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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518008/latent-presentation-of-decompression-sickness-after-altitude-chamber-training-in-an-active-duty-flier
#1
James Gentry, Juan Rango, Jianzhong Zhang, Shane Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence. CASE REPORT: A 32-yr-old, active duty military member developed symptoms of DCS 3 h after his hypobaric chamber training. Unfortunately, he did not seek treatment for DCS until 48 h after the exposure...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501324/using-a-new-plateau-hyperbaric-chamber-to-alleviate-high-altitude-hypoxia-rabbit-and-human-studies
#2
Liang Sun, Meng-Jiang Ding, Tian-Cai Cai, Hao-Jun Fan, Hong-Mei Gao, Jian-Peng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To validate the effects of the new plateau hyperbaric chamber on alleviating high altitude hypoxia on Mount Kun Lun. METHODS: A prospective, controlled study of rabbits and adult volunteers was conducted at altitudes of 355, 2880 and 4532m. We obtained arterial blood samples from rabbits and volunteers before and after hyperbaric treatment. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) of adult volunteers were monitored during hyperbaric treatment...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452879/aeromedical-evacuation-relevant-hypobaria-worsens-axonal-and-neurologic-injury-in-rats-following-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration
#3
Julie L Proctor, Kaitlin T Mello, Raymond Fang, Adam C Puche, Robert E Rosenthal, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Gary Fiskum
BACKGROUND: Occupants of military vehicles targeted by explosive devices often suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are typically transported by the aeromedical evacuation (AE) system to a military medical center within a few days. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to AE-relevant hypobaria worsens cerebral axonal injury and neurologic impairment caused by underbody blasts. METHODS: Anesthetized adult male rats were secured within cylinders attached to a metal plate, simulating the hull of an armored vehicle...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418725/medex-2015-heart-rate-variability-predicts-development-of-acute-mountain-sickness
#4
Angus Sutherland, Joseph Freer, Laura Evans, Alberto Dolci, Matteo Crotti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald
Sutherland, Angus, Joseph Freer, Laura Evans, Alberto Dolci, Matteo Crotti, and Jamie Hugo Macdonald. MEDEX 2015: Heart rate variability predicts development of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017. AIMS: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops when the body fails to acclimatize to atmospheric changes at altitude. Preascent prediction of susceptibility to AMS would be a useful tool to prevent subsequent harm. Changes to peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) on hypoxic exposure have previously been shown to be of poor predictive value...
April 18, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396299/plasma-cytokine-profiling-to-predict-susceptibility-to-acute-mountain-sickness
#5
Hui Lu, Rong Wang, Wenbin Li, Hua Xie, Chang Wang, Ying Hao, Yuhuan Sun, Zhengping Jia
Extensive studies have been performed on acute mountain sickness (AMS), but biomarkers predicting AMS are lacking. Presently, the mainstay methods to identify AMS biomarkers include proteomic and genetic methods at high altitudes or in hypoxic simulated chambers. In the present study, we compared plasma cytokine profiles between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistant individuals at low altitude by cytokine array analysis. In total, 75 differentially expressed cytokines were identified between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistant individuals, most involved in inflammation...
November 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#6
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257941/the-effect-of-moderate-versus-severe-simulated-altitude-on-appetite-gut-hormones-energy-intake-and-substrate-oxidation-in-men
#7
Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Lauren Duckworth
Acute exposure to high altitude (>3500 m) is associated with marked changes in appetite regulation and substrate oxidation but the effects of lower altitudes are unclear. This study examined appetite, gut hormone, energy intake and substrate oxidation responses to breakfast ingestion and exercise at simulated moderate and severe altitudes compared with sea-level. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD; age 30 ± 9years, body mass index 24.4 ± 2.7 kg·m(-2)) completed in a randomised crossover order three, 305 min experimental trials at a simulated altitude of 0 m, 2150 m (∼15...
February 28, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243206/spo2-and-heart-rate-during-a-real-hike-at-altitude-are-significantly-different-than-at-its-simulation-in-normobaric-hypoxia
#8
Nikolaus C Netzer, Linda Rausch, Arn H Eliasson, Hannes Gatterer, Matthias Friess, Martin Burtscher, Stephan Pramsohler
Rationale: Exposures to simulated altitude (normobaric hypoxia, NH) are frequently used in preparation for mountaineering activities at real altitude (hypobaric hypoxia, HH). However, physiological responses to exercise in NH and HH may differ. Unfortunately clinically useful information on such differences is largely lacking. This study therefore compared exercise responses between a simulated hike on a treadmill in NH and a similar field hike in HH. Methods: Six subjects (four men) participated in two trials, one in a NH chamber and a second in HH at an altitude of 4,205 m on the mountain Mauna Kea...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069461/is-acute-mountain-sickness-related-to-trait-anxiety-a-normobaric-chamber-study
#9
Martin Niedermeier, Robb Waanders, Verena Menz, Maria Wille, Martin Kopp, Martin Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Some mountaineers are more prone to the occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) than others. State anxiety during altitude exposure might be associated with AMS development. We hypothesized that trait anxiety might be higher in AMS cases compared to non-AMS cases. The aim of the present study was to study the relationship between AMS development and trait anxiety. METHODS: In an observational study design, AMS incidence during a 12-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061780/rhodiola-crenulata-extract-counteracts-the-effect-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-rat-heart-via-redirection-of-the-nitric-oxide-and-arginase-1-pathway
#10
Shih-Wei Hsu, Tsu-Chung Chang, Yu-Kuan Wu, Kuen-Tze Lin, Li-Shian Shi, Shih-Yu Lee
BACKGROUND: Rhodiola crenulata is traditionally used as a folk medicine in Tibet for preventing high-altitude illnesses, including sudden cardiac death (SCD). The cardio-protective effects of Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) against hypoxia in vivo have been recently confirmed. However, the way in which RCE produces these effects remains unclear. The present study is designed to confirm the protective effects of RCE on the heart in acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure and examine the mechanisms by which this occurs...
January 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057654/protocol-for-a-prospective-controlled-observational-study-to-evaluate-the-influence-of-hypoxia-on-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-altitude-ibd-study
#11
Stephan Vavricka, Pedro A Ruiz, Sylvie Scharl, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl, Cheryl de Vallière, Carsten Lundby, Roland H Wenger, Leonhard Held, Tobias M Merz, Max Gassmann, Thomas Lutz, Andres Kunz, Denis Bron, Adriano Fontana, Laura Strauss, Achim Weber, Michael Fried, Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disorder, often leading to an impaired quality of life in affected patients. The importance of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of IBD, including their disease-modifying potential, is increasingly recognised. Hypoxia seems to be an important driver of inflammation, as has been reported by our group and others. The aim of the study is to evaluate if hypoxia can alter disease activity of IBD measured by Harvey-Bradshaw Activity Index in Crohn's disease (increase to ≥5 points) and the partial Mayo Score for ulcerative colitis (increase to ≥2 points)...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056235/-a-novel-open-chest-method-of-right-ventricular-hemodynamics-measurement-in-pulmonary-hypertensive-mice
#12
A H Yuan, Y Y He, S H Yang, S Q Li, J Ye, S Hu, J Y Qiu, Z C Jing, X J Wang
Objective: Right heart catheterization is the gold-standard for measurement of right ventricular hemodynamics. However, it is difficult to perform in mice. We thus aimed to establish a new open chest method to record and analyze the right ventricular hemodynamic parameters in intubated mice connected to a respirator under anesthesia. Methods: Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the control group, and the hypoxia group using completely random method. Mice in the hypoxia group were exposed in low pressure oxygen chamber, which simulated the environment of plateau (5 500 m altitude, 10% oxygen) for 3 weeks...
December 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990700/biomass-fuel-smoke-exposure-was-associated-with-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-peru
#13
M S Burroughs Peña, E J Velazquez, J D Rivera, F Alenezi, C Wong, M Grigsby, V G Davila-Roman, R H Gilman, J J Miranda, W Checkley
While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography...
December 19, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959667/bench-evaluation-of-four-portable-oxygen-concentrators-under-different-conditions-representing-altitudes-of-2438-4200-and-8000%C3%A2-m
#14
Vincent Bunel, Amr Shoukri, Frederic Choin, Serge Roblin, Cindy Smith, Thomas Similowski, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Jesus Gonzalez
Bunel, Vincent, Amr Shoukri, Frederic Choin, Serge Roblin, Cindy Smith, Thomas Similowski, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, and Jésus Gonzalez. Bench evaluation of four portable oxygen concentrators under different conditions representing altitudes of 2438, 4200, and 8000 m. High Alt Med Biol. 17:370-374, 2016.-Air travel is responsible for a reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (O2) as a result of the decreased barometric pressure. This hypobaric hypoxia can be dangerous for passengers with respiratory diseases, requiring initiation or intensification of oxygen therapy during the flight...
December 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925282/hypobaric-hypoxia-regulates-brain-iron-homeostasis-in-rats
#15
Yaru Li, Peng Yu, Shi-Yang Chang, Qiong Wu, Panpan Yu, Congcong Xie, Wenyue Wu, Baolu Zhao, Guofen Gao, Yan-Zhong Chang
Disruption of iron homeostasis in brain has been found to be closely involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have reported that appropriate intermittent hypobaric hypoxia played a protective role in brain injury caused by acute hypoxia. However, the mechanisms of this protective effect have not been fully understood. In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat models were developed by hypobaric hypoxia treatment in an altitude chamber, and the iron level and iron related protein levels were determined in rat brain after 4 weeks of treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#16
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
January 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888818/high-altitude-illness
#17
REVIEW
Anna Hartman-Ksycińska, Jolanta Kluz-Zawadzka, Bogumił Lewandowski
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779957/explosive-decompression-with-resultant-air-gas-embolism-in-a-fourth-generation-fighter-at-ground-level
#18
REVIEW
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737815/effect-of-tongxinluo-on-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-exposed-to-a-low-pressure-hypoxic-environment
#19
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Hong Jiang, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL), which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728906/carbon-monoxide-saturated-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-attenuate-high-altitude-induced-cardiac-injury-by-amelioration-of-the-inflammation-response-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage
#20
Qingshu Wang, Ling Hu, Yu Hu, Gu Gong, Hua Tan, Li Deng, Xiaoqin Sun, Xiaobo Yi, Yangyang Sun, Wei Wu, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on high-altitude hypoxia-induced cardiac damage. METHODS: Forty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. The mice were exposed to normoxia or simulated 5,500-meter high-altitude hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber for 7 days. During the first 3 days, the mice were pretreated with CO-saturated hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier (CO-HBOC), oxygen-saturated hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (O2-HBOC) at a dose of 0...
2017: Cardiology
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