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Exocrine pancreas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327131/transcriptome-analysis-of-pancreatic-cells-across-distant-species-highlights-novel-important-regulator-genes
#1
Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Arnaud Lavergne, Alice Bernard, Keerthana Padamata, David Bergemann, Marianne L Voz, Isabelle Manfroid, Bernard Peers
BACKGROUND: Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the function of the different pancreatic cell types has been maintained during vertebrate evolution, the comparison of their transcriptomes across distant vertebrate species is a means to pinpoint genes under strong evolutionary constraints due to their crucial function, which have therefore preserved their selective expression in these pancreatic cell types...
March 21, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#2
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316222/-the-clinical-characteristics-surgical-procedures-and-prognosis-of-solid-pseudopapillary-tumor-of-the-pancreas
#3
H Yang, N Li, W Y Deng, S X Luo
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, surgical procedures and prognosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas(SPTP). Methods: The clinical and follow-up data of 55 cases with SPTP in Henan Tumor Hospital from June 2005 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were 55 SPTP cases, including 7 males and 48 females. The age ranged from 16 to 76 (median, 33). Clinical presentations of SPTP were not specific. The mean size of the tumor was 7.6 cm (range from 2 to 25cm). Pancreatic head and tail were the most common locations of SPTP...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286044/preoperative-fecal-elastase-1-is-a-useful-prognostic-marker-following-curative-resection-of-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Jin Hong Lim, Joon Seong Park, Dong Sup Yoon
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of fibrosis with regard to tumor progression is supported by the correlation between fibrosis and poor outcomes. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) level has been used to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas and to predict pancreas fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FE-1 on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 136 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent R0 resection at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Korea...
March 9, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272982/role-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-ameliorating-cyclosporine-a-induced-pancreatic-injury-in-albino-rats-a-structural-ultrastructural-and-morphometric-study
#5
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) against cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced pancreatic toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I treated orally (per os, p.o.) with vehicles and served as control; Group II received α-LA (100 mg/kg b.w. /day, p.o.) for 21 days; Group III received CsA (25 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) for 21 days; and Group IV received α-LA 1 hr before oral treatment by CsA for 21 days. Histological examination of the pancreas of CsA-treated rats showed marked changes represented by wide interlobular septae that contained congested blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolation of some acinar cells, and distortion of the other cells...
March 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272344/nutritional-and-metabolic-derangements-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-pancreatic-resection
#6
REVIEW
Taylor M Gilliland, Nicole Villafane-Ferriol, Kevin P Shah, Rohan M Shah, Hop S Tran Cao, Nader N Massarweh, Eric J Silberfein, Eugene A Choi, Cary Hsu, Amy L McElhany, Omar Barakat, William Fisher, George Van Buren
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions...
March 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261261/the-pancreatic-islet-regulome-browser
#7
Loris Mularoni, Mireia Ramos-Rodríguez, Lorenzo Pasquali
The pancreatic islet is a highly specialized tissue embedded in the exocrine pancreas whose primary function is that of controlling glucose homeostasis. Thus, understanding the transcriptional control of islet-cell may help to puzzle out the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism disorders. Integrative computational analyses of transcriptomic and epigenomic data allows predicting genomic coordinates of putative regulatory elements across the genome and, decipher tissue-specific functions of the non-coding genome...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258566/aquaporins-and-gland-secretion
#8
Christine Delporte
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258377/endoscopic-therapies-for-chronic-pancreatitis
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Adler, Timothy B Gardner
Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas leading to varying degrees of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Treatment options are generally designed to control the pain of chronic pancreatitis, and endoscopic therapy is one of the main treatment modalities. Herein, we describe the endoscopic management of pancreatic duct calculi and strictures, entrapment of the intrapancreatic bile duct, celiac plexus interventions, and drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.
March 3, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251269/solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-a-surgical-and-genetic-enigma
#10
REVIEW
Leon Naar, Despoina-Amalia Spanomichou, Aikaterini Mastoraki, Vassilios Smyrniotis, Nikolaos Arkadopoulos
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas are rare tumors accounting for 1-2% of pancreatic exocrine neoplasms. This entity was first described by Dr. Frantz in 1959 and was defined by the World Health Organization in 1996 as "solid pseudopapillary tumor." It is most often a benign neoplasm, but 10-15% of the cases are malignant. Over the past decades, the incidence of this tumor is increasing. However, many surgeons are still unfamiliar with this neoplasm and its unique characteristics, which can lead to pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment...
March 1, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246549/insights-into-the-genetic-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-pancreatic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Zachary Zator, David C Whitcomb
Diseases of the exocrine pancreas such as recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represent syndromes defined according to traditional clinicopathologic criteria. The failure of traditional approaches to identify primary mechanisms underlying these progressive disorders illustrates a greater problem of failure of the germ theory of disease for complex disorders. Multiple genetic discoveries and new complex disease models force consideration of a new paradigm of 'precision medicine', requiring a new mechanistic definition of CP...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242761/ex-vivo-human-pancreatic-slice-preparations-offer-a-valuable-model-for-studying-pancreatic-exocrine-biology
#12
Tao Liang, Subhankar Dolai, Li Xie, Erin Winter, Abrahim I Orabi, Negar Karimian, Laura I Cosen-Binker, Ya-Chi Huang, Peter Thorn, Mark Cattral, Herbert Y Gaisano
A genuine understanding of human exocrine pancreas biology and pathobiology has been hampered by a lack of suitable preparations and reliance on rodent models employing dispersed acini preparations. We have developed an organotypic slice preparation of the normal portions of human pancreas obtained from cancer resections. The preparation was assessed for physiologic and pathological responses to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch) and cholecystokinin (CCK-8), including 1) amylase secretion, 2) exocytosis, 3) intracellular Ca2+ responses, 4) cytoplasmic autophagic vacuole formation, and 5) protease activation...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241470/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Roberto Valente, Marco Del Chiaro, Johan Permert, J-Matthias Löhr
Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223856/uncertainties-around-incretin-based-therapies-a-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Bader Al Tulaihi, Samia Alhabib
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcomes that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method: This is a narrative review...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214561/on-the-development-of-the-hepatopancreatic-ductal-system
#15
REVIEW
Alethia Villasenor, Didier Y R Stainier
The hepatopancreatic ductal system is the collection of ducts that connect the liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. The formation of this system is necessary for the transport of exocrine secretions, for the correct assembly of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, and for the overall function of the digestive system. Studies on endoderm organ formation have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern organ induction, organ specification and morphogenesis of the major foregut-derived organs...
February 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197897/middle-segment-preserving-pancreatectomy-for-metachronous-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-after-pancreatoduodenectomy-a-case-report
#16
Mihoko Yamada, Teiichi Sugiura, Yukiyasu Okamura, Takaaki Ito, Yusuke Yamamoto, Ryo Ashida, Katsuhiko Uesaka
Total pancreatectomy has occasionally been performed to treat patients with multiple lesions (such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)) or patients who have undergone repeated pancreatic resection. However, deficiencies of the exocrine and endocrine functions worsen patients' quality of life. Recently, there have been several case reports citing middle segment-preserving pancreatectomy (MSPP) as a safe procedure and beneficial with respect to preservation of the exocrine and endocrine functions...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188746/context-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-1-in-pancreatic-plasticity
#17
Nai-Ming Chen, Albrecht Neesse, Moritz Lino Dyck, Benjamin Steuber, Alexander O Koenig, Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Thore Winter, Teresa Forster, Hanibal Bohnenberger, Julia Kitz, Kirsten-Reuter Jessen, Heidi Griesmann, Jochen Gaedcke, Marian Grade, Jin-San Zhang, Wan-Chi Tsai, Jens Siveke, Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus, Philipp Ströbel, Steven A Johnsen, Volker Ellenrieder, Elisabeth Hessmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The ability of exocrine pancreatic cells to change the cellular phenotype is required for tissue regeneration upon injury but also contributes to their malignant transformation and tumor progression. We investigated context-dependent signaling and transcription mechanisms that determine pancreatic cell fate decisions toward regeneration and malignancy. In particular, we studied the function and regulation of the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATC1) in pancreatic cell plasticity and tissue adaptation...
February 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146100/echovirus-6-infects-human-exocrine-and-endocrine-pancreatic-cells-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response
#18
Luis Sarmiento, Gun Frisk, Mahesh Anagandula, Monika Hodik, Ilaria Barchetta, Eitan Netanyah, Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Corrado M Cilio
Human enteroviruses (HEV), especially coxsackievirus serotype B (CVB) and echovirus (E), have been associated with diseases of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, but so far evidence on HEV infection in human pancreas has been reported only in islets and ductal cells. This study aimed to investigate the capability of echovirus strains to infect human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Infection of explanted human islets and exocrine cells with seven field strains of E6 caused cytopathic effect, virus titer increase and production of HEV protein VP1 in both cell types...
January 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144242/complement-in-pancreatic-disease-perpetrator-or-savior
#19
REVIEW
Lucas Bettac, Stephanie Denk, Thomas Seufferlein, Markus Huber-Lang
The complement system is a major pillar of the humoral innate immune system. As a first line of defense against pathogens, it mediates early inflammatory response and links different branches of humoral and cellular immunity. Disorders affecting the exocrine pancreas, such as acute pancreatitis, potentially lead to a life-threatening systemic inflammatory response with aberrant activation of complement and coagulation cascades. Pancreatic proteases can activate key effectors of the complement system, which in turn drive local and systemic inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138096/ptf1a-ela3l-cells-are-developmentally-maintained-progenitors-for-exocrine-regeneration-following-extreme-loss-of-acinar-cells-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Nicole Schmitner, Kenji Kohno, Dirk Meyer
The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells...
January 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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