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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773685/simulated-work-loops-predict-maximal-human-cycling-power
#1
James C Martin, Jennifer A Nichols
Fish, birds, and lizards sometimes perform locomotor activities with maximized muscle power. Whether humans maximize muscular power is unknown because current experimental techniques cannot be applied non-invasively. This study uses simulated muscle work loops to examine whether voluntary maximal cycling is characterized by maximized muscle power. The simulated work loops leverage experimentally measured joint angles, anatomically realistic muscle parameters (muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms), and a published muscle model to calculate powers and forces for thirty-eight muscles...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#2
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769834/continuous-knee-cooling-affects-functional-hop-performance-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Bruno Tassignon, Ben Serrien, Kevin De Pauw, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Romain Meeusen
Cryotherapy is widely used in sports and rehabilitation to aid recovery and injury management. The purpose was to examine if a low temperature computer controlled continuous knee cooling protocol (10°C) for one hour and a moderate continuous knee cooling protocol (18°C) for one hour affected neuromuscular activity and functional performance tests. We used a randomized controlled study design. Twenty healthy male subjects (age = 24 ± 3 years) were included and randomized into 2 groups (10°C and 18°C). On day one, participants performed a maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps (MVC), single leg hop for distance (SLHD), and crossover hop for time (COHT) with both legs before and after cooling of their right leg...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768093/alterations-in-kinematics-and-muscle-activation-patterns-with-the-addition-of-a-kipping-action-during-a-pull-up-activity
#4
Christopher Dinunzio, Nathaniel Porter, John Van Scoy, Derrick Cordice, Ryan S McCulloch
Recently, addition of a gymnastics glide kip to a standard pull-up (SPU) has resulted in the kipping pull-up (KPU). Changes in muscle activation and kinematics were evaluated with eleven athletes performing sets of 5 SPU and 5 KPU. Surface electromyography of upper body and lower body muscles was recorded along with movement kinematics obtained via markers and motion tracking software. Most kinematic variables were significantly higher in the KPU including (KPU minus SPU deg): Max hip angle (48.8° ± 6.8°, p < 0...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763884/joint-angle-and-movement-velocity-effects-on-muscle-activity-of-elderly-with-knee-osteoarthritis-categorized-and-probabilistic-analysis
#5
João Pedro Batista, Ligia Maria Facci, Alexandre Roberto Marcondes Pelegrinelli, Sylvie Charlotte Frieda Anneliese von Werder, Daniella Carneiro de Souza, Marcelo Taglietti, Josilainne Marcelino Dias, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Jefferson Rosa Cardoso
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of joint angle position and angular velocity on concentric and eccentric knee muscles activity of elderly with osteoarthritis (OA) in a deterministic and probabilistic approach compared to matched controls. Concentric and eccentric muscle activation of vastus medialis (VM) and semitendinous (ST) muscles were recorded of eleven elderly women with knee OA (median (Md (25-75%)) age of 62 years (60-72) and Md of body mass index (BMI) of 26 kg/m2 (24.5-27.2)) and ten controls (Md 65 years (62-69) and Md of BMI 24...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761788/block-based-robust-control-of-stepping-using-intraspinal-microstimulation
#6
Ehsan Rouhani, Abbas Erfanian
OBJECTIVE: The problem of motor control using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) can be approached at two levels of the motor system: individual muscles (motor pools) and motor primitives. The major challenges of direct ISMS at the level of individual muscle are the number of electrodes that are required to be implanted in order to recruit all muscles involving the motion and the muscle selectivity. One solution to cope with these problems is the control of movement generated by appropriate combination of the movement primitives...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761113/differences-in-hip-joint-biomechanics-and-muscle-activation-in-individuals-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-compared-with-healthy-asymptomatic-individuals-is-level-ground-gait-analysis-enough
#7
Derek J Rutherford, Janice Moreside, Ivan Wong
Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a recognized cause of hip and groin pain and a significant factor in hip joint function during sport. Objective tests for understanding hip function are lacking in this population. Purpose: To determine whether biomechanical and electromyographic features of hip function during level-ground walking differ between a group diagnosed with FAI and those with no symptoms of FAI. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761054/is-high-intensity-interval-cycling-feasible-and-more-beneficial-than-continuous-cycling-for-knee-osteoarthritic-patients-results-of-a-randomised-control-feasibility-trial
#8
Justin W Keogh, Josephine Grigg, Christopher J Vertullo
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients often suffer joint pain and stiffness, which contributes to negative changes in body composition, strength, physical performance (function), physical activity and health-related quality of life. To reduce these symptoms and side effects of knee OA, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) cycling is often recommended. While resistance training is considered the optimal form of training to improve sarcopenic outcomes, it imposes higher joint loads and requires supervision, either initially or continuously by trained exercise professionals...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758055/active-recovery-affects-the-recovery-of-the-corticospinal-system-but-not-of-muscle-contractile-properties
#9
Louis-Solal Giboin, Ehsan Amiri, Raphael Bertschinger, Markus Gruber
PURPOSE: Active recovery is often used by athletes after strenuous exercise or competition but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that active recovery speeds-up recovery processes within the muscle and the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: We assessed muscular and CNS recovery by measuring the voluntary activation (VA) in the vastus lateralis muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation (VATMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors in 11 subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754195/three-different-motor-task-strategies-to-assess-neuromuscular-adjustments-during-fatiguing-muscle-contractions-in-young-and-older-men
#10
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskiene, Rasa Steponaviciute, Laura Daniuseviciute, Henrikas Paulauskas, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
Healthy aging is associated with a marked decline in motor performance. The functional consequences of applying varying novel or unexpected motor stimuli during intermittent isometric prolonged (fatiguing) motor tasks for lower limb neuromuscular fatigability and steadiness, perception of effort, and blood markers of stress in healthy aged men compared with young men have not been investigated. The participants in this study were 15 young men (aged 22 ± 4 years) and 10 older men (aged 67 ± 6 years)...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753800/effect-of-sexual-intercourse-on-lower-extremity-muscle-force-in-strength-trained-men
#11
Leah M Valenti, Claudia Suchil, Gabriel Beltran, Roman C Rogers, Emily A Massey, Todd A Astorino
BACKGROUND: Sex has been deemed taboo for athletic performance going back to ancient Rome and Greece, as the act of sex was thought to promote ease and a sense of relaxation. AIM: This study examined the effect of sexual intercourse completed 12 hours before a bout of isokinetic dynamometry on muscle force production in strength-trained men. METHODS: 12 Healthy physically active men (age = 25.6 ± 3.8 years) who were sexually active participated in this study...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740557/hip-and-trunk-muscles-activity-during-nordic-hamstring-exercise
#12
Shideh Narouei, Atsushi Imai, Hiroshi Akuzawa, Kiyotaka Hasebe, Koji Kaneoka
The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE...
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738677/greater-fatigability-in-knee-flexors-vs-knee-extensors-after-a-standardized-fatiguing-protocol
#13
Giuseppe Coratella, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez, Laurent Mourot
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a standardized fatiguing protocol on central and peripheral fatigue in knee-flexors and knee-extensors. Thirteen healthy men (age: 23 ± 3 years; height: 1.78 ± 0.09 m; body-mass: 73.6 ± 9.2 kg) volunteered for the present study. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), Electromyography (EMG) activity, voluntary activation level (VAL) as an index of central fatigue and twitch potentiation as an index of peripheral fatigue were measured before and after the fatiguing protocol...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734063/neuromechanical-adaptations-to-slippery-sport-shoes
#14
Cédric Y M Morio, Alexis Herbaut
Although shoe friction has been widely studied in occupational ergonomics, information was lacking about friction in sport shoes. The purpose of the study was to examine the neuromechanical adaptations to different shoe-surface interface in an aerobic-gym specific movement. Sixteen females performed 10 change of direction movements in two shoe conditions differing by their outsoles (ethyl-vinyl-acetate: EVA and rubber: RB) to ensure significant differences in mechanical coefficients of friction (EVA = 0...
May 4, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733117/incorporation-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-into-a-therapeutic-exercise-program-for-knee-osteoarthritis-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Cid A F de Paula Gomes, Ernesto C P Leal-Junior, Almir V Dibai-Filho, Adriano R de Oliveira, André S Bley, Daniela A Biasotto-Gonzalez, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of incorporation of phototherapy in a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) when compared to a group that received exercise alone and to a group that received exercise + placebo phototherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Thus, sixty male and female individuals aged 40-80 years with knee pain in the previous 6 months participated of the study, with diagnosis of unilateral knee OA based on the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology and radiographic confirmation and Grades 2 or 3 of the Kellgren-Lawrence Classification...
May 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730804/model-based-analysis-of-fatigued-human-knee-extensors-effects-of-isometrically-induced-fatigue-on-hill-type-model-parameters-and-ballistic-contractions
#16
Harald Penasso, Sigrid Thaller
This study investigated the effect of isometrically induced fatigue on Hill-type muscle model parameters and related task-dependent effects. Parameter identification methods were used to extract fatigue-related parameter trends from isometric and ballistic dynamic maximum voluntary knee extensions. Nine subjects, who completed ten fatiguing sets, each consisting of nine 3 s isometric maximum voluntary contractions with 3 s rest plus two ballistic contractions with different loads, were analyzed. Only at the isometric task, the identified optimized model parameter values of muscle activation rate and maximum force generating capacity of the contractile element decreased from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] Hz and from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] N, respectively...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726694/the-role-of-the-nervous-system-in-neuromuscular-fatigue-induced-by-ultra-endurance-exercise
#17
Guillaume Y Millet, Vincent Martin, John Temesi
Ultra-endurance events are not a recent development but they have only become very popular in the last two decades, particularly ultra-marathons run on trails. The present paper reviews the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in neuromuscular fatigue induced by ultra-endurance exercise. Large decreases in voluntary activation are systematically found in ultra-endurance running but are attenuated in ultra-endurance cycling for comparable intensity and duration. This indirectly suggests that afferent feedback, rather than neurobiological changes within the CNS, is determinant in the amount of central fatigue produced...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722602/low-level-laser-therapy-and-interferential-current-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#18
Renata Alqualo-Costa, Gustavo R Thomé, Mônica R Perracini, Richard E Liebano
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy and interferential current (IFC) on pain intensity, central sensitization, muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Participants will be patients aged between 50 and 80 years, with knee osteoarthritis, pain intensity ranging from 3 to 8 points (0-10 scale), Lequesne Algofunctional Index ranging from 5 to 15 points, and Kellgren & Lawrence grade ≥2. A total of 168 patients will be randomly allocated into four groups as follows: active IFC + laser sham (G1), IFC sham + active laser (G2), active IFC + laser (G3) and IFC + laser sham (G4)...
May 3, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721606/the-effects-of-different-durations-of-static-stretching-within-a-comprehensive-warm-up-on-voluntary-and-evoked-contractile-properties
#19
Jonathan C Reid, Rebecca Greene, James D Young, Daniel D Hodgson, Anthony J Blazevich, David G Behm
Evidence for performance decrements following prolonged static stretching (SS) has led to a paradigm shift in stretching routines within a warm-up. Rather than SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and dynamic activity (DA) have replaced SS within warm-up routines. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of differing lower limb SS durations (30 [SS30s], 60 [SS60s] or 120 s [SS120s] of SS per muscle group or no-stretch control) within a comprehensive warm-up protocol consisting of aerobic activity, DS and DA...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706702/does-the-relative-muscle-activation-of-the-vastus-medialis-rectus-femoris-and-vastus-lateralis-during-the-various-activities-change-in-relation-to-the-quadriceps-angle
#20
Nakyung Lee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quadriceps angle and muscle-activation ratios for the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis during various activities. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen heathy females were recruited. The quadriceps angles were measured with long-arm goniometers. The muscle activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis were measured using electromyography under four different activity settings: walking, squatting, step-up, and sit-to-stand...
April 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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