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Cardiovascular calcification

Gustavo Lemos Pelandré, Nathália Martins Pereira Sanches, Marcelo Souto Nacif, Edson Marchiori
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in nontriggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent nontriggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Sarah A Aroner, Manja Koch, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jeremy D Furtado, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Robyn L McClelland, Majken K Jensen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small proinflammatory protein present on 6% to 7% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, defines a subspecies of HDL adversely associated with coronary heart disease in primarily white cohorts. In a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the relationship between apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies and subclinical markers of atherosclerotic pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated cross-sectional associations between apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies, measured via ELISA and imaging measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, among 4659 participants in the MESA (The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) at baseline (2000-2002)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Yoshitaka Isaka, Hideki Fujii, Yoshihiro Tsujimoto, Satoshi Teramukai, Takayuki Hamano
BACKGROUND: In dialysis patients, mortality risk due to cardiovascular diseases is remarkably high and prognosis is poor; coronary artery calcification is considered one of the major contributing factors. It is known that hyperphosphatemia is associated with coronary artery calcification. Therefore, controlling serum phosphate level and thereby mitigating vascular calcification could improve the poor prognosis of dialysis patients. However, the optimal phosphate level in dialysis patients remains unknown; hence, this study was planned to compare the effects of two types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders, and examine the effect of strict control of phosphate on coronary artery calcification...
March 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
M Rroji, G Spasovski
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SHPT is associated with high-turnover bone disease, interstitial and vascular calcifications, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of SHPT has progressed in recent years. The introduction of targeted therapies, such as selective vitamin D receptors activators and calcium-sensing receptor modulators, offers an increased opportunity to adequately control elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), especially in patients with chronic kidney disease under dialysis treatment...
March 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria I Pikilidou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Elias V Balaskas, Pantelis E Zebekakis
Arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Arterial stiffness aggravates cardiovascular risk via multiple pathways, such as augmentation of aortic systolic pressure, subendocardial hypoperfusion, and excess pulsatile energy transmission from macro- to microcirculation. Pathogenesis of the arteriosclerotic process in ESRD is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors unique to ESRD, such as mineral metabolism disturbances, vascular calcifications, formation of advanced glycation end-products, and acute and chronic volume overload, are proposed to play a particular role in the progression of arteriosclerosis in ESRD...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Michael B Boffa, Marlys L Koschinsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence continues to mount for an important role for elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in mediating risk of atherothrombotic and calcific aortic valve diseases. However, there continues to be great uncertainty regarding some basic aspects of Lp(a) biology including its biosynthesis and catabolism, its mechanisms of action in health and disease, and the significance of its isoform size heterogeneity. Moreover, the precise utility of Lp(a) in the clinic remains undefined...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Blerim Mujaj, Daniel Bos, Mariana Selwaness, Maarten J G Leening, Maryam Kavousi, Jolanda J Wentzel, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Bruno H Stricker, Meike W Vernooij, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a key treatment for cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of statin treatment on the composition of atherosclerotic plaques remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of statin treatment with the presence of different plaque components located in the carotid arteries within a population-based setting. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 1740 participants with carotid atherosclerosis (mean age 72...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Rudramani Pokhrel, Bernard S Gerstman, Joshua D Hutcheson, Prem P Chapagain
Calcification in bone, cartilage, and cardiovascular tissues involves the release of specialized extracellular vesicles (EVs) that promote mineral nucleation. The small size of the EVs, however, makes molecular level studies difficult, and consequently uncertainty exists on the role and function of these structures in directing mineralization. The lack of mechanistic understanding associated with the initiators of ectopic mineral deposition has severely hindered the development of potential therapeutic options...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Aldrich Ricalde, Matthew Allison, Dena Rifkin, Richard Shaw
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Renal artery calcium (RAC) has been linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including age, male gender, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anthropometric measures of obesity are associated with presence of RAC. METHODS: We studied 1287 community-dwelling adults enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Logistic regression models adjusted for CVD risk factors were used to examine body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as primary predictors of RAC...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jiro Aoki, Yuji Ikari
Cardiovascular disease is a major concern for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), especially those on hemodialysis. ESRD patients with coronary artery disease often do not have symptoms or present with atypical symptoms. Coronary lesions in ESRD patients are characterized by increased media thickness, infiltration and activation of macrophages, and marked calcification. Several studies showed worsened clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization, which were dependent on the severity of renal dysfunction...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
J Anoun, F Ben Fredj Ismail, A Mzabi, S Dadaa, I Ben Hassine, M Karmani, B Mrad, H Mhiri, A Rezgui, C Laouani Kechrid
Arteriosclerosis is an alteration of the blood vessels whose walls calcify, lose their elasticity and thicken. The result is a decrease in circulating blood flow and ischemic manifestations. Calcification of the arteries is a physiological phenomenon in the elderly but young subjects may also be affected. Indeed, certain risk factors can favor the formation of plaques at the level of the vessels. These include classic cardiovascular risk factors, as well as systemic inflammatory diseases, connective tissue diseases, chronic hypercalcemia… We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient with diffuse arteriosclerosis discovered accidentally, and whose exhaustive etiological investigation remained negative...
March 2, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Song Lin, Huaqi Zhang, Aiguo Ma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases and depression are responsible for a great global burden of disease; however, the association between depression and coronary artery calcification (CAC) remain controversial and no quantitative meta-analysis exists. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between depression and CAC. METHODS: We performed a systematic search strategy using PubMed, Web of science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Cochrane library for relevant observational studies investigating depression and CAC from inception until April 2017...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marja Steenman, Olivier Espitia, Blandine Maurel, Beatrice Guyomarch, Marie-Françoise Heymann, Marc-Antoine Pistorius, Benjamin Ory, Dominique Heymann, Rémi Houlgatte, Yann Gouëffic, Thibaut Quillard
Calcification is independently associated with cardiovascular events and morbidity. The calcification burden in atherosclerotic lesions quantitatively and qualitatively differs between arterial beds. Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) differentially affect plaque development between arterial beds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CVRF on atherosclerotic plaque calcification and to further study the molecular arterial heterogeneity that could account for these differences. Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic plaques from 153 carotid, 97 femoral and 28 infrapopliteal arteries...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jijnasa Bordoloi, Anjum Dihingia, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna
Gla-rich protein (GRP) or unique cartilage matrix-associated protein (Ucma), the newest member of vitamin K dependent proteins, carries exceptionally high number of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues which contributes to its outstanding capacity of binding with calcium in the extracellular environment indicating its potential role as a global calcium modulator. Recent studies demonstrated a critical function of GRP in the regulation of different pathophysiological conditions associated with vascular and soft tissue calcification including cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, inflammation, and skin and breast carcinomas...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda, María V Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Mariano Rodríguez, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease exhibit an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Recent works have shown that low levels of magnesium are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. Epidemiological studies suggest an influence of low levels of magnesium on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, which is also observed in the normal population. Magnesium is involved in critical cellular events such as apoptosis and oxidative stress. It also participates in a number of enzymatic reactions...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara A Danek, Mir B Basir, William W O'Neill, Mohammad Alqarqaz, Aris Karatasakis, Dimitri Karmpaliotis, Farouc A Jaffer, Robert W Yeh, Michael Wyman, William L Lombardi, David Kandzari, Nicholas Lembo, Anthony Doing, Mitul Patel, Ehtisham Mahmud, James W Choi, Catalin Toma, Jeffrey W Moses, Ajay Kirtane, Manish Parikh, Ziad A Ali, Santiago Garcia, Judit Karacsonyi, Bavana V Rangan, Craig A Thompson, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Khaldoon Alaswad
OBJECTIVE: To study outcomes with use of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: We examined characteristics and outcomes of 1598 CTO-PCIs performed from 2012-2017 at 12 high-volume centers. RESULTS: Patient age was 66 ± 10 years; 86% were men. An MCS device was used electively in 69 procedures (4%) and urgently in 22 procedures (1%). The most commonly used elective MCS device was Impella 2...
March 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Violeta Cazaña-Pérez, Pilar Cidad, Javier Donate-Correa, Ernesto Martín-Núñez, José R López-López, M Teresa Pérez-García, Teresa Giraldez, Juan F Navarro-González, Diego Alvarez de la Rosa
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a markedly increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The high concentration of circulating uremic toxins and alterations in mineral metabolism and hormone levels produce vascular wall remodeling and significant vascular damage. Medial calcification is an early vascular event in CKD patients and is associated to apoptosis or necrosis and trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to an osteogenic phenotype. VSMC obtained from bovine or rat aorta and cultured in the presence of increased inorganic phosphate (Pi) have been extensively used to study these processes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely related to the cardiovascular events in vascular calcification (VC). However, little has known about the characteristics of kidney injury caused by VC. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor, which takes part in various metabolic actions with the potential to alleviate metabolic disorder diseases. Even FGF21 has been regarded as a biomarker in CKD, the role of FGF21 in CKD remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the FGF21 on the kidney injury in VC rats...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
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