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Glucocorticoid receptor ( GR )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675572/baicalin-modulates-appl2-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-cascade-promotes-neurogenesis-and-attenuates-emotional-and-olfactory-dysfunctions-in-chronic-corticosterone-induced-depression
#1
Chong Gao, Qiaohui Du, Wenting Li, Ruixia Deng, Qi Wang, Aimin Xu, Jiangang Shen
Olfactory dysfunction is often accompanied with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in depressive patients. Impaired neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) contribute to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and olfactory dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction remain unclear. Our previous study indicates that adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2 (APPL2), could affect the activity and sensitivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mediate impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, which contribute the development of depression...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673844/nongenomic-cortisol-signaling-in-fish
#2
REVIEW
Chinmayee Das, Marwa Thraya, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Glucocorticoids are critical regulators of the cellular processes that allow animals to cope with stressors. In teleosts, cortisol is the primary circulating glucocorticoid and this hormone mediates a suite of physiological responses, most importantly energy substrate mobilization that is essential for acute stress adaptation. Cortisol signaling has been extensively studied and the majority of work has been on the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-bound transcription factor, and the associated downstream transcriptional and protein responses...
April 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672221/glucocorticoid-receptor-isoform-specific-regulation-of-development-circadian-rhythm-and-inflammation-in-mice
#3
Robert H Oakley, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Julie F Foley, Jonathan T Busada, Nick Z Lu, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones, and their synthetic derivatives are widely used clinically. The therapeutic efficacy of these steroids is limited by side effects and glucocorticoid resistance. Multiple glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms are produced from a single gene by alternative translation initiation; however, the role individual isoforms play in tissue-specific responses to glucocorticoids is unknown. We have generated knockin mice that exclusively express the most active receptor isoform, GR-C3...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667746/an-integrative-approach-combining-passive-sampling-bioassays-and-effect-directed-analysis-to-assess-the-impact-of-wastewater-effluent
#4
Manoj Sonavane, Jennifer E Schollée, Anita O Hidasi, Nicolas Creusot, François Brion, Marc J-F Suter, Juliane Hollender, Selim Aït-Aïssa
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are major sources of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and of other chemicals of toxicological concern for the aquatic environment. In this study, we used an integrated strategy combining passive sampling (Chemcatcher®), developmental toxicity and mechanism-based in vitro and in vivo bioassays to monitor the impacts of a WWTP on a river. In vitro screening revealed the WWTP effluent as a source of estrogen (ER), glucocorticoid (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptor mediated activities, impacting the downstream river site where significant activities were also measured, albeit to a lesser extent than in the effluent...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667121/backbone-1-h-13-c-and-15-n-resonance-assignments-of-the-ligand-binding-domain-of-the-human-wildtype-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-the-f602s-mutant-variant
#5
Christian Köhler, Göran Carlström, Stefan Tångefjord, Tineke Papavoine, Matti Lepistö, Karl Edman, Mikael Akke
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates key genes controlling development, metabolism, and the immune response. GR agonists are efficacious for treatment of inflammatory, allergic, and immunological disorders. Steroid hormone binding to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of GR is known to change the structural and dynamical properties of the receptor, which in turn control its interactions with DNA and various co-regulators and drive the pharmacological response. Previous biophysical studies of the GR LBD have required the use of mutant forms to overcome issues with limited protein stability and high aggregation propensity...
April 17, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#6
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648494/placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2-recruitment-indicates-impact-of-prenatal-adversity-upon-postnatal-development-in-mice
#7
Moshe Gross, Hava Romi, Yelena Gilimovich, Elyashiv Drori, Albert Pinhasov
Prenatal stress may increase concentrations of maternal glucocorticoids, which restrict fetal growth, with variable impact upon postnatal development. Among key regulators of stress hormone effects are the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11βHSD2), the enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoid. This study utilized mice selectively bred for social dominance (Dom) or submissiveness (Sub), respectively exhibiting resilience or sensitivity to stress, to test whether stress-induced alterations in placental GR and 11βHSD2 protein expression may mediate divergent effects of prenatal adversity upon postnatal development...
April 12, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643984/the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-recipient-cells-keeps-cytokine-secretion-in-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-at-bay
#8
Tina Baake, Katharina Jörß, Jennifer Suennemann, Laura Roßmann, Hanibal Bohnenberger, Jan P Tuckermann, Holger M Reichardt, Henrike J Fischer, Sybille D Reichardt
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which is caused by allogeneic T cells recognizing molecules of the recipient as foreign. Endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) released from the adrenal gland are crucial in regulating such inflammatory diseases. Here we demonstrate that genetically engineered mice, that are largely unresponsive to GC, suffer from aggravated clinical symptoms and increased mortality after HSCT, effects that could be tempered by neutralization of IL-6...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643853/gender-bias-in-human-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-problem-of-steroid-receptor-action
#9
Virginia Rider, Nabih I Abdou, Bruce F Kimler, Nanyan Lu, Susan Brown, Brooke L Fridley
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease resulting from abnormal interactions between T and B cells. The acquisition of SLE is linked to genetic susceptibility, and diverse environmental agents can trigger disease onset in genetically susceptible individuals. However, the strongest risk factor for developing SLE is being female (9:1 female to male ratio). The female sex steroid, estradiol, working through its receptors, contributes to the gender bias in SLE although the mechanisms remain enigmatic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643800/interaction-of-norepinephrine-and-glucocorticoids-modulate-inhibition-of-principle-cells-of-layer-ii-medial-entorhinal-cortex-in-male-mice
#10
Jeremiah P Hartner, Laura A Schrader
Spatial memory processing requires functional interaction between the hippocampus and the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). The grid cells of the MEC are most abundant in layer II and rely on a complex network of local inhibitory interneurons to generate spatial firing properties. Stress can cause spatial memory deficits in males, but the specific underlying mechanisms affecting the known memory pathways remain unclear. Stress activates both the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to release norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629442/assessment-of-endocrine-disruption-potential-of-essential-oils-of-culinary-herbs-and-spices-involving-glucocorticoid-androgen-and-vitamin-d-receptors
#11
Iveta Bartoňková, Zdeněk Dvořák
Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are consumed on a daily basis. They are multicomponent mixtures of compounds with already demonstrated biological activities. Taking into account regular dietary intake and the chemical composition of EOs, they may be considered as candidates for endocrine-disrupting entities. Therefore, we examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on transcriptional activities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), androgen receptor (AR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
April 9, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626214/cryptic-glucocorticoid-receptor-binding-sites-pervade-genomic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-response-elements
#12
William H Hudson, Ian Mitchelle S de Vera, Jerome C Nwachukwu, Emily R Weikum, Austin G Herbst, Qin Yang, David L Bain, Kendall W Nettles, Douglas J Kojetin, Eric A Ortlund
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent repressors of NF-κB activity, making them a preferred choice for treatment of inflammation-driven conditions. Despite the widespread use of GCs in the clinic, current models are inadequate to explain the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within this critical signaling pathway. GR binding directly to NF-κB itself-tethering in a DNA binding-independent manner-represents the standing model of how GCs inhibit NF-κB-driven transcription. We demonstrate that direct binding of GR to genomic NF-κB response elements (κBREs) mediates GR-driven repression of inflammatory gene expression...
April 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625124/theophylline-suppresses-interleukin-6-expression-by-inhibiting-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-pre-adipocytes
#13
Takakazu Mitani, Tomohide Takaya, Naoki Harada, Shigeru Katayama, Ryoichi Yamaji, Soichiro Nakamura, Hitoshi Ashida
Adipose tissues in obese individuals are characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Pre-adipocytes and adipocytes in this state secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), which induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but its effects on pro-inflammatory adipokine secretion by pre-adipocytes and adipocytes have not been examined. In this study, we found that theophylline decreased IL-6 secretion by 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse-derived primary pre-adipocytes...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622283/a-comparison-of-cochlear-distribution-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-in-local-and-systemic-dexamethasone-drug-delivery-regimes
#14
Nathan J Creber, Hayden T Eastwood, Amy J Hampson, Justin Tan, Stephen J O'Leary
Local and systemically delivered glucocorticoids are commonly administered to protect the cochlea against damage associated with a variety of insults. There is reason to believe that dexamethasone administered by these routes may arrive at cochlear target sites via different pathways. Clinically, there is a lack of clarity as to which route is more effective in any specific circumstance. This study explores dexamethasone distribution within the guinea pig cochlea following local and systemic delivery methods...
March 20, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620157/glucocorticoid-receptor-overexpression-slightly-shifts-microrna-expression-patterns-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Dominik Buschmann, Ricardo González, Benedikt Kirchner, Claudia Mazzone, Michael W Pfaffl, Gustav Schelling, Ortrud Steinlein, Marlene Reithmair
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particularly aggressive subtype of breast cancer with limited options for clinical intervention. As with many solid tumors, TNBC is known to promote invasiveness and metastasis by secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) capable of modulating the behaviour of recipient cells. Recent investigations have demonstrated that high expression levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in TNBC are linked to therapy resistance, higher recurrence rates and increased mortality. In addition to activating protein-coding genes, GR is also involved in the expression of short non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs)...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614900/mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-control-of-genomic-responses-to-stress-in-the-brain
#16
Karen R Mifsud, Johannes M H M Reul
Successful coping with stressful events involves adaptive and cognitive processes in the brain that make the individual more resilient to similar stressors in the future. Stressful events result in the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) from the adrenal glands into the blood stream. Early work proved instrumental for developing the concept that these hormones act in the brain to coordinate physiological and behavioral responses to stress through binding to two different GC-binding receptors. Once activated these receptors translocate to the nucleus where they act on target genes to facilitate (or sometimes inhibit) transcription...
April 4, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599416/low-protein-diet-in-puberty-impairs-testosterone-output-and-energy-metabolism-in-male-rats
#17
Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Egberto G Moura, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ana Moraes, Luiz Felipe Barella, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva Ribeiro, Ananda Malta, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Patricia Lisboa, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
We examined the long-term effects of protein restriction during puberty on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in male rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a low-protein diet (4%, LP) from 30 to 60 days-old. A normal-protein diet (20.5%) was reintroduced from 60 to 120 days-old. Control rats were fed a normal-protein diet throughout life (NP). Rats were euthanized at 60 or 120 days-old. Food consumption, body weight, visceral fat deposits, lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, corticosteronemia, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), testosteronemia and leptinemia were evaluated...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596905/rapamycin-modulates-glucocorticoid-receptor-function-blocks-atrophogene-redd1-and-protects-skin-from-steroid-atrophy
#18
Ekaterina Lesovaya, Shivani Agarwal, Ben Readhead, Elena Vinokour, Gleb Baida, Pankaj Bhalla, Kirill Kirsanov, Marianna Yakubovskaya, Leonidas C Platanias, Joel T Dudley, Irina Budunova
Glucocorticoids have excellent therapeutic properties; however, they cause significant adverse atrophogenic effects. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage 1), has been recently identified as a key mediator of glucocorticoid-induced atrophy. We performed computational screening of connectivity map database (CMAP) to identify putative REDD1 inhibitors. The top selected candidates included Rapamycin, which was unexpected because it inhibits pro-proliferative mTOR signaling...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594350/transcriptional-regulators-as-targets-for-alcohol-pharmacotherapies
#19
Antonia M Savarese, Amy W Lasek
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain disease that currently afflicts over 15 million adults in the United States. Despite its prevalence, there are only three FDA-approved medications for AUD treatment, all of which show limited efficacy. Because of their ability to alter expression of a large number of genes, often with great cell-type and brain-region specificity, transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers serve as promising new targets for the development of AUD treatments aimed at the neural circuitry that underlies chronic alcohol abuse...
March 29, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593652/11%C3%AE-hsd-types-1-and-2-in-the-songbird-brain
#20
Michelle A Rensel, Jessica A Ding, Devaleena S Pradhan, Barney A Schlinger
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones act on the brain to regulate diverse functions, from behavior and homeostasis to the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Local regeneration and metabolism of GCs can occur in target tissues through the actions of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases [11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), respectively] to regulate access to GC receptors. Songbirds have become especially important model organisms for studies of stress hormone action; however, there has been little focus on neural GC metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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