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Dopamine receptor systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#1
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649130/dopamine-d2-receptor-antagonist-sulpiride-enhances-dexamethasone-responses-in-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-and-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
Jian Li, Qing-Yu Yao, Jun-Sheng Xue, Li-Jie Wang, Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yun Tian, Hong Su, Si-Yuan Wang, Wen-Jun Chen, Wei Lu, Tian-Yan Zhou
Recent evidence shows that dopamine D2-like receptor (D2DR) antagonists, such as trifluoperazine and thioridazine, are effective for cancer therapy and inhibition of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of combination therapy of dexamethasone (DEX) and sulpiride (SUL), an atypical antipsychotic, against drug-resistant and metastatic breast cancers and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of SUL (25, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) alone did not inhibit the tumor growth in human breast cancer MCF-7/Adr xenograft model, but dose-dependently decreased the proportion of CSCs in vitro and in vivo...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645787/striatal-hypodopamine-phenotypes-found-in-transgenic-mice-that-overexpress-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Hidekazu Sotoyama, Yuriko Iwakura, Kanako Oda, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Nobuyuki Takei, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hideki Enomoto, Hiroyuki Nawa
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) positively regulates the development and maintenance of in vitro dopaminergic neurons. However, the in vivo influences of GDNF signals on the brain dopamine system are controversial and not fully defined. To address this question, we analyzed dopaminergic phenotypes of the transgenic mice that overexpress GDNF under the control of the glial Gfap promoter in the brain. Compared with wild-type, the GDNF transgenic mice contained higher levels of GDNF protein and phosphorylated RET receptors in the brain...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641581/thyrotoxic-and-pheochromocytoma-multisystem-crisis-a-case-report
#5
Kodai Suzuki, Takahito Miyake, Hideshi Okada, Fuminori Yamaji, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Tetsuya Fukuta, Ryu Yasuda, Yoshihito Tanaka, Haruka Okamoto, Sho Nachi, Tomoaki Doi, Takahiro Yoshida, Keisuke Kumada, Shozo Yoshida, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis are rare, life-threatening, emergency endocrine diseases with various clinical manifestations. Here we report a case of a patient who simultaneously developed thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis and required intensive cardiovascular management. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old Asian man experienced nausea and vomiting, and subsequently developed dyspnea and cold sweats while farming...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641333/validation-of-brain-angiotensin-system-blockade-as-a-novel-drug-target-in-pharmacological-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#6
Dominik Wincewicz, Jan J Braszko
Retreat in psychiatric drug development results in innovative medication decline that might be at least partially overcome by adjunct therapy. New evidence from clinical studies has shown a possible role for brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in both affective and psychotic disorders. Simultaneously, rapidly accumulating data from basic studies indicate effectiveness of central RAS blockade in much broader range of neuropsychiatric disease. Recent findings implicate brain RAS, especially Angiotensin II (Ang II), in neural pathophysiology of mental disorders through neuroendocrine modulation and effects on neurotransmitter release, mostly noradrenaline, acetylcholine and dopamine...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637978/mechanisms-underlying-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-induced-increases-in-extracellular-dopamine-level-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-freely-moving-rats
#7
Tadashi Saigusa, Yuri Aono, John L Waddington
The nucleus accumbens is a terminal area of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system that arises in the ventral tegmental area. Opioids are thought to enhance dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens by activating δ- and μ-opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area. However, δ- and μ-opioid receptor agonists increase extracellular levels of accumbal dopamine when infused directly into the nucleus accumbens of rats. Therefore, the roles of δ- and μ-opioid receptors in regulation of accumbal dopaminergic neural activity have been analyzed by using δ- and μ-opioid receptor ligands...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#8
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630404/activation-of-d1r-pka-mtor-signaling-cascade-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-underlying-the-antidepressant-effects-of-l-spd
#10
Bing Zhang, Fei Guo, Yuqin Ma, Yingcai Song, Rong Lin, Fu-Yi Shen, Guo-Zhang Jin, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by diverse symptoms. Although several antidepressants can influence dopamine system in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but the role of D1R or D2R subtypes of dopamine receptor during anti-depression process is still vague in PFC region. To address this question, we investigate the antidepressant effect of levo-stepholidine (l-SPD), an antipsychotic medication with unique pharmacological profile of D1R agonism and D2R antagonism, and clarified its molecular mechanisms in the mPFC...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629964/a-novel-heterocyclic-compound-improves-working-memory-in-the-radial-arm-maze-and-modulates-the-dopamine-receptor-d1r-in-frontal-cortex-of-the-sprague-dawley-rat
#11
Ahmed M Hussein, Yogesh D Aher, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragačević, Bojana Radoman, Marija Ilić, Johann Leban, Tetyana Beryozkina, Abdel Baset M A Ahmed, Ernst Urban, Thierry Langer, Gert Lubec
A series of compounds have been shown to enhance cognitive function via the dopaminergic system and indeed the search for more active and less toxic compounds is continuing. It was therefore the aim of the study to synthetise and test a novel heterocyclic compound for cognitive enhancement in a paradigm for working memory. Specific and effective dopamine re-uptake inhibition DAT (IC50=4,1±0,8μM) made us test this compound in a radial arm maze (RAM) in the rat. CE-125 (4-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)-2-cyclopropylthiazole), was tested for dopamine (DAT), serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition by a well-established system...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626916/unexpected-functions-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-beyond-its-enzymatic-activity
#12
REVIEW
Jean Martinez
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a well-known enzyme, largely studied for its action on hypertension, as it produces angiotensin II from angiotensin I. This paper describes two original behaviours of ACE. We showed that ACE could hydrolyse gastrin, a neuropeptide from the gastrointestinal tract, releasing the C-terminal amidated dipeptide H-Asp-Phe-NH2 . This dipeptide is believed to be involved in the gastrin-induced acid secretion in the stomach. This hypothetic mechanism of action of gastrin resulted in a strategy to rationally design gastrin receptor antagonists...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623767/an-examination-of-the-roles-of-glutamate-and-sex-in-latent-inhibition-relevance-to-the-glutamate-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia
#13
Andrew Chih Wei Huang, Alan Bo-Han He, Chih-Chung Chen
The present study examined the effects of the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and sexual dimorphism on latent inhibition to elucidate the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. During the pre-exposure phase, 56 male and 65 female Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly administered normal saline, MK-801 or NMDA, in the left ventricle and then exposed to a passive avoidance box (or a different context) in three trials over 3 days. Then, all of the rats were placed in the light compartment of the passive avoidance box and were allowed to enter the dark compartment, where they each received a footshock (1mA, 2s) in five trials over 5 days...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623711/contribution-of-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-systems-in-the-antinociceptive-effect-of-%C3%AE-phenylalanyl-acetophenone
#14
Fernanda S S Sousa, Roberta G Anversa, Paloma T Birmann, Maurice N de Souza, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm, Lucielli Savegnago
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the antinociceptive action of α-(phenylalanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) in mice. METHODS: Evaluated whether the serotonergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in PSAP antinociceptive activity. PSAP was administered intragastrically (ig) 30min prior to formalin or glutamate test and compared with a standard drug, meloxicam (10mg/kg, ig). RESULTS: The treatment with PSAP (10-50mg/kg) caused inhibition in the neurogenic phase and reduced the paw oedema caused by intraplantar (ipl) injection of formalin...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#15
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621212/methamphetamine-causes-neurotoxicity-by-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inflammatory-response
#16
X Li, F Wu, L Xue, B Wang, J Li, Y Chen, T Chen
Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in the neuronal system. The present study investigated the effect of Meth at subtoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its underlying toxicity to neuronal cells...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#17
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609587/chemogenetic-modulation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signalling-in-visual-attention-research
#18
Søren H Jørgensen, Ciarán Martin Fitzpatrick, Ulrik Gether, David D P Woldbye, Andreas T Sørensen
Attention is a fundamental cognitive process involved in nearly all aspects of life. Abnormal attention control is a symptom of many neurological disorders, most notably recognized in ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Although attentional performance and its malfunction has been a major area of investigation, it has proven difficult to accurately associate specific neuronal projections, cell types, neurotransmitter systems and receptors with distinct phenotypes owing to its complexity. In this MiniReview, we present a recently invented technology known as Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)...
June 13, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607752/enhanced-disease-reduction-using-clozapine-an-atypical-antipsychotic-agent-and-glatiramer-acetate-combination-therapy-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#19
Laura K Green, Pirooz Zareie, Nikki Templeton, Robert A Keyzers, Bronwen Connor, Anne Camille La Flamme
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic agents (AAP) alleviate the symptoms of severe mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia, by antagonizing dopamine and serotonin receptors. Recently, AAP have also been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in the central nervous system (CNS). OBJECTIVE: Building on research which demonstrated the ability of the AAP risperidone and clozapine to modify the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to more fully investigate the potential of clozapine as a possible treatment for MS...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607168/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-employs-trkb-signaling-for-neuroprotection-and-functional-restoration
#20
D Luke Fischer, Christopher J Kemp, Allyson Cole-Strauss, Nicole K Polinski, Katrina L Paumier, Jack W Lipton, Kathy Steece-Collier, Timothy J Collier, Daniel J Buhlinger, Caryl E Sortwell
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most common neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In preclinical models, STN DBS provides neuroprotection for substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the nigrostriatal system and primary motor cortex. However, whether BDNF signaling in the SN participates in the neuroprotective effects of DBS remains unknown. We demonstrate that STN DBS in male rats activates signaling downstream of tropomyosin receptor kinase type B (trkB), namely phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6, in SN neurons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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