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Severe acute malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932700/predictors-of-enteral-tube-feeding-in-hospitalized-older-adults
#1
Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte, Thiago Junqueira Avelino-Silva, Daniel Apolinario, Jose Antonio Esper Curiati, Flavia Campora, Wilson Jacob-Filho
BACKGROUND: Despite general recognition that enteral tube feeding (ETF) is frequently employed in long-term care facilities and patients with dementia, remarkably little research has determined which factors are associated with its use in acutely ill older adults. In this study, we aimed to investigate determinants of ETF introduction in hospitalized older adults. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of acutely ill patients, aged 60 years and older, admitted to a university hospital's geriatric ward from 2014-2015, in São Paulo, Brazil...
December 8, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925048/resting-energy-expenditure-in-critically-ill-patients-evaluation-methods-and-clinical-applications
#2
Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches, Cassiana Regina de Góes, Marina Nogueira Berbel Bufarah, André Luiz Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921381/cost-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-west-africa
#3
Sheila Isanaka, Nicolas A Menzies, Jessica Sayyad, Mudasiru Ayoola, Rebecca F Grais, Stéphane Doyon
We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support)...
December 5, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905308/a-case-of-extreme-hypokalaemia
#4
L M Ten Bos, T C Veenstra, B D Westerhof, F H Bosch
Hypokalaemia is a common clinical problem. It can lead to severe disturbances in cardiac, neurological and muscle function. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was transported to our hospital with cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation. Blood sampling revealed severe acidosis (pH 7.02) and extreme hypokalaemia (0.9 mmol/l). The low serum potassium level was most likely caused by the combination of a very deficient diet and use of a thiazide diuretic. She never reported any symptoms. An acute intracellular shift of potassium due to epinephrine and perhaps also the cathecholamines in Red Bull may have further decreased the serum potassium concentration...
November 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900933/race-to-the-top-evaluation-of-a-novel-performance-based-financing-initiative-to-promote-healthcare-delivery-in-rural-rwanda
#5
Evrard Nahimana, Ryan McBain, Anatole Manzi, Hari Iyer, Alice Uwingabiye, Neil Gupta, Gerald Muzungu, Peter Drobac, Lisa R Hirschhorn
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) has demonstrated a range of successes and failures in improving health outcomes across low- and middle-income countries. Evidence indicates that the success of PBF depends, in large part, on the model selected, in relation to a variety of contextual factors. OBJECTIVE: Partners In Health∣Inshuti Mu Buzima aimed to evaluate health outcomes associated with a novel capacity-building model of PBF at health centers throughout Kirehe district, Rwanda...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898452/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-malnutrition-in-developing-countries
#6
Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disorder characterized by progressive, poorly reversible airflow limitation. In addition to its pulmonary manifestations, COPD is also associated with several systemic expressions including anemia, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease, and malnutrition. In COPD, malnutrition is a consequence of reduced nutritional intake and muscle loss, further compounded by systemic inflammation. In the developing world, malnutrition is a significant problem by itself, even without any systemic illness...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895846/antibiotics-as-part-of-the-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition
#7
Indi Trehan, Hayley S Goldbach, Lacey N LaGrone, Guthrie J Meuli, Richard J Wang, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892446/assessment-of-nutritional-status-of-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-rural-nepal
#8
J Chataut, K Khanal
Background Nutritional status of children is one of the major predictors of child survival. However, malnutrition is a major public health problem in most of the developing countries and occurs prominently among under-five children. In context of Nepal, nearly 37% children are suffering from underweight, 41% from stunting and 11% are suffering from wasting. These children are at a substantially greater risk of severe acute malnutrition and death. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of children under five years of age and to find the factors associated with malnutrition...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882009/functional-and-structural-abnormalities-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-severely-malnourished-children-a-hospital-based-study
#9
Misbah Anjum, Khemchand N Moorani, Ifra Sameen, Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Shazia Kulsoom
OBJECTIVES: The association of malnutrition and systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Various urinary tract abnormalities may be associated with malnutrition. So objective of current study was to determine the frequency of functional and structural urinary tract abnormalities in severely malnourished children admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) of a tertiary care facility, Karachi. METHODS: This descriptive cases series of 78 children was conducted in NRU from October 2014 - March 2015...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881690/acceptability-of-outpatient-ready-to-use-food-based-protocols-in-hiv-infected-senegalese-children-and-adolescents-within-the-maggsen-cohort-study
#10
Cecile Cames, Marie Varloteaux, Ndeye Ngone Have, Alhadji Bassine Diom, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Helene Mbodj, Haby Sy Signate, Aminata Diack
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acceptability of ready-to-use food (RUF)-based outpatient protocols in HIV-infected children and adolescents with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). METHODS: Plumpy Nut and Plumpy Sup were supplied every 2 weeks and prescribed by weight to SAM and MAM children, respectively. Forty-three children, 24 MAM and 19 SAM, were enrolled. Organoleptic appreciation, feeding modalities, and perceptions surrounding RUF were recorded at week 2...
November 22, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881597/assessment-of-regression-models-for-adjustment-of-iron-status-biomarkers-for-inflammation-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition-in-burkina-faso
#11
Bernardette Cichon, Christian Ritz, Christian Fabiansen, Vibeke Brix Christensen, Suzanne Filteau, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of iron status are affected by inflammation. In order to interpret them in individuals with inflammation, the use of correction factors (CFs) has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of regression models as an alternative to the CF approach. METHODS: Morbidity data were collected during clinical examinations with morbidity recalls in a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-23 mo with moderate acute malnutrition...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872656/nutritional-situation-among-syrian-refugees-hosted-in-iraq-jordan-and-lebanon-cross-sectional-surveys
#12
S M Moazzem Hossain, Eva Leidman, James Kingori, Abdullah Al Harun, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. METHODS: Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq...
2016: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861595/tlr4-cd14-variants-related-serologic-and-immunologic-dys-regulations-predict-severe-sepsis-in-febrile-de-compensated-cirrhotic-patients
#13
Wen-Chien Fan, Chih-Wei Liu, Shuo-Ming Ou, Chia-Chang Huang, Tzu-Hao Li, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shiang-Fen Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856449/invited-commentary-improving-estimates-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-requires-more-data
#14
REVIEW
Alexis Hure, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia
In this issue of the Journal, Isanaka et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(00):000-000) set out to update an incidence correction factor used for estimating numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged 6-59 months. The total number of current SAM cases (prevalent cases) increases by the number of new (incident) cases and decreases as a result of recovery or death. Prevalence estimates are obtained from cross-sectional surveys. Calculation of incidence typically requires longitudinal data, which evidently are rarely collected for SAM, and so a correction factor is applied instead...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856446/improving-estimates-of-numbers-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-using-cohort-and-survey-data
#15
Sheila Isanaka, Ellen O'Neal Boundy, Rebecca F Grais, Mark Myatt, André Briend
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is reported to affect 19 million children worldwide. However, this estimate is based on prevalence data from cross-sectional surveys and can be expected to miss some children affected by an acute condition such as SAM. The burden of acute conditions is more appropriately represented by cumulative incidence data. In the absence of incidence data, a method for burden estimation has been proposed that corrects available prevalence estimates to account for incident cases using an "incidence correction factor...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846837/prevalence-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-shock-in-children-admitted-to-kenyan-hospitals
#16
George Mbevi, Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Samuel Akech, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Shock may complicate several acute childhood illnesses in hospitals within low-income countries and has a high case fatality. Hypovolemic shock secondary to diarrhoea/dehydration and septic shock are thought to be common, but there are few reliable data on prevalence or treatment that differ for the two major forms of shock. Examining prevalence and treatment practices has become important since reports suggest high risks from liberal use of fluid boluses in African children...
November 16, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814707/serum-phosphate-and-magnesium-in-children-recovering-from-severe-acute-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-an-observational-study
#17
Anne-Louise Hother, Tsinuel Girma, Maren J H Rytter, Alemseged Abdissa, Christian Ritz, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have increased requirements for phosphorus and magnesium during recovery. If requirements are not met, the children may develop refeeding hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. However, little is known about the effect of current therapeutic diets (F-75 and F-100) on serum phosphate (S-phosphate) and magnesium (S-magnesium) in children with SAM. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with measurements of S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission, prior to rehabilitation phase and at discharge in children aged 6-59 months admitted with SAM to Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia...
November 5, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810199/hypoglycaemia-in-hospitalised-neonatal-calves-prevalence-associated-conditions-and-impact-on-prognosis
#18
F M Trefz, M Feist, I Lorenz
Hypoglycaemia has traditionally been associated with neonatal diarrhoea and endotoxaemia in calves, but the clinical relevance of this finding in spontaneously diseased calves has not previously been evaluated. To determine the prevalence and prognostic relevance of severe hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose concentration < 2 mmol/L), data from 10,060 hospitalised calves (≤21 days of age) were retrospectively analysed. Additionally, clinical findings and diagnoses in a subset of 100 calves with severe hypoglycaemia were compared with those in 100 randomly selected calves with initial plasma glucose concentrations in the reference range (4...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807038/metabolomic-changes-in-serum-of-children-with-different-clinical-diagnoses-of-malnutrition
#19
Valeria Di Giovanni, Celine Bourdon, Dominic X Wang, Swapna Seshadri, Edward Senga, Christian J Versloot, Wieger Voskuijl, Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Ling Zhang, John Parkinson, Mark J Manary, Robert Hj Bandsma
BACKGROUND: Mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains high despite standardized rehabilitation protocols. Two forms of SAM are classically distinguished: kwashiorkor and marasmus. Children with kwashiorkor have nutritional edema and metabolic disturbances, including hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, whereas marasmus is characterized by severe wasting. The metabolic changes underlying these phenotypes have been poorly characterized, and whether homeostasis is achieved during hospital stay is unclear...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806810/childhood-acute-bacterial-meningitis-clinical-spectrum-bacteriological-profile-and-outcome
#20
Attia Bari, Fatima Zeeshan, Aiza Zafar, Hassan Ejaz, Aisha Iftikhar, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: Adescriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: Atotal of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included...
October 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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