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"Not just right"

Grace A Kennedy, Katherine A McDermott, Brittany M Mathes, Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
"Not just right" experiences (NJREs) are uncomfortable sensations of incompleteness linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder; however, NJREs may be transdiagnostic and play a role in eating pathology. The current study examined relations between NJREs and eating pathology in undergraduate students. Participants (n = 248) completed self-report and behavioral assessments. Controlling for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, negative affect, and perfectionism, NJRE frequency was associated with greater drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and bulimic symptoms...
June 4, 2018: Eating Disorders
Gary I Britton, Graham C L Davey
Emerging evidence suggests that many of the clinical constructs used to help understand and explain obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, and negative mood, may be causally interrelated. One approach to understanding this interrelatedness is a motivational systems approach. This approach suggests that rather than considering clinical constructs and negative affect as separable entities, they are all features of an integrated threat management system, and as such are highly coordinated and interdependent. The aim of the present study was to examine if clinical constructs related to OC symptoms and negative mood are best treated as separable or, alternatively, if these clinical constructs and negative mood are best seen as indicators of an underlying superordinate variable, as would be predicted by a motivational systems approach...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Gertrudis Fornés-Romero, Amparo Belloch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on incompleteness and not-just right experiences, (INC/NJREs) indicate that some OCD symptom dimensions are motivated by these experiences rather than by anxiety. Most published data are correlational, using non-clinical individuals. This study sought to examine INC/NJREs in vivo in non-clinical and OCD individuals. METHODS: Study 1: Ninety-three undergraduates were randomly assigned to a INC/NJREs induction (n=44) or non-induction task (n=47)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Claudio Sica, Mark H Freeston
OBJECTIVE: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and not just right experiences (NJREs) have been claimed putative vulnerability factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to test whether IU could represent a trans-diagnostic construct accountable for OC checking behaviors and whether NJREs could embody an OCD-specific criterion through which IU operates. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-eight Italian community individuals completed self-report measures of IU, NJREs, OC symptoms, worry, anxiety, and depression...
February 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Berta J Summers, Natalie L Matheny, Jesse R Cougle
The current studies examined the role of 'not just right' experiences (NJREs) and incompleteness (INC) in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In Study 1, a clinical BDD sample endorsed more severe NJREs than healthy controls, when controlling co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety. In Study 2, INC predicted reactivity to an in vivo task designed to evoke BDD-related concerns in an unselected sample. Study 3 demonstrated a positive relationship between INC and BDD symptom severity in a community sample...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
Josselyn Hellriegel, Caroline Barber, Maheshi Wikramanayake, Naomi A Fineberg, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Harm avoidance (HA) and "not just right experience" (NJRE) have been proposed to be 2 core motivational processes underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The objective of this study was to explore whether NJRE demarcates a neurodevelopmental OCD subgroup distinct from HA related to autistic traits and/or to a broader phenotype of cognitive rigidity and sensory processing difficulties associated with an earlier age of OCD onset. METHODS: A correlational design investigated whether NJRE and HA are distinct entities in OCD and explored their relationship to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ), sensory processing, set-shifting, and age of OCD onset in an OCD sample (N=25)...
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
Meredith E Coles, Ariel Ravid
There is increasing recognition that instead of being motivated by a desire to prevent harm and reduce anxiety, some obsessive-compulsive symptoms may be driven by a desire to get things 'just right' or 'complete' and to reduce a sense of discomfort. However, existing data is largely from non-clinical samples. Therefore, in the current paper we examine the clinical presentation of not just right experiences (NJREs) in patients diagnosed with OCD and compare their experiences to both anxious and unselected controls...
December 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tanvi Sambrani, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder defined by the presence of motor and phonic tics, but often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to explore the clinical presentation and comorbidities of TS. METHOD: We analyzed clinical data obtained from a large sample (n = 1032; 529 children and 503 adults) of patients with tic disorders from one single German TS center assessed by one investigator...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Claudio Sica, Gioia Bottesi, Corrado Caudek, Antonella Orsucci, Marta Ghisi
The heart of the obsessional process may be considered the subject's underlying impression that "something is wrong" or "that something is not just as it should be". This phenomenon, labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs), has increasingly been receiving attention as a possible marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to add to the evidence that NJREs may be a putative endophenotype of obsessional symptoms. To this aim, measures of NJREs, obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and psychological distress were compared in offspring of parents with and without OC symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Amparo Belloch, Gertrudis Fornés, Angel Carrasco, Clara López-Solá, Pino Alonso, Jose M Menchón
In the past decade, not just right experiences (NJRE) and incompleteness (INC) have attracted renewed interest as putative motivators of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), beyond harm avoidance (HA). This study examines, in 267 non-clinical undergraduates and 47 OCD patients, the differential contributions of HA, INC, and NJRE to the different OCD symptom dimensions and the propensity to have the disorder. The results indicate that although both the NJRE and INC range from normality to OCD, their number and intensity significantly increase as the obsessional tendencies increase, which suggests that they are vulnerability markers for OCD...
February 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Claudio Sica, Gioia Bottesi, Antonella Orsucci, Caterina Pieraccioli, Cecilia Sighinolfi, Marta Ghisi
Not Just Right Experiences (NJREs) are considered to be a perceptually tinged phenomenon mainly related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The evidence of an association between NJREs and OCD or OC symptoms have been accumulating in the last few years, whereas there is a paucity of studies about the role of this construct in other clinical conditions considered part of the "OCD spectrum". In the current study, the NJRE-Q-R Severity scale (a well-validated measure of NJREs) was administered to 41 patients with OCD, 53 with hair-pulling disorder (HPD), 38 with gambling disorder (GD) and 43 with eating disorders (ED) along with measures of OC symptoms and general distress...
April 2015: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Judith Buse, Denise Dörfel, Hannah Lange, Stefan Ehrlich, Alexander Münchau, Veit Roessner
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like symptoms are commonly associated with sensations of incompleteness and not-just-right experiences (NJRE). Although NJRE have gained much attention in recent years, most studies have not gone beyond a description of their phenomenology and prevalence also in healthy adults. We applied a validated harmonic expectancy violation paradigm to experimentally investigate NJRE evoked by deviant auditory perceptions. We assessed reaction times (RT) to harmonic and disharmonic chord sequences as well as their emotional appraisal in 64 healthy young adults...
2015: Cognitive Neuroscience
Berta J Summers, Kristin E Fitch, Jesse R Cougle
"Not just right" experiences (NJREs), or uncomfortable sensations associated with the immediate environment not feeling "right," are thought to contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. The literature suggests that NJREs are experienced across sensory modalities; however, existing in vivo measures have been restricted to visual inductions (e.g., viewing and/or rearranging a cluttered table). The present study used a large undergraduate sample (N=284) to examine 4 in vivo tasks designed to elicit and assess NJREs across separate sensory modalities (i...
September 2014: Behavior Therapy
Thomas A Fergus
OBJECTIVE: "Not just right experiences" (NJREs) represent a mismatch between a perceived current versus desired state of experiences. NJREs are currently considered specific to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but results from prior studies might have been affected by the assessment of NJREs that were particularly relevant to only obsessive-compulsive symptoms. METHOD: A large community sample of adults recruited through the Internet (N = 480, Mean age = 32.9 years, 54...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Matthew Neal, Andrea Eugenio Cavanna
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic tic disorder often accompanied by specific obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) or full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Repetitive behaviours are commonly reported by patients with TS, who experience the urge to perform an action until it has been done "just right". This study investigated the clinical correlates of "not just right experiences" (NJREs) in this clinical population. A standardised battery of self-report psychometric measures was administered to 71 adult patients with TS recruited from a specialist TS clinic...
December 15, 2013: Psychiatry Research
Ariel Ravid, Martin E Franklin, Muniya Khanna, Eric A Storch, Meredith E Coles
Efforts to understand the nature of "Not Just Right Experiences" (NJREs) have expanded the scientific understanding of obsessive-compulsive (OC) behavior. Approximately 80% of unselected adults report experiencing NJREs and these experiences have been found to highly correlate with OC behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess NJREs in an unselected sample of adolescents (ages 14-17; N = 152), to compare their experience with adults (N = 237), and to assess the relation between NJREs and OC symptoms...
2014: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Willi Ecker, Jochen Kupfer, Sascha Gönner
UNLABELLED: This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting)...
September 2014: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Joan Taberner, Miquel A Fullana, Xavier Caseras, Alberto Pertusa, Arturo Bados, Marianne van den Bree, Rafael Torrubia
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, which can be expressed as various symptom dimensions, including contamination/cleaning and symmetry/ordering. Previous research suggests that these obsessive-compulsive (OC) dimensions may show specific associations with certain traits such as disgust sensitivity and "not just right" experiences (NJREs), but whether a familial association between these variables exists is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test whether parental disgust sensitivity and NJREs predicted contamination/cleaning and symmetry/ordering respectively in the offspring...
December 2012: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jesse R Cougle, Amy R Goetz, Kristin E Fitch, Kirsten A Hawkins
Recent research suggests that obsessive-compulsive washers are more likely than individuals without washing compulsions to use conscious, internal reference criteria when deciding when to terminate compulsions (Wahl, Salkovskis, & Cotter, 2008). An alternative view is that they possess tendencies towards non-cognitive, automatic 'not just right' experiences (NJREs) that influence compulsion duration. The current study sought to investigate the latter explanation using valid behavioral tasks. Non-clinical participants (N=133) completed self-report measures, immersed their hands in a dirt mixture, and afterwards were allowed to wash their hands...
August 2011: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Marta Ghisi, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Igor Marchetti, Ezio Sanavio, Claudio Sica
The cognitive model of OCD proposes that certain beliefs may contribute to the development and maintenance of this disorder. To date, however, it is not yet clear which beliefs are more relevant for explaining OCD symptomatology; moreover, their causal status is yet to be clearly established. In the effort to identify other constructs and processes related to OCD, the phenomenon labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs) has received increasing attention. In this study, measures of NJREs (the NJRE-Q-R), OCD symptoms, general distress (i...
December 2010: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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