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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050023/monitoring-of-root-caries-lesions
#1
Iain A Pretty
The early detection of root caries is essential for the implementation of appropriate preventive therapeutic regimes. Subsequent monitoring of lesions is required to determine the outcomes of such therapies. While much research activity has been seen in the detection and monitoring of enamel caries, this has not been seen in root caries - despite the possibilities for shorter clinical trials due to the more rapid remineralization and arrest of such lesions. The main stay of both clinical practice and research has been the use of visual tactile criteria including, hardness, texture, the presence or absence of cavitation, and color...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049345/processing-of-the-major-autolysin-of-e-faecalis-atla-by-the-zinc-metalloprotease-gele-impacts-atla-septal-localization-and-cell-separation
#2
Emily K Stinemetz, Peng Gao, Kenneth L Pinkston, Maria Camila Montealegre, Barbara E Murray, Barrett R Harvey
AtlA is the major peptidoglycan hydrolase of Enterococcus faecalis involved in cell division and cellular autolysis. The secreted zinc metalloprotease, gelatinase (GelE), has been identified as an important regulator of cellular function through post-translational modification of protein substrates. AtlA is a known target of GelE, and their interplay has been proposed to regulate AtlA function. To study the protease-mediated post-translational modification of AtlA, monoclonal antibodies were developed as research tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049116/basic-translational-development-of-forthcoming-opioid-and-nonopioid-targeted-pain-therapeutics
#3
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Ajay Yekkirala, Tony L Yaksh
Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048937/executive-summary-of-the-nhlbi-workshop-report-leveraging-current-scientific-advances-to-better-understand-sarcoidosis-variability-and-improve-outcomes
#4
Lisa A Maier, Elliott D Crouser, William J Martin, Jerry Eu
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung; it is associated with significant disparities, more commonly impacting those in the prime of their lives, age 20-50, with a second peak after age 60, Blacks, and women. However, the burden of disease, the ability to diagnose and prognose organ involvement and course, as well as specific treatment and management options, and disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. As a result, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) undertook a sarcoidosis workshop "Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes" to help address these issues by defining the scientific and clinical priorities to improve sarcoidosis care...
October 19, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048884/nanotechnology-for-multimodal-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#5
Wenpei Fan, Bryant Yung, Peng Huang, Xiaoyuan Chen
The complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of tumors seriously undermine the therapeutic potential of treatment. Therefore, the current trend in clinical research has gradually shifted from a focus on monotherapy to combination therapy for enhanced treatment efficacy. More importantly, the cooperative enhancement interactions between several types of monotherapy contribute to the naissance of multimodal synergistic therapy, which results in remarkable superadditive (namely "1 + 1 > 2") effects, stronger than any single therapy or their theoretical combination...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048601/screening-for-natural-variation-in-water-use-efficiency-traits-in-a-diversity-set-of-brassica-napus-l-identifies-candidate-variants-in-photosynthetic-assimilation
#6
Dianne Pater, Jack L Mullen, John K McKay, Julian I Schroeder
Seed yield and quality of crop species are significantly reduced by water deficit. Stable isotope screening (δ13C) of a diversity set of 147 accessions of Brassica napus grown in the field identified several accessions with extremes in water use efficiency (WUE). We next conducted an investigation of the physiological characteristics of selected natural variants with high and low WUE to understand how these characteristics translate to differences in WUE. We identified an interesting Spring accession, G302 (Mozart), that exhibited the highest WUE in the field and high CO2 assimilation rates coupled with an increased electron transport capacity (Jmax) under the imposed conditions...
October 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047693/fiber-based-tools-material-removal-and-mid-spatial-frequency-error-reduction
#7
Hossein Shahinian, Mohammed Hassan, Harish Cherukuri, Brigid A Mullany
This paper details the feasibility of using fiber-based tools in a computer numerical control (CNC) environment to process optical materials and their ability to reduce the amplitude of pre-existing mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) surface errors. The work is motivated by earlier research conducted by the group exploring the ability of polymeric fiber-based tools to remove material from BK7 glass substrates. To evaluate these tools in a CNC environment, three tasks are explored. First, the ability of the tools to maintain their form and material removal profile while operating under translational conditions is explored...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047361/cross-cultural-validation-of-simplified-chinese-version-of-spine-functional-index
#8
Xiao-Yi Zhou, Xi-Ming Xu, Jian-Ping Fan, Fei Wang, Sui-Yi Wu, Zi-Cheng Zhang, Yi-Lin Yang, Ming Li, Xian-Zhao Wei
BACKGROUND: No effective constructs were available in mainland China to assess the whole spine function. The SFI was developed to evaluate spinal function based on the concept of a single kinetic chain concept for whole spine. The SFI has been translated to Spanish and Turkish with accepted psychometric properties. It is imperative to introduce the SFI in mainland China and further to explore the measurement properties. METHODS: The English versions of the SFI was cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines...
October 18, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047177/selected-hepatoprotective-herbal-medicines-evidence-from-ethnomedicinal-applications-animal-models-and-possible-mechanism-of-actions
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Ali, Tariq Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Qurat Ul Ain Ali, Muhammad Ovais, Ali Talha Khalil, Ikram Ullah, Abida Raza, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Idrees
Insight into the hepatoprotective effects of medicinally important plants is important, both for physicians and researchers. Main reasons for the use of herbal medicine include their lesser cost compared with conventional drugs, lesser undesirable drug reactions and thus high safety, and reduced side effects. The present review focuses on the composition, pharmacology, and results of experimental trials of selected medicinal plants: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus amarus Schumach...
October 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046680/smart-parasitic-nematodes-use-multifaceted-strategies-to-parasitize-plants
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad A Ali, Farrukh Azeem, Hongjie Li, Holger Bohlmann
Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046527/better-support-translational-research
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046488/principles-and-applications-of-rabbit-models-for-atherosclerosis-research
#12
Jianglin Fan, Yajie Chen, Haizhao Yan, Manabu Niimi, Yanli Wang, Jingyan Liang
Rabbits are one of the most used experimental animals for biomedical research, particularly as a bioreactor for the production of antibodies. However, many unique features of the rabbit have also made it as an excellent species for examining a number of aspects of human diseases such as atherosclerosis. Rabbits are phylogenetically closer to humans than rodents, in addition to their relatively proper size, tame disposition, and ease of use and maintenance in the laboratory facility. Due to their short life spans, short gestation periods, high numbers of progeny, low cost (compared with other large animals) and availability of genomics and proteomics, rabbits usually serve to bridge the gap between smaller rodents (mice and rats) and larger animals, such as dogs, pigs and monkeys, and play an important role in many translational research activities such as pre-clinical testing of drugs and diagnostic methods for patients...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045512/gemcitabine-plus-sirolimus-for-relapsed-and-progressing-osteosarcoma-patients-after-standard-chemotherapy-a-multicenter-single-arm-phase-ii-trial-of-spanish-group-for-research-on-sarcoma-geis
#13
J Martin-Broto, A Redondo, C Valverde, M A Vaz, J Mora, X Garcia Del Muro, A Gutierrez, C Tous, A Carnero, D Marcilla, A Carranza, P Sancho, J Martinez-Trufero, R Diaz-Beveridge, J Cruz, V Encinas, M Taron, D S Moura, P Luna, N Hindi, A Lopez-Pousa
Background: Patients with relapsed unresectable osteosarcoma represents an unmet need, so active and safe systemic treatments are required. FAS and mTOR pathways are implicated in progressing osteosarcoma, and we had preclinical and clinical experience with a scheme that targets both pathways. Therefore, we designed a phase II trial with gemcitabine plus rapamycin, to determine the efficacy and safety, in this subset of patients. Patients and Methods: A multicenter, single-arm phase II trial was sponsored by the Spanish Group for Research on Sarcoma (GEIS)...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045469/incident-experience-predicts-freezing-like-responses-in-firefighters
#14
Verena Ly, Linsey Roijendijk, Hans Hazebroek, Clemon Tonnaer, Muriel A Hagenaars
Freezing is a defensive response to acute stress that is associated with coping and alterations in attentional processing. However, it remains unclear whether individuals in high risk professions, who are skilled at making rapid decisions in emergency situations, show altered threat-induced freezing. Here we investigated the effect of incident experience in a high risk profession on freezing. Additionally, we explored whether any effect of incident experience on freezing would be different for profession-related and -unrelated threat...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045273/oneflorida-clinical-research-consortium-linking-a-clinical-and-translational-science-institute-with-a-community-based-distributive-medical-education-model
#15
Elizabeth Shenkman, Myra Hurt, William Hogan, Olveen Carrasquillo, Steven Smith, Andrew Brickman, David Nelson
PROBLEM: Developing a national pragmatic clinical trial infrastructure is central to understanding the effectiveness of interventions applied under usual conditions and where people receive health care. To address this challenge, three Florida universities- the University of Florida Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Florida State University (with its community-based distributive medical education model), and the University of Miami-created (2010-2013) a statewide consortium, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, to support the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and provide mentored research experiences for medical and graduate students in real-world practice settings...
October 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044596/angelicin-potentiates-trail-induced-apoptosis-in-renal-carcinoma-caki-cells-through-activation-of-caspase-3-and-down-regulation-of-c-flip-expression
#16
Kyoung-Jin Min, Hee Jung Um, Seung Un Seo, Seon Min Woo, Shin Kim, Jong-Wook Park, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Yung Hyun Choi, Tae-Jin Lee, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Preclinical Research & Development Angelicin is a furocoumarin derived from Psoralea corylifolia L. fruit that has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. In the present study, the effect of angelicin in enhancing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptotic cell death was studied in Caki (renal carcinoma) cells. Angelicin alone and TRAIL alone had no effect on apoptosis, but in combination these compounds markedly induced apoptosis in the cancer cell lines while not inducing apoptosis in normal cells...
October 16, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044368/use-of-bayesian-networks-in-predicting-contamination-of-drinking-water-with-e-coli-in-rural-vietnam
#17
David C Hall, Quynh B Le
Background: More than 70 million Vietnamese rely on small-scale farming for some form of household income. Water on many of those farms is contaminated with waste, including animal manure, partly due to non-sustainable waste management. This increases the risk of water-related zoonotic disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of various demographic and management factors on the likelihood of finding Escherichia coli in drinking water sourced from wells and rainwater on farms in Vietnam...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042812/age-differences-in-salivary-markers-of-inflammation-in-response-to-experimental-pain-does-venipuncture-matter
#18
Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Maria Aguirre, Heather Sorenson, Patrick Tighe, Shannon M Wallet, Joseph L Riley
An important consideration in mechanistic research using biomarkers should include the use of saliva as an alternative to blood. The use of saliva would allow the study of susceptible populations such as older adults where venipuncture may not be feasible. Although saliva has been most commonly used to measure cortisol and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), there is limited evidence that other cytokines found in saliva significantly change in response to laboratory-induced pain. Therefore, the aim of the current preliminary study was to characterize the time course, duration and magnitude of changes of commonly measured pro- (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokines in saliva samples and to test for age-related differences in separate experimental painful and non-painful control sessions...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042387/nature-based-care-opportunities-and-barriers-in-oncology-contexts-a-modified-international-e-delphi-survey
#19
Sarah Blaschke, Clare C O'Callaghan, Penelope Schofield
OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations regarding opportunities and barriers for nature-based care in oncology contexts using a structured knowledge generation process involving relevant healthcare and design experts. DESIGN: Four-round modified electronic Delphi study. Oncology patients' nature-based recommendations, uncovered in preceding qualitative investigation, were included in the first round for the expert participants' consideration. Key items (opportunities and barriers) were developed using data aggregation and synthesis, followed by item prioritisation and 10-point Likert scale ranking (1=not important, 10=very important)...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#20
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
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