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Exocrine pancreas

Rui Zhang, Li Wen, Yan Shen, Na Shi, Zhihua Xing, Qing Xia, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas, ranking as the most common gastrointestinal reasons for hospitalization with no specific therapy currently. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from natural products and diosgenin or its derivatives have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the therapeutic effects of diosgenyl saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright in AP have not yet been determined. Five compounds were extracted and screened for taurocholate-induced necrosis in mouse pancreatic acinar cells...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Morten Lund, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Aleksei Krasnov, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Maria Krudtaa Dahle
Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated...
October 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
E Bellon, J R Izbicki, M Bockhorn
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process, which is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas and leads to abdominal pain, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Surgical therapy is indicated by the absence of pain relief and local complications. The target of the surgical approach is to relieve the pancreatic and bile ducts and resection of the fibrotic and calcified parenchyma. Drainage procedures, such as the Partington-Rochelle method, are used in patients with isolated congestion of the pancreatic duct without further organ complications, such as inflammatory processes of the pancreatic head; however, patients with CP often have an inflammatory swelling of the pancreatic head...
October 18, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Zaid Abassi, Jonatan Leor, Natalie Landa, Firas Younis, Kenneth Hollander, Eric Mayoux, Lea Rath-Wolfson, Talma Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension and Diabetes commonly coexist and have been implicated in deterioration of kidneys, heart and impairment of pancreas. Empagliflozin (Empa), a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, is a new agent for treatment of diabetes via enhancing glucosuria, independent of insulin resistance. This study evaluates Empa's prophylactic beneficial effect on glomerular, cardiac and pancreatic integrity, in CRDH animals. DESIGN AND METHOD: Cohen Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rats (CRDH) were divided into 3 groups: A- Sugar diet (SD) + Empa, B-Sugar Diet + Veh, C-Regular Chow + Veh (Control)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mariia Lunova, Peggy Schwarz, Renwar Nuraldeen, Kateryna Levada, Deniz Kuscuoglu, Michael Stützle, Maja Vujic, Johannes Haybaeck, Piotr Ruchala, Milan Jirsa, Jean-Christophe Deschemin, Sophie Vaulont, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
Iron is both an essential and a potentially toxic element and its systemic homeostasis is controlled by the iron-hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin, causes its degradation and thereby diminishes iron uptake from the intestine and the release of iron from macrophages. Given that hepcidin-resistant ferroportin mutant mice display exocrine pancreas dysfunction, we analysed pancreata of aging hepcidin knockout mice (KOs). Hepcidin and Hfe KOs were compared to wild type animals (WTs) kept on standard or iron-rich diets...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Igor Arregi, Maria Climent, Dobromir Iliev, Jürgen Strasser, Nadège Gouignard, Jenny K Johansson, Tania Singh, Magdalena Mazur, Henrik Semb, Isabella Artner, Liliana Minichiello, Edgar M Pera
Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Cornelis R van der Torren, Jessica S Suwandi, DaHae Lee, Ernst-Jan T van 't Wout, Gaby Duinkerken, Godelieve Swings, Arend Mulder, Frans H J Claas, Zhidong Ling, Pieter Gillard, Bart Keymeulen, Peter In 't Veld, Bart O Roep
Transplantation of islet allografts into type 1 diabetic recipients usually requires multiple pancreas donors to achieve insulin independence. This adds to the challenges of immunological monitoring of islet transplantation currently relying on surrogate immune markers in peripheral blood. We investigated donor origin and infiltration of islets transplanted in the liver of a T1D patient who died of hemorrhagic stroke four months after successful transplantation with two intraportal islet grafts combining six donors...
October 10, 2016: Cell Transplantation
R Girlanda, A Pozzi, C S Matsumoto, T M Fishbein
Organ transplantation in patients with prior malignancy increases the risk of tumor recurrence post-transplantation due to immunosuppression. Only two cases of liver transplantation have so far been reported in children with hepatic metastases from pancreatoblastoma, a rare malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelial exocrine cells of the pancreas. Herein, we describe a case of a successful multi-visceral transplant in a man with intestinal failure after surgical resection of pancreatoblastoma.
2016: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Francisco Sánchez-Bueno, Rocío García-Pérez, María Antonia Claver Valderas, Jesús de la Peña Moral, Laura Frutos Esteban, Eduardo Ortiz Ruiz, Matilde Fuster Quiñonero, Pascual Parrilla Paricio
INTRODUCTION: In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), surgical resection is the only curative treatment, but due to its late clinical presentation only 15-25% patients are candidates for curative resection. The aim of this prospective, single-center study is to determine the diagnostic utility of preoperative PET-CT for early detection of PDA and early panIN lesions. METHODS: We studied the histopathological features of PDA and different panIN lesions in 139 surgical samples from patients undergoing pancreatic resection (from 2010-2014), comparing these results with preoperative PET-CT and MDCT study...
October 3, 2016: Cirugía Española
George Fotopoulos, Konstantinos Syrigos, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Masataka Kunii, Mica Ohara-Imaizumi, Noriko Takahashi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ryosuke Kawakami, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Takeshi Shimizu, Siro Simizu, Bangzhong Lin, Kazuto Nunomura, Kyota Aoyagi, Mitsuyo Ohno, Masaki Ohmuraya, Takashi Sato, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Ken Sato, Reiko Harada, Yoon-Jeong Kim, Hiroyuki Osada, Tomomi Nemoto, Haruo Kasai, Tadahiro Kitamura, Shinya Nagamatsu, Akihiro Harada
The membrane fusion of secretory granules with plasma membranes is crucial for the exocytosis of hormones and enzymes. Secretion disorders can cause various diseases such as diabetes or pancreatitis. Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23), a soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) molecule, is essential for secretory granule fusion in several cell lines. However, the in vivo functions of SNAP23 in endocrine and exocrine tissues remain unclear. In this study, we show opposing roles for SNAP23 in secretion in pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Toshiko Yamazawa, Naotoshi Nakamura, Mari Sato, Chikara Sato
Exocrine glands, e.g., salivary and pancreatic glands, play an important role in digestive enzyme secretion, while endocrine glands, e.g., pancreatic islets, secrete hormones that regulate blood glucose levels. The dysfunction of these secretory organs immediately leads to various diseases, such as diabetes or Sjögren's syndrome, by poorly understood mechanisms. Gland-related diseases have been studied by optical microscopy (OM), and at higher resolution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Epon embedded samples, which necessitates hydrophobic sample pretreatment...
October 2, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Marie Szymanowski, Maria Salomon Estebanez, Raja Padidela, Bing Han, Karolina Mosinska, Adam Stevens, Lena Damaj, Florence Pihan-Le Bars, Emilie Lascouts, Rachel Reynaud, Catherine Ferreira, Claire Bansept, Pascale de Lonlay, Cécile Saint-Martin, Mark J Dunne, Indraneel Banerjee, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux
CONTEXT: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycemia in neonates and infants. In medically unresponsive CHI, subtotal pancreatectomy is performed to achieve euglycaemia with consequent diabetes in later life. Sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor has been reported to obviate the need for pancreatectomy, but experience is limited. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the efficacy and adverse effect profile of mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of severe CHI...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiaofang Bian, Clive Wasserfall, Garrick Wallstrom, Jie Wang, Haoyu Wang, Kristi Barker, Desmond Schatz, Mark Atkinson, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer
We performed an unbiased proteome-scale profiling of humoral autoimmunity in recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and non-diabetic controls against ~10,000 human proteins using a Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA) platform, complemented by a knowledge-based selection of proteins from genes enriched in human pancreas. Although the global response was similar between cases and controls, we identified and then validated six specific novel T1D-associated autoantibodies (AAbs) with sensitivities that ranged from 16% to 27% at 95% specificity...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Geert A Martens, Veerle De Punt, Geert Stangé
We quantified rat and human beta cell proteomes by LC-MS/MS searching for cell surface markers. In human beta cells, CD99 ranked among the plasma membrane proteins that associate a high molar abundance, to a relative degree of selectivity to the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans. Therefore, we investigated CD99's applicability as anchor for islet endocrine cell purification. We studied CD99 gene and protein expression by microarray, LC-MS/MS, Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence and developed a protocol for magnetic bead-mediated beta cell enrichment from human pancreas digests using available anti-CD99 antibodies...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Maayan Baron, Adrian Veres, Samuel L Wolock, Aubrey L Faust, Renaud Gaujoux, Amedeo Vetere, Jennifer Hyoje Ryu, Bridget K Wagner, Shai S Shen-Orr, Allon M Klein, Douglas A Melton, Itai Yanai
Although the function of the mammalian pancreas hinges on complex interactions of distinct cell types, gene expression profiles have primarily been described with bulk mixtures. Here we implemented a droplet-based, single-cell RNA-seq method to determine the transcriptomes of over 12,000 individual pancreatic cells from four human donors and two mouse strains. Cells could be divided into 15 clusters that matched previously characterized cell types: all endocrine cell types, including rare epsilon-cells; exocrine cell types; vascular cells; Schwann cells; quiescent and activated stellate cells; and four types of immune cells...
September 21, 2016: Cell Systems
Hila Danino, Ronny Peri- Naor, Chen Fogel, Yael Ben-Harosh, Rotem Kadir, Hagit Salem, Ruth Birk
AIM: Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Temel Tirkes, Evan L Fogel, Stuart Sherman, Chen Lin, Jordan Swensson, Fatih Akisik, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran
PURPOSE: To determine if T1-weighted MR signal of the pancreas can be used to detect early CP. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 51 suspected CP patients, who had both secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP) and an intraductal secretin stimulation test (IDST). There were 29 patients in normal and 22 patients in the low bicarbonate group. Bicarbonate level, total pancreatic juice volume, and excretory flow rate were recorded during IDST...
September 23, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Michael J Shamblott, Marci L O'Driscoll, Danielle L Gomez, Dustin L McGuire
BACKGROUND: Reports of exocrine-to-endocrine reprogramming through expression or stabilization of the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NGN3) have generated renewed interest in harnessing pancreatic plasticity for therapeutic applications. NGN3 is expressed by a population of endocrine progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within pancreatic islets and is necessary and sufficient for endocrine differentiation during development. In the adult human pancreas, NGN3 is expressed by dedifferentiating exocrine cells with a phenotype resembling endocrine progenitor cells and the capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro...
2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Ananta Poudel, Jonas L Fowler, Mark C Zielinski, German Kilimnik, Manami Hara
The large size of human tissues requires a practical stereological approach to perform a comprehensive analysis of the whole organ. We have developed a method to quantitatively analyze the whole human pancreas, as one of the challenging organs to study, in which endocrine cells form various sizes of islets that are scattered unevenly throughout the exocrine pancreas. Furthermore, the human pancreas possesses intrinsic characteristics of intra-individual variability, i.e. regional differences in endocrine cell/islet distribution, and marked inter-individual heterogeneity regardless of age, sex and disease conditions including obesity and diabetes...
2016: Scientific Reports
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