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Glucocorticoid receptor ( GR )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717104/dexamethasone-induced-hepatomegaly-and-steatosis-in-larval-zebrafish
#1
Guojun Yin, Liping Cao, Jinliang Du, Rui Jia, Takio Kitazawa, Akira Kubota, Hiroki Teraoka
Fish hepatobiliary syndrome, characterized by hepatomegaly and fatty liver, has been frequently reported in many cultured fish species and has caused a dramatic economic loss in China. Glucocorticoids are thought to be important non-nutritional factors for hepatomegaly and fatty liver development. In the present study, a dexamethasone-induced zebrafish model of fatty liver and hepatomegaly was established, and the role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the development of hepatomegaly and fatty liver was investigated using developing zebrafish...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713045/cortisol-elevation-post-hatch-affects-behavioural-performance-in-zebrafish-larvae
#2
Carol Best, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Maternal cortisol is essential for cortisol stress axis development and de novo production of this steroid commences only after hatch in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, very little is known about the effect of elevated cortisol levels, during the critical period of stress axis activation, on larval performance. We tested the hypothesis that elevated cortisol levels post-hatch affect behavioural performance and this is mediated by glucocorticoid receptor activation in zebrafish larvae. The behavioural response included measuring larval activity in response to alternating light and dark cycles, as well as thigmotaxis...
July 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711928/dexamethasone-affects-cell-growth-apoptosis-chemosensitivity-of-colon-cancer-via-glucocorticoid-receptor-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Jianming He, Jinming Zhou, Weiwen Yang, Qi Zhou, Xi Liang, Xueli Pang, Jianjun Li, Feng Pan, Houjie Liang
Glucocorticoids are effective to treat lymphoma and leukemia. Their effect in colon cancer remains far from clear. Here, we found that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) α protein level was dramatically lower in colon cancer than in lymphoma. Colon cell lines LoVo and HCT116 were GRα-rich and GRα was not detectable in HT29 or SW480. Dexamethasone significantly inhibited cell growth of GRα-rich cell lines and did not significantly affect GRα-negative cell lines. Dexamethasone induced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity of GRα-rich cell lines...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708849/identification-and-characterization-of-batf3-as-a-context-specific-coactivator-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#4
Petra Birth, Stefanie Schöne, Ulrich Stelzl, Sebastiaan H Meijsing
The ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate the transcriptional output of genes relies on its interactions with transcriptional coregulators. However, which coregulators are required for GR-dependent activation is context-dependent and can be influenced by the sequence of the DNA bound by GR and by the nature of the GR isoform responsible for the regulation of a gene. Here, we screened for GR-interacting proteins for which the interaction signal differed between two GR isoforms GRα and GRγ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700991/strain-differences-and-effects-of-environmental-manipulation-on-astrocytes-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-microglia-iba1-immunoreactivity-between-wistar-kyoto-and-wistar-females
#5
Guergana R Mileva, Carinna Moyes, Shaezeen Syed, Catherine Bielajew
BACKGROUND: Depression is often associated with an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and immune response. To investigate this relationship, we examined the consequences of environmental manipulation on the neural correlates of the HPA axis and immune response in an animal model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, female animals are often overlooked in preclinical research because of the hormone fluctuations inherent in the estrous cycle...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687926/atat1-is-essential-for-regulation-of-homeostasis-retaining-cellular-responses-in-corticotrophs-along-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#6
Takashi Nakakura, Takeshi Suzuki, Seiji Torii, Anshin Asano-Hoshino, Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshimi Nishijima, Takao Susa, Tomoki Okazaki, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Haruo Hagiwara
The production and secretion of adrenocorticotropin, a proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived hormone, by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary, is regulated by corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoids. We have previously demonstrated that adrenalectomy induces α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) expression and α-tubulin acetylation in corticotrophs. However, the regulatory mechanism of ATAT1 expression and the function of acetylated microtubules in corticotrophs are unclear. Here, we analyze the effect of CRH or dexamethasone on Atat1 expression in the mouse corticotroph AtT20 cell line...
July 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686666/the-nature-of-the-gre-influences-the-screening-for-gr-activity-enhancing-modulators
#7
Karen Dendoncker, Steven Timmermans, Kelly Van Looveren, Lode De Cauwer, Karolien De Bosscher, Claude Libert
Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR), i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex)-induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686058/genetic-associations-and-interactions-between-the-nr3c1-gr-and-nr3c2-mr-genes-and-aggressive-behavior-in-a-central-south-chinese-han-population
#8
Jianming Li, Liang Tang, Yan Wang, Fang Li, Meihua Bao, Ju Xiang, Deliang Lei, Beisha Tang
AIMS: The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) play important roles in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress regulation. The current study aimed to address the genetic association and gene-gene interactions between GR and MR gene polymorphisms and aggressive behavior. METHODS: A haplotype-based, case-control study was designed to examine the association between human MR and GR genes and aggressive behaviors, including robbery and intentional interpersonal injury, in a central south Chinese Han population...
July 7, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679952/severe-asthma-in-humans-and-mouse-model-suggests-a-cxcl10-signature-underlies-corticosteroid-resistant-th1-bias
#9
Marc Gauthier, Krishnendu Chakraborty, Timothy B Oriss, Mahesh Raundhal, Sudipta Das, Jie Chen, Rachael Huff, Ayan Sinha, Merritt Fajt, Prabir Ray, Sally E Wenzel, Anuradha Ray
We previously showed that Th1/type 1 inflammation marked by increased IFN-γ levels in the airways can be appreciated in 50% of patients with severe asthma, despite high dose corticosteroid (CS) treatment. We hypothesized that a downstream target of IFN-γ, CXCL10, which recruits Th1 cells via the cognate receptor CXCR3, is an important contributor to Th1high asthma and CS unresponsiveness. We show high levels of CXCL10 mRNA closely associated with IFNG levels in the BAL cells of 50% of severe asthmatics and also in the airways of mice subjected to a severe asthma model, both in the context of high-dose CS treatment...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672951/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-hypersensitivity-in-female-rats-on-a-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-after-chronic-mild-stress
#10
Lian Liu, Junqiang Yang, Feng Qian, Chengbiao Lu
A high-fat diet (HFD) is highly correlated to obesity, metabolic diseases and certain behavioral changes. However, the effects of post-weaning HFD in rats during puberty and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this process have remained elusive. The present study hypothesized that the HPA axis mediates the behavioral alterations induced by a post-weaning HFD. To investigate this, female rats were divided into two groups, one of which was fed a HFD from postnatal weeks (PWs) 4-12, while the other group received standard chow...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664583/corticosterone-influences-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus-prostatic-morphophysiology-and-alters-its-proliferation-and-apoptosis-rates
#11
Julia Quilles Antoniassi, Ricardo Alexandre Fochi, Rejane Maira Góes, Patricia Simone Leite Vilamaior, Sebastião Roberto Taboga
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones that are widely used in medicine; but although side effects are generally recognised, little is known about the precise mechanisms that implicated in many of these side effects. Furthermore, GCs are highly correlated with stress and behaviour disorders. This study evaluated the effects of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on the ventral prostate of the Mongolian gerbil. Male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) (n = 5) received intraperitoneal injections of saline or corticosterone in doses of 0...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663543/nr3c1-null-mutant-zebrafish-are-viable-and-reveal-dna-binding-independent-activities-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#12
N Facchinello, T Skobo, G Meneghetti, E Colletti, A Dinarello, N Tiso, R Costa, G Gioacchini, O Carnevali, F Argenton, L Colombo, L Dalla Valle
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play important roles in developmental and physiological processes through the transcriptional activity of their cognate receptor (Gr). Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we established a zebrafish null Gr mutant line and compared its phenotypes with wild type and a zebrafish line with partially silenced gr (gr (s357/s357) ). Homozygous gr (-/-) larvae are morphologically inconspicuous and, in contrast to GR (-/-) knockout mice, viable through adulthood, although with reduced fitness and early life survival...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661068/expression-of-mir-18a-and-mir-34c-in-circulating-monocytes-associated-with-vulnerability-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Si-Si Wang, Yong-Qiang Li, Ying-Zhi Liang, Jing Dong, Yan He, Ling Zhang, Yu-Xiang Yan
Chronic stress may facilitate the development of metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MiR-18a and miR-34c modulate central cell responsiveness to stress by targeting glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) mRNA, which are important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study explored the relationship between T2DM/IR and expression of miR-18a and miR-34c in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in an occupational sample...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652134/effects-of-thermal-stress-on-the-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-complex-linked-genes-in-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-acute-and-adaptive-stress-responses
#14
Vanessa Benítez-Dorta, María J Caballero, Mónica B Betancor, Manuel Manchado, Lluis Tort, Silvia Torrecillas, María J Zamorano, Marisol Izquierdo, Daniel Montero
The present study examined the short and mid-term effects of a rise in temperature from 18°C to 24°C on the expression of genes related to the stress response regulation in juveniles of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. The animals were exposed to a temperature increase of 6°C, after 1month of acclimation at 18°C. After this process, samples of different tissues were collected from a total of 96 fish at four sampling points: 1h, 24h, 3days and 1week. The transcript levels of a set of genes involved in the stress response such as glucocorticoid receptors 1 and 2, corticotrophin-releasing factor, corticotrophin-releasing factor binding proteins, proopiomelanocortin A and B, and cellular stress defense (heat shock protein 70, 90AA and 90AB) were quantified at these sampling points...
June 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649452/glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocytes-differs-between-healthy-male-and-female-adults
#15
Kim D Lu, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Fadia Haddad, Frank Zaldivar, Monica Kraft, Dan M Cooper
INTRODUCTION: The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a key receptor involved in inflammatory responses and is influenced by sex steroids. This study measured GR expression on circulating leukocyte subtypes in males and females. METHODS: A total of 23 healthy adults (12 female) participated in this study. GR expression was measured in leukocyte subtypes using flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression of GR (NR3C1), GR β, TGF-β1 and 2, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
April 2017: Journal of clinical and translational science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647675/abstinence-from-prolonged-ethanol-exposure-affects-plasma-corticosterone-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-and-stress-related-behaviors
#16
Sucharita S Somkuwar, Leandro F Vendruscolo, McKenzie J Fannon, Brooke E Schmeichel, Tran Bao Nguyen, Jasmin Guevara, Harpreet Sidhu, Candice Contet, Eric P Zorrilla, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol dependence is linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we investigated effects of repeated ethanol intoxication-withdrawal cycles (using chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation; CIE) and abstinence from CIE on peak and nadir plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. Irritability- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were assessed at various intervals (2h-28d) after cessation of CIE. Results show that peak CORT increased during CIE, transiently decreased during early abstinence (1-11d), and returned to pre-abstinence levels during protracted abstinence (17-27d)...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646191/prednisolone-induces-apoptosis-in-corneal-epithelial-cells-through-the-intrinsic-pathway
#17
Jin Suk Ryu, Jung Hwa Ko, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Joo Youn Oh
Glucocorticoid eye drops are one of the most widely used medications in ophthalmology. However, little is known about the effects of glucocorticoids on corneal epithelial cells that are directly exposed to topically-administered glucocorticoids. Here we investigated the effects of prednisolone, a synthetic glucocorticoid analogue frequently used in the clinic, on corneal epithelial cells. Results showed that prednisolone decreased survival of corneal epithelial cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644985/depressive-like-behavior-is-elevated-among-offspring-of-parents-exposed-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating
#18
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) have steadily increased over the past 50 years. Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of depressive disorders and environmental influences are being increasingly recognized. The increase in depression rates has coincided with increased artificial nighttime lighting. Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with increased depressive-like behavior in rodents and decreased mood in humans. However, relatively little is known on the multigenerational effects of dLAN on affect...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638383/non-canonical-glucocorticoid-receptor-transactivation-of-gilz-by-alcohol-suppresses-cell-inflammatory-response
#19
Hang Pong Ng, Scott Jennings, Jack Wang, Patricia E Molina, Steve Nelson, Guoshun Wang
Acute alcohol exposure suppresses cell inflammatory response. The underlying mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we report that alcohol was able to activate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in the absence of glucocorticoids (GCs) and upregulated glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (gilz), a prominent GC-responsive gene. Such a non-canonical activation of GR was not blocked by mifepristone, a potent GC competitor. The proximal promoter of gilz, encompassing five GC-responsive elements (GREs), was incorporated and tested in a luciferase reporter system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#20
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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