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Pyramidal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123180/the-gliadin-peptide-31-43-exacerbates-kainate-neurotoxicity-in-epilepsy-models
#1
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesco Resta, Elisa Landucci, Daniela Renzi, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Antonio Calabrò, Guido Mannaioni
Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116440/parenchymal-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-with-erectile-dysfunction-and-micturition-disturbances-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Ali Taylan, Merih Birlik
Parenchymal neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) is a serious clinic condition with a sub-acute or chronic disease course that results in incapability through pyramidal tract involvement. Though well-known consequences can deter a patient's life, both urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction are underestimated complications of NBD and closely related in timing. Here, we report the case of a young male patient with parenchymal NBD who developed urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction in addition to widespread pyramidal tract signs and symptoms...
November 7, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076904/potential-use-of-18f-thk5351-pet-to-identify-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-pyramidal-tract-caused-by-cerebral-infarction
#3
Kenji Ishibashi, Masashi Kameyama, Tetsuro Tago, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
A 41-year-old man underwent F-THK5351 PET 2 years after a right middle cerebral artery infarction. F-THK5351 PET imaging revealed intense radioligand uptake along the ipsilateral pyramidal tract from the corona radiata to the medulla; intense uptake changed from the right side to the left side with descending axial sections at the level of the pyramidal decussation. F-THK5351 reportedly binds to monoamine oxidase B, which is highly expressed in astrocytes, suggesting that F-THK5351 concentrates in the lesion where gliosis occurs...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021587/relationships-between-structure-in-vivo-function-and-long-range-axonal-target-of-cortical-pyramidal-tract-neurons
#4
Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Jason M Guest, Robert Egger, Andrew S Johnson, Bert Sakmann, Marcel Oberlaender
Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the neocortex. To investigate principles of how the results of cortical processing are broadcasted to different downstream targets thus requires experimental approaches, which provide access to the in vivo electrophysiology of PTs, whose subcortical target regions are identified. On the example of rat barrel cortex (vS1), we illustrate that retrograde tracer injections into multiple subcortical structures allow identifying the long-range axonal targets of individual in vivo recorded PTs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018334/cornu-ammonis-regions-antecedents-of-cortical-layers
#5
REVIEW
Audrey Mercer, Alex M Thomson
Studying neocortex and hippocampus in parallel, we are struck by the similarities. All three to four layered allocortices and the six layered mammalian neocortex arise in the pallium. All receive and integrate multiple cortical and subcortical inputs, provide multiple outputs and include an array of neuronal classes. During development, each cell positions itself to sample appropriate local and distant inputs and to innervate appropriate targets. Simpler cortices had already solved the need to transform multiple coincident inputs into serviceable outputs before neocortex appeared in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972128/distinct-laterality-in-forelimb-movement-representations-of-rat-primary-and-secondary-motor-cortical-neurons-with-intratelencephalic-and-pyramidal-tract-projections
#6
Shogo Soma, Akiko Saiki, Junichi Yoshida, Alain Ríos, Masanori Kawabata, Yutaka Sakai, Yoshikazu Isomura
Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971056/joubert-syndrome-presenting-with-normal-pyramidal-decussation-a-case-report
#7
Nam-Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Park
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a congenital malformation of the hindbrain, and accompanied by axonal decussation abnormalities affecting the corticospinal tract and the superior cerebellar peduncles. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of normal pyramidal decussation in JS. Here, we describe the case of an 18-year-old boy presenting midline-crossing corticospinal projections, which were considered normal corticospinal tract trajectories. Diffusion tensor imaging and motor evoked potential study analysis demonstrated the exclusive presence of decussating corticospinal projections in the patient...
August 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931811/distal-axotomy-enhances-retrograde-presynaptic-excitability-onto-injured-pyramidal-neurons-via-trans-synaptic-signaling
#8
Tharkika Nagendran, Rylan S Larsen, Rebecca L Bigler, Shawn B Frost, Benjamin D Philpot, Randolph J Nudo, Anne Marion Taylor
Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919467/distribution-of-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-and-tau-phosphorylated-at-tyrosine-18-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-in-the-human-hippocampus
#9
Christoph Köhler, Vivien Fuhr, Maja Dinekov
PURPOSE: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has been shown to phosphorylate tyrosine 18 of tau in vitro. It has been proposed that increased immunoreactivity for double-phosphorylated Syk in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease cases indicates a not yet defined neurodegenerative process. To investigate this possibility we have studied Syk and tau phosphorylated at tyrosine 18 (pTyr18) in transgenic mice and human hippocampi. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence labeling and Western blotting and compared the distribution of Syk double-phosphorylated at tyrosines 525 and 526 and pTyr18 in human tau transgenic pR5 mice and human hippocampi with low and high Braak stages for neurofibrillary tangle pathology...
December 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852709/ataxia-pancytopenia-syndrome-with-samd9l-mutations
#10
Sorina Gorcenco, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Karin Nordborg, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Sten Andréasson, Johanna Krüger, Christer Nilsson, Ulrika Kjellström, Elisa Rahikkala, Dominik Turkiewicz, Mikael Karlberg, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga, Ulf Tedgård, Josef Davidsson, Johanna Uusimaa, Andreas Puschmann
OBJECTIVE: We describe the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and ophthalmologic phenotype of 1 Swedish and 1 Finnish family with autosomal dominant ataxia-pancytopenia (ATXPC) syndrome and SAMD9L mutations. METHODS: Members of these families with germline SAMD9L c.2956C>T, p.Arg986Cys, or c.2672T>C, p.Ile891Thr mutations underwent structured interviews and neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations. Neuroimaging was performed, and medical records were reviewed...
October 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840099/specific-dti-seeding-and-diffusivity-analysis-improve-the-quality-and-prognostic-value-of-tms-based-deterministic-dti-of-the-pyramidal-tract
#11
Tizian Rosenstock, Davide Giampiccolo, Heike Schneider, Sophia Jutta Runge, Ina Bährend, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
OBJECT: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used preoperatively in patients with eloquent-located brain lesions and allows analyzing non-invasively the spatial relationship between the tumor and functional areas (e.g. the motor cortex and the corticospinal tract [CST]). In this study, we examined the diffusion parameters FA (fractional anisotropy) and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) within the CST in different locations and analyzed their interrater reliability and usefulness for predicting the patients' motor outcome with a precise approach of specific region of interest (ROI) seeding based on the color-coded FA-map...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801086/slowly-progressive-leukodystrophy-in-an-adolescent-male-with-phosphoglycerate-kinase-deficiency
#12
Shimpei Baba, Ayumi Kobayashi, Haruna Yokoyama, Kengo Moriyama, Ayako Kashimada, Jun Oyama, Ayako Owada, Shoichi Oyama, Tomohiro Morio, Masatoshi Takagi
We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency who had slowly progressive leukodystrophy during adolescence. The patient had a history of severe neonatal jaundice, hemolytic crisis with rhabdomyolysis triggered by febrile viral infections, dysarthria, and intellectual disability during early childhood. Clumsiness in walking and writing became obvious at ∼10years of age. Evaluations performed by us on the 18-year-old patient confirmed the presence of pyramidal tract signs, increased muscle tone, and generalized dystonia...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779978/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol-on-the-pyramidal-tract-in-developing-rats
#13
Michael W Miller
Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons. Electron microscopic analyses of the pyramidal tracts of the offspring of pregnant rat dams fed a control diet ad libitum, pair-fed a liquid control diet, or fed an ethanol-containing diet ad libitum were performed...
August 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769756/an-lmnb1-duplication-caused-adult-onset-autosomal-dominant-leukodystrophy-in-chinese-family-clinical-manifestations-neuroradiology-and-genetic-diagnosis
#14
Yi Dai, Yaling Ma, Shengde Li, Santasree Banerjee, Shengran Liang, Qing Liu, Yinchang Yang, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Liri Jin
Autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a very rare neurological disorder featured with late onset, slowly progressive central nervous system demyelination. Duplication or over expression of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene causes ADLD. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive clinical evaluation and genetic detection for a Chinese family with ADLD. The proband is a 52-year old man manifested with autonomic abnormalities, pyramidal tract dysfunction. MRI brain scan identified bilateral symmetric white matter (WM) hyper-intensities in periventricular and semi-oval WM, cerebral peduncles and middle cerebellar peduncles...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738366/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-hypophonia-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#15
Ji Hye Yoon, Yisuh Ahn, Sook Hui Kim, Juhee Chin, Seongbeom Park, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early detection and intervention may alter the disease course of subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). Patients with SVCI have white matter ischemia that disrupts connections between the cortex and subcortical gray matter and therefore manifest various symptoms such as motor disturbances and behavioral/cognitive dysfunction. Reduced vocal loudness, or hypophonia, is one of the common motor symptoms of SVCI, but few studies have systematically investigated it in this patient population...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#16
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
September 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726023/benefits-and-risks-of-non-approved-injection-regimens-for-botulinum-toxins-in-spasticity
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Santamato, Francesco Panza
Spasticity with muscle paresis and loss of dexterity is a common feature of upper motor neuron syndrome due to injuries or the pyramidal tract in several neurological conditions. Botulinum toxin type A has been considered the gold standard treatment for spasticity and movement disorders, with efficacy, reversibility, and low prevalence of complications. During the last 30 years, thousands of studies of its use have been performed, but few guidelines are available. Therefore, there is great variability in both the doses and intervals of administration and the approaches taken by clinicians with considerable experience in spasticity and movement disorder treatment...
September 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701996/aberrant-pyramidal-tract-in-comparison-with-pyramidal-tract-on-diffusion-tensor-tractography-a-mini-review
#18
REVIEW
Sungho Jang, Soyoung Kwak
The pyramidal tract (PT) is a major neural tract that controls voluntary movements in the human brain. The PT has several collateral pathways, including the aberrant pyramidal tract (APT), which passes through the medial lemniscus location at the midbrain and pons. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) allows visualization and estimation of the APT in three dimensions. In this mini-review, eight DTT studies on the APT were reviewed. Two studies for normal subjects reported the prevalence (17-18% of hemispheres) and the different characteristics (different cortical origin, less directionality, and fewer neural fibers) of the APT compared with the PT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#19
H Hamodat, M K Cash, J D Fisk, S Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641772/susac-syndrome-a-differential-diagnosis-of-white-matter-lesions
#20
Mariano Marrodan, Jorge Correale, Lucas Alessandro, Mariela Amaya, Maria Eugenia Fracaro, Alejandro Alfredo Köhler, Marcela Fiol
INTRODUCTION: Susac Syndrome is an autoimmune endotheliopathy affecting capillaries and precapillary arterioles of the brain, inner ear and retina. The classic symptom triad includes visual disturbances, hypoacusia, and encephalopathy, but is rarely fully manifest at onset. The syndrome typically follows an active fluctuating monophasic course. Typical imaging findings on brain magnetic resonance show central fiber microischemias/microinfarctions of the corpus callosum known as "snow balls", as well as lineal infarcts and upper callosal fiber involvement...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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