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Cardiovascular calcification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935809/intake-of-chocolate-liquor-increases-vascular-lesions-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#1
Narges Yazdekhasti, Corinna Brandsch, Frank Hirche, Julia Kühn, Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeygolu, Patricia Huebbe, Sigfried Wolffram, Gerald Rimbach, Gabriele I Stangl
Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#2
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923331/effects-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-on-coronary-artery-calcification-progression-according-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels
#3
Da Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. METHODS: We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915968/magnesium-to-counteract-elastin-degradation-and-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Rob Janssen
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Vascular calcification starts in the elastin network of the arterial wall and is enhanced in patients with COPD. Elastin calcification is accompanied by an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and consequently a shift in the elastase/anti-elastase balance towards degradation...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915881/high-density-lipoprotein-modulates-osteocalcin-expression-in-circulating-monocytes-a-potential-protective-mechanism-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-1-diabetes
#5
Ernesto Maddaloni, Yu Xia, Kyoungmin Park, Stephanie D'Eon, Liane J Tinsley, Ronald St-Louis, Mogher Khamaisi, Qian Li, George L King, Hillary A Keenan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). A pro-calcific drift of circulating monocytes has been linked to vascular calcification and is marked by the surface expression of osteocalcin (OCN). We studied OCN+ monocytes in a unique population with ≥50 years of T1D, the 50-Year Joslin Medalists (J50M). METHODS: CD45 bright/CD14+/OCN+ cells in the circulating mononuclear blood cell fraction were quantified by flow cytometry and reported as percentage of CD45 bright cells...
September 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913725/exercise-and-competitive-sport-physiology-adaptations-and-uncertain-long-term-risks
#6
REVIEW
Patrick T Gleason, Jonathan H Kim
The benefits of regular and moderate exercise training on cardiovascular outcomes have been well established. In addition, strenuous exercise training leads to corollary cardiac structural and functional adaptations that are sport-specific and facilitate athletic performance. In this review, the normal physiologic and hemodynamic changes that occur during exercise and the subsequent differential exercise-induced cardiac remodeling patterns that develop will be discussed. Paradoxically, recent data have raised concern about the long-term impact of higher doses of physical activity and exercise on mortality and cardiovascular health outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912780/inflammatory-markers-for-arterial-stiffness-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ioana Mozos, Clemens Malainer, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Cristina Gug, Dana Stoian, Constantin Tudor Luca, Atanas G Atanasov
Arterial stiffness predicts an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Inflammation plays a major role in large arteries stiffening, related to atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle cell migration, vascular calcification, increased activity of metalloproteinases, extracellular matrix degradation, oxidative stress, elastolysis, and degradation of collagen. The present paper reviews main mechanisms explaining the crosstalk between inflammation and arterial stiffness and the most common inflammatory markers associated with increased arterial stiffness, considering the most recent clinical and experimental studies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910802/effects-of-expanded-hemodialysis-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes
#8
Sandip Mitra, Kunaal Kharbanda
The invention of dialysis has been a phenomenal advance in the treatment of kidney failure. The introduction of artificial kidneys in clinical care remains one of the most successful lifesaving interventions in modern medicine. Its glory, however, has been tempered by poor long-term outcomes and a negative qualitative impact on the lives of patients who suffer from an extremely complex, burdensome, and restricted life on dialysis. There remains a huge gap in patient well-being and outcomes between artificial kidney treatments and kidney transplantation...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910789/end-stage-renal-disease-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#9
Lu Dai, Edyta Golembiewska, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Despite marked improvements in renal replacement therapy during the last 30 years, the age-adjusted mortality rate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still unacceptably high and comparable to that of many malignancies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. However, traditional risk factors can only partially explain the high premature cardiovascular burden in this population. Nontraditional risk factors, including persistent low-grade inflammation, are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and other causes of CVD and may also contribute to protein-energy wasting and other complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904058/evaluation-of-lipoprotein-a-electrophoretic-and-immunoassay-methods-in-discriminating-risk-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Jing Cao, Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, Matthew Budoff, Erin D Michos, Jorge R Kizer, Wendy S Post, Michael Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: A number of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] analytical techniques are available that quantify distinct particle components, yet their clinical efficacy has not been comprehensively evaluated. This study determined whether Lp(a) mass [Lp(a)-M], Lp(a) cholesterol content [Lp(a)-C], and particle concentration [Lp(a)-P] differentially discriminated risk of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) or incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among 4679 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902232/advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-accumulation-in-skin-relations-with-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#11
Renata de Almeida França, André de Barros Albuquerque Esteves, Cynthia de Moura Borges, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Luiz Carlos Nogueira Falcão, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira Caramori, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD). Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF) is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF) and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients...
August 28, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893701/impact-of-vascular-calcifications-on-long-femoropopliteal-stenting-outcomes
#12
Adrien Kaladji, Pierre-Alexandre Vent, Aurore Danvin, Philippe Chaillou, Alain Costargent, Béatrice Guyomarch, Thibaut Quillard, Yann Gouëffic
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcifications (VCs) may be a prognostic factor for outcome after endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Semi-quantitative analysis with X-ray imaging is the main limiting factor for assessing VCs. The aim of the present study was to find a correlation between the amount of VC with a CT scan quantification and mid-term results of endovascular treatment of TASC C/D femoropopliteal (FP) lesions. METHODS: Patients belonging to two previously published registries (STELLA and STELLA PTX) and who underwent a preoperative CT scan were retrospectively included in the study...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891150/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cardiovascular-diseases-developmental-signalling-pathways-gone-awry
#13
REVIEW
Gonzalo Sánchez-Duffhues, Amaya García de Vinuesa, Peter Ten Dijke
The process named endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was observed for the first time during the development of the chicken embryo several decades ago. Interestingly, accumulating evidence suggests that EndMT plays a critical role in the onset and progression of a multiple postnatal cardiovascular diseases. EndMT is controlled by a set of developmental signalling pathways, very similar to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which determine the activity of a number of EndMT transcriptional effectors...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886041/lower-limb-arterial-calcification-llac-scores-in-patients-with-symptomatic-peripheral-arterial-disease-are-associated-with-increased-cardiac-mortality-and-morbidity
#14
Mohammed M Chowdhury, Gregory C Makris, Jason M Tarkin, Francis R Joshi, Paul D Hayes, James H F Rudd, Patrick A Coughlin
AIMS: The association of coronary arterial calcification with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well-recognized. Lower limb arterial calcification (LLAC) is common in PAD but its impact on subsequent health is poorly described. We aimed to determine the association between a LLAC score and subsequent cardiovascular events in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: LLAC scoring, and the established Bollinger score, were derived from a database of unenhanced CT scans, from patients presenting with symptomatic PAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882457/characterization-of-dermal-myofibroblast-differentiation-in-pseudoxanthoma-elasticum
#15
Isabel Faust, Elfi Donhauser, Bastian Fischer, Bettina Ibold, Joachim Kuhn, Cornelius Knabbe, Doris Hendig
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare hereditary disorder which is caused by ABCC6 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6) gene mutations. Characteristic hallmarks of PXE are progressive calcification and degradation of the elastic fibers in skin, cardiovascular system and ocular fundus. Since the underlying pathomechanisms of PXE remain unidentified, the aim of this study was to get new insights into PXE pathophysiology by characterizing dermal myofibroblast differentiation. Fibroblasts are the key cells of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and, therefore, participate not only in physiological processes, such as calcification or wound healing, but also in pathologic events, such as fibrotization...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877084/coronary-fluorine-18-sodium-fluoride-uptake-is-increased-in-healthy-adults-with-an-unfavorable-cardiovascular-risk-profile-results-from-the-camona-study
#16
Björn A Blomberg, Anders Thomassen, Pim A de Jong, Marnix G E Lam, Axel C P Diederichsen, Michael H Olsen, Hans Mickley, Willem P T M Mali, Abass Alavi, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk in healthy adults at low cardiovascular risk. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and coronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging...
September 4, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876631/breast-arterial-calcification-on-mammography-a-proposed-tool-to-identify-women-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease
#17
F Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Calcification of breast arteries, observed on mammography, has been shown to have a positive association with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, with literature suggesting that its presence should alert the clinician to underlying subclinical disease. METHOD: Of the women referred for mammograms between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011, 167 women over the age of 50 years, were included in the study. A retrospective review of the mammograms was done to determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870682/association-of-arterial-calcification-with-chronic-limb-ischemia-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#18
Sara L Zettervall, Andre P Marshall, Paul Fleser, Raul J Guzman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial calcification is associated with an increased risk of limb events, including amputation. The association between calcification in lower extremity arteries and the severity of ischemia, however, has not been assessed. We thus sought to determine whether the extent of peripheral artery calcification (PAC) was correlated with Rutherford chronic ischemia categories and hypothesized that it could independently contribute to worsening limb status. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients presenting with symptomatic peripheral artery disease who underwent evaluation by contrast and noncontrast computed tomography scan of the lower extremities as part of their assessment...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870151/progression-of-arterial-stiffness-is-associated-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-markers-in-advanced-ckd
#19
Rathika Krishnasamy, Sven-Jean Tan, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson, Tony Stanton, Kevin Lee, David W Mudge, Scott Campbell, Grahame J Elder, Nigel D Toussaint, Nicole M Isbel
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are limited prospective data however on progression of arterial stiffness in CKD, including evaluating associations with bone mineral markers such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble α-klotho (sKl). METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, arterial stiffness [measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and hormones influencing mineral homeostasis, including serum FGF23 and sKl, were compared between non-dialysis CKD stages 4/5 and healthy controls at baseline and 12 months (12 m)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867681/effect-of-intensive-and-standard-pitavastatin-treatment-with-or-without-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-progression-of-coronary-artery-calcification-over-12-months%C3%A3-prospective-multicenter-study
#20
Toru Miyoshi, Kunihisa Kohno, Hirohiko Asonuma, Satoru Sakuragi, Makoto Nakahama, Yusuke Kawai, Tadahisa Uesugi, Takefumi Oka, Mitsuru Munemasa, Natsuki Takahashi, Naoki Mukohara, Seiji Habara, Yasushi Koyama, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: The effect of lipid-lowering agents on progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of pitavastatin 2 mg/day (PIT2), pitavastatin 4 mg/day (PIT4), and PIT2 combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (PIT2+EPA) on CAC progression.Methods and Results:This prospective multicenter study in Japan included patients with an Agatston score of 1-999, hypercholesterolemia, and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Patients were allocated into PIT2, PIT4, or PIT2+EPA groups...
September 1, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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