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Pyramidal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#1
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619087/longitudinal-estimation-of-intramuscular-tibialis-anterior-coherence-during-subacute-spinal-cord-injury-relationship-with-neurophysiological-functional-and-clinical-outcome-measures
#2
Elisabeth Bravo-Esteban, Julian Taylor, Manuel Aleixandre, Cristina Simón-Martínez, Diego Torricelli, Jose Luis Pons, Gerardo Avila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, Julio Gómez-Soriano
BACKGROUND: Estimation of surface intramuscular coherence has been used to indirectly assess pyramidal tract activity following spinal cord injury (SCI), especially within the 15-30 Hz bandwidth. However, change in higher frequency (>40 Hz) muscle coherence during SCI has not been characterised. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify change of high and low frequency intramuscular Tibialis Anterior (TA) coherence during incomplete subacute SCI. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects and 22 subjects with motor incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale, AIS, C or D grade) were recruited and tested during 4 sessions performed at 2-week intervals up to 8 months after SCI...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606574/dietary-habits-concentration-of-copper-zinc-and-cu-to-zn-ratio-in-serum-and-ability-status-of-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Katarzyna Socha, Elżbieta Karpińska, Jan Kochanowicz, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Marta Jakoniuk, Marianna Wilkiel, Zenon D Mariak, Maria H Borawska
OBJECTIVE: Dietary habits and adequate intake of antioxidants in the diet-for example, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)-may be an environmental factor in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of dietary habits on the concentration of Cu, Zn in the serum, and the effect of Cu-to-Zn ratio on the ability status of patients with relapsing-remitting MS. METHODS: This was an observational case-control study that included 101 individuals with MS and 68 healthy individuals (controls)...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598277/surgical-strategy-to-avoid-ischemic-complications-of-the-pyramidal-tract-in-resective-epilepsy-surgery-of-the-insula-technical-case-report
#4
Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Takanobu Kaido, Yuu Kaneko, Masaki Iwasaki, Nobutaka Kawahara, Taisuke Otsuki
Surgical treatment of the insula is notorious for its high probability of motor complications, particularly when resecting the superoposterior part. Ischemic damage to the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata has been regarded as the cause of these complications, resulting from occlusion of the perforating arteries to the pyramidal tract through the insular cortex. The authors describe a strategy in which a small piece of gray matter is spared at the bottom of the periinsular sulcus, where the perforating arteries pass en route to the pyramidal tract, in order to avoid these complications...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590508/pyramidal-tract-activation-due-to-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Philipp Mahlknecht, Harith Akram, Dejan Georgiev, Elina Tripoliti, Joseph Candelario, Andre Zacharia, Ludvic Zrinzo, Jonathan Hyam, Marwan Hariz, Thomas Foltynie, John C Rothwell, Patricia Limousin
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but can have side effects caused by stimulus spread to structures outside the target volume such as the pyramidal tract. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relevance of pyramidal tract activation with STN-DBS in PD. METHODS: In a multimodal, blinded study in 20 STN-DBS patients, we measured stimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in orbicularis oris and first dorsal interosseous muscles at each of 150 electrode sites...
June 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562670/increased-threshold-of-short-latency-motor-evoked-potentials-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-channelrhodopsin-2
#6
Wei Wu, Wenhui Xiong, Ping Zhang, Lifang Chen, Jianqiao Fang, Christopher Shields, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoming Jin
Transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 or its variants provide a powerful tool for optogenetic study of the nervous system. Previous studies have established that introducing such exogenous genes usually does not alter anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral properties of neurons in these mice. However, in a line of Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice (line 9, Jackson lab), we found that short-latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation had a longer latency and much lower amplitude than that of wild type mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560845/spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-10-common-haplotype-and-disease-progression-rate-in-peru-and-brazil
#7
T C Gheno, G V Furtado, J A M Saute, K C Donis, A M V Fontanari, V E Emmel, J L Pedroso, O Barsottini, C Godeiro-Junior, H van der Linden, E Ternes Pereira, V P Cintra, W Marques, R M de Castilhos, I Alonso, J Sequeiros, M Cornejo-Olivas, P Mazzetti, V B Leotti, L B Jardim, M L Saraiva-Pereira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 is a neurodegenerative disorder that is due to an expanded ATTCT repeat tract in the ATXN10 gene. Our aim was to describe clinical characteristics and intragenic haplotypes of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 from Brazil and Peru. METHODS: Expanded alleles were detected by repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction. Disease progression was measured by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, and the Neurological Examination Score for Spinocerebellar Ataxias when possible...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544025/phase-imaging-of-axonal-integrity-of-cranial-corticospinal-tract-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury-at-9-4t
#8
Genxia He, Junchao Qian
It was known that Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to neuronal cell death, axonal damage and demyelination, and often results in severe functional loss. Noninvasive imaging of axonal integrity may hold great importance in clinic. This study evaluated the role of phase imaging in detection of axonal integrity of cranial corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury. Quantitative MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were performed on a group of rats prior to and after spinal cord injury at 9.4 T in this study...
May 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543952/structural-signature-of-classical-versus-late-onset-friedreich-s-ataxia-by-multimodality-brain-mri
#9
Thiago Junqueira R Rezende, Alberto Rolim M Martinez, Ingrid Faber, Karen Girotto, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando G Barsottini, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Andreia V Faria, Marcondes C França
INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal-recessive ataxia worldwide. It is characterized by early onset, sensory abnormalities, and slowly progressive ataxia. However, some individuals manifest the disease after the age of 25 years and are classified as late-onset FRDA (LOFA). Therefore, we propose a transversal multimodal MRI-based study to investigate which anatomical substrates are involved in classical (cFRDA) and LOFA. METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients (13 with LOFA) and 29 healthy controls...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529055/intraoperative-mapping-and-monitoring-of-the-pyramidal-tract-using-endoscopic-depth-electrodes
#10
Yukinori Akiyama, Shunya Ohtaki, Katsuya Komatsu, Kentaro Toyama, Rei Enatsu, Takeshi Mikami, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor function during neuroendoscopic resectioning of deep-seated brain tumors using endoscopically guided depth electrodes. METHODS: For 12 cases of thalamic tumors including high-grade gliomas, germinomas, and malignant lymphomas, depth electrodes were inserted using endoscopic guides between the tumor and the pyramidal tract in the thalamus. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were continuously recorded during neuroendoscopic resectioning of the tumors...
May 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512086/two-loci-contribute-epistastically-to-heterospecific-pollen-rejection-a-postmating-isolating-barrier-between-species
#11
Jennafer A P Hamlin, Natasha A Sherman, Leonie C Moyle
Recognition and rejection of heterospecific male gametes occurs in a broad range of taxa, although the complexity of mechanisms underlying these components of postmating cryptic female choice is poorly understood. In plants, the arena for postmating interactions is the female reproductive tract (pistil), within which heterospecific pollen tube growth can be arrested via active molecular recognition and rejection. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is one such postmating barrier in which pollen arrest occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross...
May 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501821/genetic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-nefl-related-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#12
Alejandro Horga, Matilde Laurà, Zane Jaunmuktane, Nivedita U Jerath, Michael A Gonzalez, James M Polke, Roy Poh, Julian C Blake, Yo-Tsen Liu, Sarah Wiethoff, Conceição Bettencourt, Michael Pt Lunn, Hadi Manji, Michael G Hanna, Henry Houlden, Sebastian Brandner, Stephan Züchner, Michael Shy, Mary M Reilly
OBJECTIVES: To analyse and describe the clinical and genetic spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by mutations in the neurofilament light polypeptide gene (NEFL). METHODS: Combined analysis of newly identified patients with NEFL-related CMT and all previously reported cases from the literature. RESULTS: Five new unrelated patients with CMT carrying the NEFL mutations P8R and N98S and the novel variant L311P were identified...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458383/efficacy-of-fiber-tractography-in-the-stereotactic-surgery-of-the-thalamus-for-patients-with-essential-tremor
#13
Susumu Sasada, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Akihiko Kondo, Aiko Shinko, Takaaki Wakamori, Mihoko Okazaki, Ittetsu Kin, Ken Kuwahara, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Isao Date
Several targets and targeting methods are utilized in stereotactic surgery to achieve tremor suppression for patients with intractable tremor. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging, have enabled the setting of appropriate targets in stereotactic surgery. In this retrospective study, the optimal target to suppress tremors in stereotactic surgery was explored using diffusion tensor image-based fiber tractography. Four tracts were focused on in this study, namely: the cerebello-thalamo-premotor cortical fiber tract, cerebello-thalamo-primary motor cortical fiber tract, spino-thalamo-somatosensory cortical fiber tract, and pyramidal tract...
May 1, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450828/spine-enlargement-of-pyramidal-tract-type-neurons-in-the-motor-cortex-of-a-rat-model-of-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#14
Tatsuya Ueno, Haruo Nishijima, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Growing evidence suggests that abnormal synaptic plasticity of cortical neurons underlies levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Spine morphology reflects synaptic plasticity resulting from glutamatergic transmission. We previously reported that enlargement of the dendritic spines of intratelencephalic-type (IT) neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) is linked to the development of LID. However, the relevance of another M1 neuron type, pyramidal-tract (PT) neurons, to LID remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450688/a-case-of-55-year-old-man-with-first-ever-generalized-seizure-diagnosed-with-sturge-weber-syndrome-type-iii-by-characteristic-mri-findings
#15
Hidehiro Ishikawa, Yuichiro Ii, Atsushi Niwa, Keita Matsuura, Masayuki Maeda, Hidekazu Tomimoto
A 55-year-old man with no mental retardation had presented a history of frequent transient clumsiness of his right upper and lower extremities for about 20 years. He was admitted to a general hospital with weakness of right side of the body, and first-ever generalized seizure attack occurred the next day. Brain CT showed calcification in the left cerebral cortices. So he was referred to our hospital. On neurological examination, he had mild clumsiness of his right upper limb and right pyramidal tract sign. He had neither facial port-wine stain nor glaucoma...
April 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449883/hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-more-than-an-upper-motor-neuron-disease
#16
REVIEW
L Parodi, S Fenu, G Stevanin, A Durr
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of rare inherited neurological diseases characterized by extreme heterogeneity in both their clinical manifestations and genetic backgrounds. Based on symptoms, HSPs can be divided into pure forms, presenting with pyramidal signs leading to lower-limb spasticity, and complex forms, when additional neurological or extraneurological symptoms are detected. The clinical diversity of HSPs partially reflects their underlying genetic backgrounds. To date, 76 loci and 58 corresponding genes [spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs)] have been linked to HSPs...
April 24, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442944/immunohistochemical-localization-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-axon-terminals-of-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Seong-Yeon Bae, Vadim Sheverdin, Jeehye Maeng, In Kyoon Lyoo, Pyung-Lim Han, Kyunglim Lee
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a cytosolic protein with microtubule stabilization and calcium-binding activities. TCTP is expressed in most organs including the nervous system. However, detailed distribution and functional significance of TCTP in the brain remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the global and subcellular distributions of TCTP in the mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses with anti-TCTP revealed that TCTP was widely distributed in almost all regions of the brain including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, wherein it was localized in axon tracts and axon terminals...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413401/parkinsonism-in-association-with-dihydropteridine-reductase-deficiency
#18
Yoshiaki Takahashi, Yasuhiro Manabe, Yumiko Nakano, Taijun Yunoki, Syoichiro Kono, Hisashi Narai, Mahoko Furujo, Koji Abe
We report a 16-year-old man with disorders of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism due to dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) deficiency. He revealed moderate mental retardation, parkinsonism, and spastic paralysis with levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation from the age of 2 months. Brain MRI showed high intensity areas in bilateral frontal and posterior deep white matter on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Coronal FLAIR image showed a high signal in bilateral pyramidal tracts. Single photon computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopamine transporter was normal...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395115/the-brain-of-the-tree-pangolin-manis-tricuspis-i-general-appearance-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Aminu Imam, Moyosore S Ajao, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
Here, we describe the superficial appearance of the brain of the rarely studied tree pangolin. Phylogenetic analyses have placed the pangolins, order Pholidota, as a sister group to the order Carnivora. The majority of features visible on the surface of the tree pangolin brain, and its overall appearance can be described as typically mammalian. The pattern of sulci and gyri, while simple, appears very similar to that observed in carnivores. Two derived features of the Pholidota were observed, the first being the rostral decussation of the pyramidal tract, which instead of occurring at the spinomedullary junction, decussates at the level of the caudal pole of the facial nerve nucleus in the rostral medulla oblongata...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#20
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
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