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Glucocorticoid receptor ( GR )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471911/the-neuro-endocrine-immune-relationship-in-pulmonary-and-pleural-tuberculosis-a-better-local-profile-in-pleural-fluid
#1
L D'Attilio, A Díaz, R D V Fernández, B Bongiovanni, N Santucci, G Dídoli, S Lioi, W Gardeñez, J L Naninni, A Del Rey, H Besedovsky, O Bottasso, M L Bay
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem worldwide. In TB, the immune and central nervous systems modulate each other. The two main components of this network are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate neuro-endocrine-immune (NEI) interactions in pulmonary (PTB) or pleural (PLTB) TB, we analysed the relationship among compounds from these systems. METHODS: We quantified levels of catecholamines, hormones and cytokines in plasma from patients with PTB (n = 46) or PLTB (n = 12) and controls (n = 32), and in the pleural fluid from PLTB patients...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466282/sea-buckthorn-pomace-supplementation-in-the-diet-of-growing-pigs-effects-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-hpa-activity-and-immune-status
#2
Dirk Dannenberger, Margret Tuchscherer, Gerd Nürnberg, Marion Schmicke, Ellen Kanitz
There is evidence that sea buckthorn, as a source of n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA), possesses health-enhancing properties and may modulate neuroendocrine and immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) supplementation in the diet of growing German Landrace pigs on fatty acids in the blood and hypothalamus, peripheral immune parameters and mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hypothalamus and spleen...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462337/repeated-systemic-treatment-with-rapamycin-affects-behavior-and-amygdala-protein-expression-in-rats
#3
Martin Hadamitzky, Arne Herring, Julia Kirchhof, Ivo Bendix, Matthew J Haight, Kathy Keyvani, Laura Lückemann, Meike Unteroberdörster, Manfred Schedlowski
Background: Clinical data indicate that therapy with small-molecule immunosuppressive drugs is frequently accompanied by an incidence rate of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the current approach, we investigated in rats whether repeated administration of rapamycin (RAPA), reflecting clinical conditions of patients undergoing therapy with this mTOR inhibitor, precipitates changes in neurobehavioral functioning. Methods: Male adult Dark Agouti rats were daily treated with intraperitoneal injections of RAPA (1, 3 mg/kg) or vehicle for eight days...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455725/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-external-use-of-escin-on-cutaneous-inflammation-possible-involvement-of-glucocorticoids-receptor
#4
Shu-Qi Zhao, Shi-Qiang Xu, Jing Cheng, Xiao-Lu Cao, Ying Zhang, Wei-Ping Zhou, Yan-Juan Huang, Jun Wang, Xia-Min Hu
Escin, as an internally applied anti-inflammatory agent, has been widely used in the treatment of inflammation and edema resulting from trauma or operation in the clinic. However, the effect of its external use on cutaneous inflammation and edema remains unexplored. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects of external use of escin were studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and histamine-induced capillary permeability in rats, paraxylene-induced ear swelling in mice, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452075/physiological-correlates-of-reproductive-decisions-relationships-among-body-condition-reproductive-status-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-a-reptile
#5
Catherine A Dayger, Michael P LeMaster, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
When opportunities to feed and reproduce are limited, females are often unable to recover sufficient energy stores to reproduce in consecutive years. Body condition has been used as a proxy for recent reproductive history in such species. We previously found that glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), a species with limited seasonal breeding opportunities. Because variation in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the brain could explain these differences, we first assessed GR protein content in females in different body conditions...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444898/significant-prevalence-of-nr3c1-mutations-in-incidentally-discovered-bilateral-adrenal-hyperplasia-results-of-the-french-muta-gr-study
#7
Geraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Christine Hoeffel-Fornes, Jerome Bouligand, Antoine Bennet, Frédéric Castinetti, Bénédicte Decoudier, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Marc Lombes, Brigitte Delemer
Recently discovered mutations of NR3C1 gene, encoding for the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), in patients with glucocorticoid resistance and bilateral adrenal incidentalomas prompted us to investigate whether GR mutations might be associated with adrenal hyperplasia. OBJECTIVE: The multicenter French Clinical Research Program (Muta-GR) was set up to determine the prevalence of GR mutations and polymorphisms in patients harboring bilateral adrenal incidentalomas associated with hypertension and/or biological hypercortisolism without clinical Cushing's signs...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438489/transient-anosmia-induces-depressive-like-and-anxiolytic-like-behavior-and-reduces-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-a-znso4-induced-mouse-model
#8
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436611/androgen-receptor-reverts-dexamethasone%C3%A2-induced-inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#9
Ju Guo, Ke Ma, Hai-Mei Xia, Qing-Ke Chen, Lei Li, Jun Deng, Jing Sheng, Yan-Yan Hong, Jie-Ping Hu
The aim of the present study was to determine the role of androgen receptor in the effect of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and migration of multiple prostate cancer cells. The prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, 22Rv1, C4‑2 and PC3 were cultured in vitro. For glucocorticoid‑induced experiments, the cells were transferred and cultured in RPMI‑1640 medium with 10% charcoal‑stripped serum from RPMI‑1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for at least 24 h. The effects of dexamethasone on the proliferation and migration of various cell lines were analyzed by MTT and migration assays...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434601/inhibition-of-osteoblast-function-by-brucella-abortus-is-reversed-by-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-involves-erk1-2-and-estrogen-receptor
#10
María Virginia Gentilini, Ayelén Ivana Pesce Viglietti, Paula Constanza Arriola Benitez, Andrea Elena Iglesias Molli, Gloria Edith Cerrone, Guillermo Hernán Giambartolomei, María Victoria Delpino
Brucella abortus induces an inflammatory response that stimulates the endocrine system resulting in the secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common presentation of the active disease in humans, and we have previously demonstrated that B. abortus infection inhibits osteoblast function. We aimed to evaluate the role of cortisol and DHEA on osteoblast during B. abortus infection. B. abortus infection induces apoptosis and inhibits osteoblast function. DHEA treatment reversed the effect of B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432878/longitudinal-associations-between-glucocorticoid-receptor-methylation-and-late-life-depression
#11
Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Hye-Ran Kim, Myung-Geun Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
It has been suggested that hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation plays a role in the etiology of depression. HPA axis function is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), which are influenced by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation). The association between the DNA methylation of the GR gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1; NR3C1) and late-life depression as well as the role of NR3C1 methylation in the prediction of the incidence of depression have not yet been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432501/venlafaxine-and-sertraline-does-not-affect-the-expression-of-genes-regulating-stress-response-in-female-mdd-patients
#12
Ewa Banach, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Anna Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Joanna Pawlak, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Dorota Zaremba, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of 3 genes involved in the regulation of HPA axis: GR, HSP90 and FKBP5, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before antidepressant treatment and after 8 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Additionally, we analyzed the level of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms before and after treatment. METHODS: The study included 30 female patients (aged 18-60 years), with major depres- sive disorder diagnosed on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428549/importance-of-the-brain-corticosteroid-receptor-balance-in-metaplasticity-cognitive-performance-and-neuro-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
E R de Kloet, O C Meijer, A F de Nicola, R H de Rijk, M Joëls
Bruce McEwen's discovery of receptors for corticosterone in the rat hippocampus introduced higher brain circuits in the neuroendocrinology of stress. Subsequently, these receptors were identified as mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) that are involved in appraisal processes, choice of coping style, encoding and retrieval. The MR-mediated actions on cognition are complemented by slower actions via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on contextualization, rationalization and memory storage of the experience. These sequential phases in cognitive performance depend on synaptic metaplasticity that is regulated by coordinate MR- and GR activation...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424686/gene-specific-mechanisms-direct-glucocorticoid-receptor-driven-repression-of-inflammatory-response-genes-in-macrophages
#14
Maria A Sacta, Bowranigan Tharmalingam, Maddalena Coppo, David A Rollins, Dinesh K Deochand, Bradley Benjamin, Li Yu, Bin Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Rong Li, Yurii Chinenov, Inez Rogatsky
The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) potently represses macrophage-elicited inflammation, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Our genome-wide analysis in mouse macrophages reveals that pro-inflammatory paused genes, activated via global negative elongation factor (NELF) dissociation and RNA Polymerase (Pol)2 release from early elongation arrest, and non-paused genes, induced by de novo Pol2 recruitment, are equally susceptible to acute glucocorticoid repression. Moreover, in both cases the dominant mechanism involves rapid GR tethering to p65 at NF-kB binding sites...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424542/discovery-of-a-novel-oral-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd9567-with-improved-side-effect-profile
#15
Lena Ripa, Karl Edman, Matthew Dearman, Goran Edenro, Ramon Hendrickx, Victoria Ullah, Hui-Fang Chang, Matti Lepistö, Dave Chapman, Stefan Geschwindner, Lisa Wissler, Petter Svanberg, Karolina Lawitz, Jesper Malmberg, Antonios Nikitidis, Roine I Olsson, James Bird, Antonio Llinas, Tove Hegelund-Myrbäck, Markus Berger, Philip Thorne, Richard Harrison, Christian Köhler, Tomas Drmota
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GC) are essential for the treatment of a broad range of inflammatory diseases. However, their use is limited by target related adverse effects on e.g. glucose homeostasis and bone metabolism. Starting from a non-steroidal GR ligand (4) that is a full agonist in reporter gene assays, we exploited key functional triggers within the receptor, generating a range of structurally diverse partial agonists. Of these, only a narrow subset exhibited full anti-inflammatory efficacy and a significantly reduced impact on adverse effect markers in human cell assays compared to prednisolone...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415058/integration-of-neural-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-the-role-of-hippocampal-volume-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-methylation
#16
M Windy McNerney, Tong Sheng, Jordan M Nechvatal, Alex G Lee, David M Lyons, Salil Soman, Chun-Ping Liao, Ruth O'Hara, Joachim Hallmayer, Joy Taylor, J Wesson Ashford, Jerome Yesavage, Maheen M Adamson
Many Veterans exposed to physical and psychological trauma experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As the etiology of PTSD symptoms is complex, a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms may improve preventative care and treatment for PTSD. Recent findings from the fields of neuroimaging and epigenetics offer important insights into the potential brain structures and biochemical pathways of modified gene expression associated with PTSD. We combined neuroimaging and epigenetic measures to assess current PTSD symptoms by measuring overall hippocampal volume and methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (promoter region)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408328/ribociclib-a-cdk4-cdk6-kinase-inhibitor-enhances-glucocorticoid-sensitivity-in-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-b-all
#17
Roberta Bortolozzi, Elena Mattiuzzo, Luca Trentin, Benedetta Accordi, Giuseppe Basso, Giampietro Viola
Dysregulation of the cyclin D1-CDK4/CDK6 complex is frequently observed in almost all human cancer and contributes to aberrant cell proliferation and consequent tumorigenesis. Although many reports described the importance of CDK4/CDK6 in different set of human tumors, only few studies have been performed on leukemia. By gene expression analysis performed in a cohort of childhood patients affected by B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) we found that both CDK4 and CDK6 are highly expressed. Moreover, Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) analysis showed that cyclin D1 levels are higher in patients undergoing relapse...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401591/the-glucocorticoid-antagonist-mifepristone-attenuates-sound-induced-long-term-deficits-in-auditory-nerve-response-and-central-auditory-processing-in-female-rats
#18
Wibke Singer, Kamyar Kasini, Marie Manthey, Philipp Eckert, Philipp Armbruster, Miriam Annika Vogt, Mirko Jaumann, Michela Dotta, Kohei Yamahara, Csaba Harasztosi, Ulrike Zimmermann, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
Systemic corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for various hearing disorders for more than 30 yr. Accordingly, numerous studies have described glucocorticoids (GCs) and stressors to be protective in the auditory organ against damage associated with a variety of health conditions, including noise exposure. Conversely, stressors are also predictive risk factors for hearing disorders. How both of these contrasting stress actions are linked has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that higher corticosterone levels during acoustic trauma in female rats is highly correlated with a decline of auditory fiber responses in high-frequency cochlear regions, and that hearing thresholds and the outer hair cell functions (distortion products of otoacoustic emissions) are left unaffected...
January 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396493/characterizing-steroid-hormone-receptor-chromatin-binding-landscapes-in-male-and-female-breast-cancer
#19
Tesa M Severson, Yongsoo Kim, Stacey E P Joosten, Karianne Schuurman, Petra van der Groep, Cathy B Moelans, Natalie D Ter Hoeve, Quirine F Manson, John W Martens, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Ellis Barbe, Ingrid Hedenfalk, Peter Bult, Vincent T H B M Smit, Sabine C Linn, Paul J van Diest, Lodewyk Wessels, Wilbert Zwart
Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare and poorly characterized. Like the female counterpart, most MBCs are hormonally driven, but relapse after hormonal treatment is also noted. The pan-hormonal action of steroid hormonal receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in this understudied tumor type remains wholly unexamined. This study reveals genomic cross-talk of steroid hormone receptor action and interplay in human tumors, here in the context of MBC, in relation to the female disease and patient outcome...
February 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386366/evolutionary-conserved-neural-signature-of-early-life-stress-affects-animal-social-competence
#20
Cecilia Nyman, Stefan Fischer, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (gr) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, reared with or without caring parents...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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