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Dopamine receptor systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#1
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#2
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#3
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
January 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065748/the-effects-of-early-life-stress-on-dopamine-system-function-in-adolescent-female-rats
#4
Iwona Majcher-Maślanka, Anna Solarz, Krzysztof Wędzony, Agnieszka Chocyk
During adolescence, many neural systems, including the dopamine system, undergo essential remodeling and maturation. It is well known that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk for many psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. It is hypothesized that ELS interferes with the maturation of the dopamine system. There is a sex bias in the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Information regarding the effects of ELS on brain functioning in females is very limited. In the current study, maternal separation (MS) procedures were carried out to study the effects of ELS on dopamine system functioning in adolescent female rats...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057070/distinct-pattern-of-enteric-phospho-alpha-synuclein-aggregates-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Martina Barrenschee, Dimitri Zorenkov, Martina Böttner, Christina Lange, François Cossais, Amelie Bernadette Scharf, Günther Deuschl, Susanne A Schneider, Mark Ellrichmann, Annette Fritscher-Ravens, Thilo Wedel
Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-α-syn) containing Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the central nervous system (CNS). Since they have been also demonstrated in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of PD patients, the aim of the study was to analyze enteric p-α-syn positive aggregates and intestinal gene expression. Submucosal rectal biopsies were obtained from patients with PD and controls and processed for dual-label-immunohistochemistry for p-α-syn and PGP 9...
January 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042871/acute-d3-antagonist-gsk598809-selectively-enhances-neural-response-during-monetary-reward-anticipation-in-drug-and-alcohol-dependence
#7
Anna Murphy, Liam J Nestor, John McGonigle, Louise Paterson, Venkataramana Boyapati, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, Shankar Kuchibatla, Antonio Metastasio, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Laurence Reed, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Eleanor Taylor, Trevor W Robbins, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, John Fw Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
: Evidence suggests that disturbances in neurobiological mechanisms of reward and inhibitory control maintain addiction and provoke relapse during abstinence. Abnormalities within the dopamine system may contribute to these disturbances and pharmacologically targeting the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3) is therefore of significant clinical interest. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the acute effects of the DRD3 antagonist GSK598809 on anticipatory reward processing, using the monetary incentive delay task (MIDT), and response inhibition using the go/no-go task (GNGT)...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#8
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034961/role-of-prefrontal-serotonergic-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-encounter-induced-hyperactivity-in-methamphetamine-sensitized-mice
#9
Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Chiaki Umehara, Emina Imoto, Shigeru Hasebe, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, but it is not known whether this stress response is observed in other pathological conditions. Here we examined whether the social encounter stimulation induces abnormal behavior during withdrawal in chronic methamphetamine (METH)-treated mice. METHODS: To induce METH-induced behavioral sensitization, male mice were injected with METH (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032295/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-alters-synaptic-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain
#10
Li-Min Mao, Henry H Wang, John Q Wang
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key transmitter in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. By interacting with muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) enriched in the circuit, ACh actively regulates various neuronal and synaptic activities. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and is subject to the regulation by dopamine receptors, although the regulation of ERKs by limbic mAChRs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo...
December 28, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032125/effects-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-agonists-on-environmental-enrichment-attenuated-sucrose-cue-reactivity-in-rats
#11
Edwin Glueck, Darren Ginder, Jeff Hyde, Katherine North, Jeffrey W Grimm
RATIONALE: Acute or chronic environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose cue reactivity in rats. This effect may be mediated by dopamine receptors. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonism could reverse the EE effect. We also examined whether any reversal effects would vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. METHODS: Following 10 days (2 h/day) of sucrose self-administration, rats experienced either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence and either overnight (acute) or 29 day (chronic) EE...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031268/distinct-roles-of-opioid-and-dopamine-systems-in-lateral-hypothalamic-intracranial-self-stimulation
#12
Soichiro Ide, Takehiro Takahashi, Yukio Takamatsu, George R Uhl, Hiroaki Niki, Ichiro Sora, Kazutaka Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Opioid and dopamine systems play crucial roles in reward. Similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of reward that are mediated by these two systems have remained largely unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in reward function in both µ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP KO) mice and dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice, important molecules in the opioid and dopamine systems. METHODS: Mice were implanted with electrodes into the right lateral hypothalamus (lh)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028606/novelty-seeking-mediates-the-effect-of-drd3-variation-on-onset-age-of-amphetamine-dependence-in-han-chinese-population
#13
Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Tien-Yu Chen, Che-Hung Yen, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
The dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) gene, one of the candidate genes for amphetamine dependence (AD), is involved in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, implicated as the underlying mechanism of addiction. Our case-control study aimed to investigate whether the DRD3 gene is associated with the susceptibility to AD and specific personality traits in AD patients. A total of 1060 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (559 AD patients and 501 controls) were screened using the same assessment tool and genotyped for eight DRD3 polymorphisms...
December 27, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018865/catecholamine-stimulated-growth-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-requires-the-tonb2-energy-transduction-system-but-is-independent-of-the-amonabactin-siderophore
#14
Yuhao Dong, Jin Liu, Maoda Pang, Hechao Du, Nannan Wang, Furqan Awan, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
The growth-stimulating effects of catecholamine stress hormones have been demonstrated in many pathogens. However, catecholamine-induced growth and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study sought to demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (Dopa), and L-dopa stimulate the growth of A. hydrophila in iron-restricted media containing serum. NE exhibited the strongest growth stimulation, which could be blocked by adrenergic antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017790/the-cb1-receptor-is-required-for-the-establishment-of-the-hyperlocomotor-phenotype-in-developmentally-induced-hypothyroidism-in-mice
#15
Elena Giné, Victor Echeverry-Alzate, Jose Antonio Lopez-Moreno, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Ana Perez-Castillo, Angel Santos
Alterations in motor functions are well-characterized features observed in humans and experimental animals with thyroid hormone dysfunctions during development. We have previously suggested the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the hyperlocomotor phenotype observed in developmentally induced hypothyroidism in rats. In this work we have further analyzed the implication of endocannabinoids in the effect of hypothyroidism on locomotor activity. To this end, we evaluated the locomotor activity in adult mice lacking the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R(-/-)) and in their wild type littermates (CB1R(+/+)), whose hypothyroidism was induced in day 12 of gestation and maintained during the experimental period...
December 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012090/a-decade-of-orexin-hypocretin-and-addiction-where-are-we-now
#16
Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, David E Moorman, Gary Aston-Jones
One decade ago, our laboratory provided the first direct evidence linking orexin/hypocretin signaling with drug seeking by showing that activation of these neurons promotes conditioned morphine-seeking behavior. In the years since, contributions from many investigators have revealed roles for orexins in addiction for all drugs of abuse tested, but only under select circumstances. We recently proposed that orexins play a fundamentally unified role in coordinating "motivational activation" under numerous behavioral conditions, and here we unpack this hypothesis as it applies to drug addiction...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011253/a-single-scan-protocol-for-absolute-d2-3-receptor-quantification-with-123-i-ibzm-spect
#17
Stergios Tsartsalis, Benjamin B Tournier, Karl Aoun, Selim Habiby, Diego Pandolfo, Andrea Dimiziani, Nathalie Ginovart, Philippe Millet
PURPOSE: Molecular imaging of the D2/3 receptor is widely used in neuropsychiatric research. Non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) is a very popular quantitative index, defined as the product of the receptor concentration (Bavail) and the radiotracer affinity for the receptor (1/appKd). As the appKd is influenced by parameters such as the endogenous neurotransmitter dynamics, it often constitutes a confounding factor in research studies. A simplified method for absolute quantification of both these parameters would be of great interest in this context...
December 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007761/functional-%C3%AE-opioid-galanin-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#18
Estefanía Moreno, César Quiroz, William Rea, Ning-Sheng Cai, Josefa Mallol, Antoni Cortés, Carme Lluís, Enric I Canela, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
: The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative crosstalk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005447/gynostemma-pentaphyllum-ethanolic-extract-protects-against-memory-deficits-in-an-mptp-lesioned-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-treated-with-l-dopa
#19
Kyung Sook Kim, Ting Ting Zhao, Keon Sung Shin, Hyun Jin Park, Yoon Jeong Cho, Kyung Eun Lee, Seung Hwan Kim, Myung Koo Lee
This study investigated the effects of ethanol extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) on memory deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) (MPTP-lesioned mice). MPTP (30 mg/kg/day, 5 days)-lesioned mice showed deficits of habit learning memory and spatial memory, which were further aggravated by treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg, 21 days). However, treatment with GP-EX (50 mg/kg, 21 days) ameliorated memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with L-DOPA (25 mg/kg): GP-EX prevented the decreases in retention latency time in the passive avoidance test and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatum...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001043/biological-insights-of-the-dopaminergic-stabilizer-acr16-at-the-binding-pocket-of-dopamine-d2-receptor
#20
Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Philip Seeman, Busecan Aksoydan, Matthias Stein, Mine Yurtsever, Serdar Durdagi
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays an important part in the human central nervous system and is considered to be a focal target of antipsychotic agents. It is structurally modeled in active and inactive states, in which homo-dimerization reaction of the D2R monomers is also applied. The ASP2314 (also known as ACR16) ligand, a D2R stabilizer, is used in tests to evaluate how dimerization and conformational changes may alter the ligand binding space and to provide information on alterations in inhibitory mechanisms upon activation...
December 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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