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa, this paper discusses the comprehensiveness of documents (global and national) that guide the country's SAM healthcare. This research is relevant because South African studies on SAM mostly examine the implementation of WHO guidelines in hospitals, making their technical relevance to the country's lower level and referral healthcare system under-explored. METHODS: To add to both literature and methods for studying SAM healthcare, we critically appraised four child healthcare guidelines (global and national) and conducted complementary expert interviews (n = 5)...
October 18, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024381/an-integrated-community-based-outpatient-therapeutic-feeding-programme-for-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-rural-southern-ethiopia-recovery-fatality-and-nutritional-status-after-discharge
#17
Elazar Tadesse, Amare Worku, Yemane Berhane, Eva-Charlotte Ekström
A scaled up and integrated outpatient therapeutic feeding programme (OTP) brings the treatment of severely malnourished children closer to the community. This study assessed recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), fatality, and acute malnutrition up to 14 weeks after admission to a programme integrated in the primary health care system. In this cohort study, 1,048 children admitted to 94 OTPs in Southern Ethiopia were followed for 14 weeks. Independent anthropometric measurements and information on treatment outcome were collected at four home visits...
October 10, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017588/morbidity-and-mortality-of-children-aged-2-59%C3%A2-months-admitted-in-the-tanzania-lake-zone-s-public-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Kristina Lugangira, Method Kazaura, Festus Kalokola
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern about child mortality especially in developing countries. The Government of Tanzania and non-governmental organizations are fighting against diseases like malaria, anaemia, diarrhoea and pneumonia that contribute extensively to child mortality. This was a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study involving 1130 under-fives (excluding neonates) being either discharged from or died in public hospitals of the Lake Zone in Tanzania. We extracted information on symptoms and signs at admission, major diagnoses and causes of death from the medical records...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978541/comparison-of-midupper-arm-circumference-and-weight-for-height-z-score-for-assessing-acute-malnutrition-in-bangladeshi-children-aged-6-60-mo-an-analytical-study
#19
Md Iqbal Hossain, Tahmeed Ahmed, Shams El Arifeen, Sk Masum Billah, Asg Faruque, M Munirul Islam, Alan A Jackson
Background: In clinical settings, wasting in childhood has primarily been assessed with the use of a weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and in community settings, it has been assessed via the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) with a cutoff <115 mm for severe wasting and <115-125 mm for moderate wasting. Our recent experience indicates that many wasted children were not identified when these cutoffs for MUAC were used.Objective: We determined the cutoffs for MUAC to detect wasting in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964569/protein-blend-ingestion-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-protein-energy-malnutrition-in-patients-with-leukemia
#20
Guangxu Ren, Jianping Zhang, Minghua Li, Suqin Yi, Jin Xie, Hongru Zhang, Jing Wang
Severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and skeletal muscle wasting are commonly observed in patients with acute leukemia. Recently, the ingestion of a soy-whey protein blend has been shown to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the ingestion of a soy-whey blended protein (BP) may improve the PEM status and muscle mass in acute leukemia patients. In total, 24 patients from the same treatment group were randomly assigned to the natural diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the natural diet only (ND) group...
August 25, 2017: Nutrition Research
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