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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673435/decompression-sickness-in-the-f-a-18c-after-atypical-cabin-pressure-fluctuations
#1
Katherine J Lee, Aliye Z Sanou
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is evolving as more cases of atypical pressure fluctuations occur. This ongoing change makes it a difficult condition to diagnose and even more difficult to identify. Both Flight Surgeons and Undersea Medical Officers (UMOs) must keep DCS on the differential. These two cases describe altitude DCS after unique pressure patterns, with one at a markedly lower than expected altitude for DCS. CASE REPORT: Both cases occurred in the F/A-18C and resulted in DCS requiring hyperbaric chamber treatment...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661281/acute-high-altitude-exposure-shortens-survival-after-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#2
Jingxiang Zhao, Guoxing You, Yujing Yin, Yuha Zhang, Ying Wang, Gan Chen, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hemorrhage (UH) remains the most common cause of death on the battlefield. This study examined the pathophysiological characteristics of UH in rats acutely exposed to high altitude. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats raised at sea level were randomly divided into two groups. Rats in the high-altitude group were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (simulating 4000 m above sea level) for 2 d and then were performed a hemorrhagic shock protocol in the hypobaric chamber...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565678/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-4600-m-attenuates-pulmonary-vasodilation-induced-by-acetylcholine-or-sodium-nitroprusside
#3
Fernando A Moraga, Giselle Miranda, Vasthi López, Carmen Vallejos, Daniel Silva
Moraga, Fernando A., Giselle Miranda, Vasthi López, Carmen Vallejos, and Daniel Silva. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (4600 M) attenuates pulmonary vasodilation induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside. High Alt Med Biol. 00: 000-000, 2018. BACKGROUND: Previous studies performed in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH), at a simulated altitude of 4600 m, showed reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, increased arginase activity, and increased oxidative stress...
March 22, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561901/measuring-behavioral-responses-of-sea-turtles-saltwater-crocodiles-and-crested-terns-to-drone-disturbance-to-define-ethical-operating-thresholds
#4
Elizabeth Bevan, Scott Whiting, Tony Tucker, Michael Guinea, Andrew Raith, Ryan Douglas
Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501623/adenosine-a-2a-receptor-involves-in-neuroinflammation-mediated-cognitive-decline-through-activating-microglia-under-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia
#5
Peng-Zhi Chen, Wen-Juan He, Zhi-Ru Zhu, Guo-Ji E, Gang Xu, De-Wei Chen, Yu-Qi Gao
Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at high altitudes leads to a wide range of cognitive impairments which can handicap human normal activities and performances. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) of the brain are pivotal to synaptic plasticity and cognition. Besides, insult-induced up-regulation of A2A R regulates neuroinflammation and therefore induces brain damages in various neuropathological processes. The present study was designed to determine whether A2A R-mediate neuroinflammation involves in cognitive impairments under acute HH...
February 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484679/hypobaric-hypoxia-causes-impairment-of-spermatogenesis-in-developing-rats-at-pre-puberty
#6
Gang Bai, Bin Yang, Weimin Tong, Hongjun Li
The effect of hypoxia on the spermatogenesis of male Wistar rats (n = 32) at pre-puberty was studied using a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 5,000 metres above sea level. Persistent hypoxic exposure with brief interruption for 3 weeks caused significant decreases in body and testis weights and testosterone level compared to the normobaric controls. Histologically, spermatogenic development was arrested; arrays of spermatids were misshaped; numbers of spermatogonia, Sertoli and Leydig cells were reduced; and apoptotic spermatocytes were increased substantially in the germinal epithelium of testis in the hypoxic-exposed group...
February 27, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454386/telomere-elongation-protects-heart-and-lung-tissue-cells-from-fatal-damage-in-rats-exposed-to-severe-hypoxia
#7
Yaping Wang, Zhen Zhao, Zhiyong Zhu, Pingying Li, Xiaolin Li, Xiaohong Xue, Jie Duo, Yingcai Ma
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428576/ganglioside-gm1-protects-against-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-rats-by-suppressing-the-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#8
Gu Gong, Liang Yin, Libang Yuan, Daming Sui, Yangyang Sun, Haiyu Fu, Liang Chen, Xiaowu Wang
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe type of acute mountain sickness (AMS) that occurs in response to a high altitude hypobaric hypoxic (HH) environment. GM1 monosialoganglioside can alleviate brain injury under adverse conditions including amyloid-β-peptide, ischemia and trauma. However, its role in HACE-induced brain damage remains poorly elucidated. In this study, GM1 supplementation dose-dependently attenuated increase in rat brain water content (BWC) induced by hypobaric chamber (7600 m) exposurefor 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373484/mechanisms-of-cardiovascular-protection-associated-with-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-a-rat-model-role-of-oxidative-stress
#9
Miguel Aguilar, Alejandro González-Candia, Jorge Rodríguez, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Daniel Cañas, Claudio García-Herrera, Emilio A Herrera, Rodrigo L Castillo
More than 140 million people live and works (in a chronic or intermittent form) above 2500 m worldwide and 35 million live in the Andean Mountains. Furthermore, in Chile, it is estimated that 55,000 persons work in high altitude shifts, where stays at lowlands and interspersed with working stays at highlands. Acute exposure to high altitude has been shown to induce oxidative stress in healthy human lowlanders, due to an increase in free radical formation and a decrease in antioxidant capacity. However, in animal models, intermittent hypoxia (IH) induce preconditioning, like responses and cardioprotection...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352676/cardiorespiratory-dynamics-of-rescuers-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-hypoxic-environment
#10
Tomonobu Sato, Tomonori Takazawa, Masahiro Inoue, Yasunori Tada, Takashi Suto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
OBJECTIVE: We had previously experienced a case involving prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on Mt. Fuji (3776 m), demanding strenuous work by the rescuers. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of compression-only and conventional CPR on oxygen saturation of rescuers in a hypoxemic environment. METHODS: Changes in percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and heart rate during CPR action were measured in a hypobaric chamber with barometric pressure adjusted to be equivalent to 3700 m above sea level (630-640 hPa)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325918/bioactive-fraction-of-rhodiola-algida-against-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-its-anti-proliferation-mechanism-in-rats
#11
Xingmei Nan, Shanshan Su, Ke Ma, Xiaodong Ma, Ximeng Wang, Dongzhu Zhaxi, Rili Ge, Zhanqiang Li, Dianxiang Lu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhodiola algida var. tangutica (Maxim.) S.H. Fu is a perennial plant of the Crassulaceae family that grows in the mountainous regions of Asia. The rhizome and roots of this plant have been long used as Tibetan folk medicine for preventing high latitude sickness. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bioactive fraction from R. algida (ACRT) on chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and to understand the possible mechanism of its pharmacodynamic actions...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288803/cardioprotection-after-acute-exposure-to-simulated-high-altitude-in-rats-role-of-nitric-oxide
#12
Pablo H La Padula, Melisa Etchegoyen, Analia Czerniczyniec, Barbara Piotrkowski, Silvia Lores Arnaiz, Jose Milei, Lidia E Costa
AIM: In previous studies, upregulation of NOS during acclimatization of rats to sustained hypobaric hypoxia was associated to cardioprotection, evaluated as an increased tolerance of myocardium to hypoxia/reoxygenation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia and the role of endogenous NO concerning cardiac tolerance to hypoxia/reoxygenation under β-adrenergic stimulation. METHODS: Rats were submitted to 58.7 kPa in a hypopressure chamber for 48 h whereas their normoxic controls remained at 101...
February 28, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161094/the-effect-of-resistance-training-in-a-hypoxic-chamber-on-physical-performance-in-elite-rugby-athletes
#13
Brad Mayo, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, Matthew Driller
Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period...
November 21, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157337/simulated-high-altitude-helium-oxygen-diving
#14
Lu Shi, Yan-Meng Zhang, Katsuura Tetsuo, Zhong-Yuan Shi, Yi-Qun Fang, Petar J Denoble, Yang-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Experience with commercial heliox diving at high altitude is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on fitness to dive and the safety of decompression after heliox diving while using U.S. Navy heliox decompression tables with Cross correction. METHOD: Four professional male divers were consecutively decompressed in a hypo- and hyperbaric chamber to altitudes of 3000 m (9842.5 ft), 4000 m (13,123...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130497/ubc-nepal-expedition-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-increases-spinal-motoneurone-excitability-during-fatigue-in-humans
#15
Luca Ruggiero, Alexandra F Yacyshyn, Jane Nettleton, Chris J McNeil
KEY POINTS: Acute exposure and acclimatization to hypoxia are associated with an impairment and partial recovery, respectively, of the capability of the central nervous system to drive muscles during prolonged efforts. Motoneurones play a vital role in muscle contraction and in fatigue, although the effect of hypoxia on motoneurone excitability during exercise has not been assessed in humans. We studied the impact of fatigue on motoneurone excitability in normoxia, acute and chronic exposure (5050 m) to hypoxia...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125912/an-in-vitro-examination-of-the-effects-of-altitude-on-dry-powder-inhaler-performance
#16
Conor A Ruzycki, Andrew R Martin, Reinhard Vehring, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: The effects of altitude on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance remain understudied. As existing standardized testing methodologies do not consider altitude, inhalation devices may be used in environments in which their performance has not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: Six DPIs spanning a range of device resistances were examined in vitro in an environmental chamber mimicking a high-altitude environment equivalent to an altitude of 4200 m, with controls established at an altitude of 700 m...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054452/mechanism-of-aquaporin-4-aqp-4-up-regulation-in-rat-cerebral-edema-under-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-the-preventative-effect-of-puerarin
#17
Chi Wang, Muyang Yan, Hui Jiang, Qi Wang, Shang He, Jingwen Chen, Chengbin Wang
AIM: We aim to investigate the mechanism of aquaporin 4 (AQP 4) up-regulation during high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) in rats under hypobaric hypoxia and preventative effect of puerarin. METHODS: Rats were exposed to a hypobaric chamber with or without the preventative treatment of puerarin or dexamethasone. Morriz water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory injury. HE staining and W/D ratio were used to evaluate edema injury. Rat astrocytes and microglia were co-cultured under the condition of hypoxia with the administration of p38 inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor or puerarin...
January 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046183/you-re-the-flight-surgeon
#18
(no author information available yet)
Pelligra S. You're the flight surgeon: decompression illness following altitude chamber exposure. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):1052-1055.
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030379/right-ventricular-pacing-increases-risk-of-appropriate-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-shocks-asymmetrically-an-analysis-of-the-altitude-database
#19
Edmond M Cronin, Paul Jones, Milan C Seth, Niraj Varma
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular pacing (RVP) increases risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), but ventricular proarrhythmia is less clear. We analyzed a large remote monitoring database to assess this question. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with single- or dual-chamber ICDs, engaged in remote monitoring for at least 6 months and with unchanged tachycardia programming, were included. %RVP was derived for each weekly transmission...
October 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923145/pulmonary-effects-from-a-simulated-long-duration-mission-in-a-confined-cockpit
#20
Jeremy Beer, Todd S Dart, Joseph Fischer, James Kisner
INTRODUCTION: A recent U-2 fatigue study, in which 10 subjects completed 2 simulated long-duration missions breathing either 100% oxygen or air in a hypobaric chamber, offered an opportunity to compare subjects' pulmonary function before and after remaining seated in a confined cockpit for 12 h. METHODS: In one U-2 mission configuration, the subject wore a full pressure suit and breathed aviator's breathing oxygen while chamber pressure was maintained at 4572 m (15,000 ft) above mean sea level...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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