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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316271/fingolimod-improved-axonal-and-myelin-integrity-of-white-matter-tracts-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-related-functional-impairments
#1
Michael Gurevich, Roy Waknin, Evan Stone, Anat Achiron
AIMS: Fingolimod hydrochloride is an effective immunomodulatory drug in improving relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, data on the neuroradiologic effects on white matter (WM) have not been demonstrated. In this study, we aimed elucidating the impact of 1-year fingolimod treatment on WM integrity in patients with RRMS. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was applied to assess axonal and myelin integrity in specific WM tracts of patients with RRMS prior to and 1 year postfingolimod treatment (n = 30)...
January 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312877/diagnostic-contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-an-atypical-presentation-of-motor-neuron-disease
#2
Lorenzo Ugga, Cinzia Coppola, Sirio Cocozza, Dario Saracino, Ferdinando Caranci, Francesco Tuccillo, Elisabetta Signoriello, Sara Casertano, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Enrico Tedeschi
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease determining progressive and relentless motor deterioration involving both upper and lower motor neurons (UMN and LMN); several variants at onset are described. Here we describe a case of MND presenting as pure spastic monoparesis in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave a substantial contribution in confirming the diagnosis and assessing the severity of UMN involvement. An isolated pyramidal syndrome, with complete absence of LMN signs, is a rare phenotype in the context of MND (less than 4% of total cases), especially if restricted to only one limb...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277699/chronic-stress-leads-to-long-lasting-deficits-in-olfactory-guided-behaviors-and-to-neuroplastic-changes-in-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract
#3
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Paula Serrão, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
A recent study reported that the integrity of the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is required for normal olfaction and for the display of odor-driven behaviors that are critical for species survival and reproduction. In addition to being bi-directionally connected with a key element of the neural circuitry that mediates stress response, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, the nLOT is a potential target for glucocorticoids as its cells express glucocorticoid receptors. Herein, we have addressed this hypothesis by exploring, first, if chronic variable stress (CVS) disrupts odor detection and discrimination, and innate olfactory-driven behaviors, namely predator avoidance, sexual behavior and aggression in male rats...
January 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259352/mechanism-of-restoration-of-forelimb-motor-function-after-cervical-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rats-electrophysiological-verification
#4
Takumi Takeuchi, Masahito Takahashi, Kazuhiko Satomi, Hideaki Ohne, Atsushi Hasegawa, Shunsuke Sato, Shoichi Ichimura
The objective of this study was to electrophysiologically assess the corticospinal tracts of adult rats and the recovery of motor function of their forelimbs after cervical cord hemisection. Of 39 adult rats used, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the forelimbs of 15 rats were evaluated, before they received left C5 segmental hemisection of the spinal cord, by stimulating the pyramid of the medulla oblongata on one side using an exciting microelectrode. All 15 rats exhibited contralateral electrical activity, but their CMAPs disappeared after hemisection...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237520/-patterns-of-brain-injury-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-recommendations-on-classification
#5
Jian Mao
Although there are unified criteria for the clinical diagnosis and grading of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), clinical features and neuropathological patterns vary considerably among the neonates with HIE due to birth asphyxia in the same classification. The patterns and progression of brain injury in HIE, which is closely associated with long-term neurodevelopment outcomes, can be well shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but different sequences may lead to different MRI findings at the same time...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214039/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7-sca7-in-zambian-families
#6
Masharip Atadzhanov, Danielle C Smith, Mwila H Mwaba, Omar K Siddiqi, Alan Bryer, L Jacquie Greenberg
Background: To date, 43 types of Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs) have been identified. A subset of the SCAs are caused by the pathogenic expansion of a CAG repeat tract within the corresponding gene. Ethnic and geographic differences are evident in the prevalence of the autosomal dominant SCAs. Few descriptions of the clinical phenotype and molecular genetics of the SCAs are available from the African continent. Established studies mostly concern the South African populations, where there is a high frequency of SCA1, SCA2 and SCA7...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209585/video-microscope-robotic-arm-assisted-neuronavigation-guided-glioma-resection-and-regional-sampling
#7
Muhammad Waqas, Syed Ather Enam, Fauzan A Hashmi, Fatima Mubarak, Fazal Arain
High-grade gliomas possess internal pathological heterogeneity. Selective sampling of different tumor regions can help in the study of this heterogeneity. In this report, we have described the use of a novel navigation and optical system for the selective regional sampling of a high-grade glioma lesion. A 45-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of intermittent frontal headaches for past eight months. On examination, he had subtle pyramidal weakness in left upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large contrast-enhancing, space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe causing perilesional edema and midline shift...
October 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205982/spasticity-or-periodic-limb-movements
#8
Jonathan Levy, Sarah Hartley, Elsa Mauruc-Soubirac, Antoine Leotard, Frederic Lofaso, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva, Djamel Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Spasticity and spasms are distressing features of the upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS) following spinal cord injuries (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS), and have common therapeutic implications. Despite an increase of antispastic drugs and strategies, sometimes up to the surgical implant of intrathecal baclofen pump, some patients still complain of disabling spasms, which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although clinically similar, flexor spasms due to pyramidal tract disruption must be clearly differentiated from periodic limb movements (PLM), often accompanying restless leg syndrome (RLS) and occurring during sleep...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194516/deficits-in-cortical-suppression-during-vocalization-are-associated-with-structural-abnormalities-in-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-early-illness-schizophrenia-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#9
Thomas J Whitford, Lena K L Oestreich, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon
Self-generated speech produces a smaller N1 amplitude in the auditory-evoked potential than externally generated speech; this phenomenon is known as N1-suppression. Schizophrenia patients show less N1-suppression than healthy controls. This failure to self-suppress may underlie patients' characteristic tendency to misattribute self-generated thoughts and actions to external sources. While the cause of N1-suppression deficits to speech in schizophrenia remains unclear, structural damage to the arcuate fasciculus is a candidate, due to its ostensible role in transmitting the efference copy of the motor plan to speak...
November 29, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174922/detecting-spinal-pyramidal-tract-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#10
Yusuke Fukui, Nozomi Hishikawa, Kota Sato, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Jingwei Shang, Mami Takemoto, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Koji Abe
The objective of this study was to determine alteration of corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor tractograhy (DTT) focusing on the cervical spinal cord (C5) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We recruited 38 ALS, 6 spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), 7 spastic paraplegia (SP) patients, and 8 age-matched normal controls, and then ALS were divided into two subgroups according to their clinical type: 28 ALS-limb and 10 ALS-bulbar. DTT was performed using the diffusion tensor image (DTI) track module to reconstruct two fiber tracts via C5...
November 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171804/an-intraoperative-motor-tract-positioning-method-in-brain-tumor-surgery-technical-note
#11
Fumio Yamaguchi, Hirotomo Ten, Tadashi Higuchi, Tomoko Omura, Toyoyuki Kojima, Koji Adachi, Takayuki Kitamura, Shiro Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takahashi, Akira Teramoto, Akio Morita
Intraoperative 3D recognition of the motor tract is indispensable to avoiding neural fiber injury in brain tumor surgery. However, precise localization of the tracts is sometimes difficult with conventional mapping methods. Thus, the authors developed a novel brain mapping method that enables the 3D recognition of the motor tract for intrinsic brain tumor surgeries. This technique was performed in 40 consecutive patients with gliomas adjacent to motor tracts that have a risk of intraoperative pyramidal tract damage...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167994/congenital-zika-virus-infection-a-neuropathological-review
#12
L Chimelli, E Avvad-Portari
BACKGROUND: A relationship between Zika virus (ZikV) infection in pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly was established during the Zika outbreak in Brazil (2015-2016). Neuropathological findings in congenital Zika syndrome helped to understand its pathogenetic mechanisms. RESULTS: The most relevant postmortem findings in the central nervous system (CNS) of fetuses and neonates infected with ZikV early in gestation are microcephaly with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly and large head circumference associated with obstructive hydrocephalus due to severe midbrain and aqueduct distortion...
January 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163073/neocortical-lamination-insights-from-neuron-types-and-evolutionary-precursors
#13
Gordon M Shepherd, Timothy B Rowe
The neocortex is characterized by lamination of its neuron cell bodies in six layers, but there are few clues as to how this comes about and what is its function. Recent studies provide evidence that evolution from simple three-layer cortex may give insight into this problem. Three-layer cortex arose in the olfactory, hippocampal and dorsal cortex of the early amniote forebrain based on a cortical module of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to an intratelencephalic (IT) type of pyramidal neuron with feedback excitation and inhibition and related interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160113/superficial-siderosis-of-central-nervous-system-with-unknown-cause-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Hao Chen, Hafiz Khuram Raza, Jia Jing, Xinchun Ye, Zuohui Zhang, Fang Hua, Guiyun Cui
OBJECTIVE: To report 2 cases of superficial siderosis of central nervous system (SS-CNS) and a review of the literature. METHODS: We have analyzed the clinical data and relevant features of two patients with SS-CNS who were presented with ataxia and slurred speech. Both patients undertook blood tests, lumbar puncture, head CT (computer tomography) scans, and brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance (MR) scans. In addition, the first patient also undewent enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography (ESWAN) and the second patient undertook susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) scan...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123180/the-gliadin-peptide-31-43-exacerbates-kainate-neurotoxicity-in-epilepsy-models
#15
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesco Resta, Elisa Landucci, Daniela Renzi, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Antonio Calabrò, Guido Mannaioni
Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116440/parenchymal-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-with-erectile-dysfunction-and-micturition-disturbances-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Ali Taylan, Merih Birlik
Parenchymal neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) is a serious clinic condition with a sub-acute or chronic disease course that results in incapability through pyramidal tract involvement. Though well-known consequences can deter a patient's life, both urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction are underestimated complications of NBD and closely related in timing. Here, we report the case of a young male patient with parenchymal NBD who developed urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction in addition to widespread pyramidal tract signs and symptoms...
November 7, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076904/potential-use-of-18f-thk5351-pet-to-identify-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-pyramidal-tract-caused-by-cerebral-infarction
#17
Kenji Ishibashi, Masashi Kameyama, Tetsuro Tago, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
A 41-year-old man underwent F-THK5351 PET 2 years after a right middle cerebral artery infarction. F-THK5351 PET imaging revealed intense radioligand uptake along the ipsilateral pyramidal tract from the corona radiata to the medulla; intense uptake changed from the right side to the left side with descending axial sections at the level of the pyramidal decussation. F-THK5351 reportedly binds to monoamine oxidase B, which is highly expressed in astrocytes, suggesting that F-THK5351 concentrates in the lesion where gliosis occurs...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021587/relationships-between-structure-in-vivo-function-and-long-range-axonal-target-of-cortical-pyramidal-tract-neurons
#18
Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Jason M Guest, Robert Egger, Andrew S Johnson, Bert Sakmann, Marcel Oberlaender
Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the neocortex. To investigate principles of how the results of cortical processing are broadcasted to different downstream targets thus requires experimental approaches, which provide access to the in vivo electrophysiology of PTs, whose subcortical target regions are identified. On the example of rat barrel cortex (vS1), we illustrate that retrograde tracer injections into multiple subcortical structures allow identifying the long-range axonal targets of individual in vivo recorded PTs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018334/cornu-ammonis-regions-antecedents-of-cortical-layers
#19
REVIEW
Audrey Mercer, Alex M Thomson
Studying neocortex and hippocampus in parallel, we are struck by the similarities. All three to four layered allocortices and the six layered mammalian neocortex arise in the pallium. All receive and integrate multiple cortical and subcortical inputs, provide multiple outputs and include an array of neuronal classes. During development, each cell positions itself to sample appropriate local and distant inputs and to innervate appropriate targets. Simpler cortices had already solved the need to transform multiple coincident inputs into serviceable outputs before neocortex appeared in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972128/distinct-laterality-in-forelimb-movement-representations-of-rat-primary-and-secondary-motor-cortical-neurons-with-intratelencephalic-and-pyramidal-tract-projections
#20
Shogo Soma, Akiko Saiki, Junichi Yoshida, Alain Ríos, Masanori Kawabata, Yutaka Sakai, Yoshikazu Isomura
Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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