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Minhua Su, Jinfeng Tang, Changzhong Liao, Lingjun Kong, Tangfu Xiao, Kaimin Shih, Gang Song, Diyun Chen, Hongguo Zhang
Stabilizing cadmium by incorporating it into crystalline products is an effective approach to detoxify cadmium-containing wastes. In this study, two Si-rich matrices in amorphous and crystalline forms (i.e., silica fume and α-quartz, respectively) were employed to incorporate Cd. The processing parameters, namely the type of Si-rich matrix, Cd/Si molar ratio (Г) and sintering temperature, were thoroughly investigated using quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. Cd incorporation was more energetically favored when silica fume was used rather than when α-quartz was used because of the lower Gibbs free energy of formation for silica fume...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Liyang Dong, Xuebang Zhang, Wei Xiang, Junwei Ni, Weizhong Zhou, Haiyan Li
Increasing evidences suggested that radiotherapy can paradoxically promote tumor invasion and metastatic processes, while its detailed mechanism is not well illustrated. Our present study found that radiation can promote the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells via induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was evidenced by the results that radiation induced up regulation of vimentin while down regulation of E-Cadherin. As to the EMT-related transcription factors, radiation increased the expression of Snail, while not Slug, ZEB1 or TWIST...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Christos D Georgiou, Dimitrios Zisimopoulos, Vasiliki Argyropoulou, Electra Kalaitzopoulou, George Salachas, Tilman Grune
A new 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based photometric assay is developed for the quantification of carbonyls in protein samples from any biological source by protein carbonyl-DNPH hydrazone formation at acidic pH in the presence of denaturing urea, and subsequent hydrazone solubilization in the presence of SDS and stabilization from acid hydrolysis at pH 7.0. At this neutral (ntr) pH, interfering unreacted DNPH is uncharged and its thus increased hydrophobicity permits its 100% effective removal from the solubilizate with ethyl acetate/hexane wash...
April 10, 2018: Redox Biology
Giovanni Fusco, Gero Göbel, Robertino Zanoni, Maria Paola Bracciale, Gabriele Favero, Franco Mazzei, Fred Lisdat
In this study, polythiophene copolymers have been used as modifier for electrode surfaces in order to allow the immobilization of active pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and to simultaneously improve the direct electrical connection of the enzyme with the electrode. Polymer films are electrosynthesized in aqueous solution without the need of surfactants onto carbon nanotubes modified gold electrodes from mixtures of 3-thiopheneacetic acid (ThCH2 CO2 H) and 3-methoxythiophene (ThOCH3 ) using a potentiostatic pulse method...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zhiwei Lu, Wanlin Dai, Baichen Liu, Guangquan Mo, Junjun Zhang, Jiaping Ye, Jianshan Ye
In this work, we report a facile and green strategy for one pot and in-situ synthesis of a dandelion-like conductive polyaniline coated gold nanoparticle nanocomposites (Au@PANI). The Au@PANI was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, FTIR, UV-vis and conductivity measurement, respectively. Newly-designed Au@PANI materials possessed a significantly high conductivity and strong adsorption capability. Thus, the Au@PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was utilized for construct a novel electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous assay of Pb2+ and Cu2+ using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yuanyuan Cheng, Bei Wu, Xiaofan Ma, Shixiang Lu, Wenguo Xu, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
Inspired by the lotus effect and water-repellent properties of water striders' legs, superhydrophobic surfaces have been intensively investigated from both fundamental and applied perspectives for daily and industrial applications. Various techniques are available for the fabrication of artificial superoleophilic/superhydrophobic (SS). However, most of these techniques are tedious and often require hazardous or expensive equipment, which hampers their implementation for practical applications. In the present work, we used a versatile and straightforward technique based on polymer drop-casting for the preparation SS materials that can be implemented on any substrate...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yong Yao, Xiaojin Wei, Yan Cai, Xianqiang Kong, Jiao Chen, Jinming Wu, Yujun Shi
Monocarboxylate functionalized pillar[5]arene 1 with excellent solubility in organic solvent was prepared. It could be abosorpted on the surface of gold nanorod spontaneously. Then, hybrid supramolecular materials were constructed from 1 stabilized gold nanorods and a linear dinitriles 2 driven by host-guest interaction. Interestingly, the hybrid supramolecular materials show dynamic near-infrared (NIR) and redox dual-responsive reversible properties. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and specific viscosity were used to characterize the obtained materials and the reversible behavior under external stimuli...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Simon Poirier, Sébastien Déjean, Olivier Chapleur
A wide variety of inhibitors can induce anaerobic digester disruption. To avoid performance losses, support media can be used to mitigate inhibitions. However, distinguishing the physico-chemical from the biological mechanisms of such strategies remains delicate. In this framework, the impact of 10  g/L of different types of zeolites and activated carbons (AC) on microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of biowaste in the presence of 1.3 g/L of phenol was evaluated with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing...
April 13, 2018: Water Research
Roffi Grandiosa, Mai-Louise Bouwman, Tim Young, Fabrice Mérien, Andrea C Alfaro
The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Carolina P Bernardes, Neife A G Santos, Flavia M Sisti, Rafaela Scalco Ferreira, Norival A Santos-Filho, Adélia C O Cintra, Eduardo M Cilli, Suely V Sampaio, Antonio C Santos
Venom small peptides that target neurotrophin receptors might be beneficial in neurodegeneration, including Parkinsońs disease (PD). Their small size, ease of synthesis, structural stability and target selectivity make them important tools to overcome the limitations of endogenous neurotrophins as therapeutic agents. Additionally, they might be optimized to improve resistance to enzymatic degradation, bioavailability, potency and, mainly, lipophilicity, important to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of the synthetic snake-venom-based peptide p-BTX-I (Glu-Val-Trp) in PC12 cells treated with MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), a dopaminergic neurotoxin that induces Parkinsonism in vivo...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
Navjot Shah, Masakii Ishii, Carlene Brandon, Zsolt Ablonczy, Jingwen Cai, Yutao Liu, James Chou, Bärbel Rohrer
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations in age-related macular degeneration occur in patches, potentially involving long-distance communication between damaged and healthy areas. Communication along the epithelium might be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). To test this hypothesis, EVs were collected from supernatants of polarized ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE monolayers for functional and biochemical assays. EVs from oxidatively stressed donor cells reduced barrier function in recipient RPE monolayers when compared to control EVs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bifeng Wang, Wolfgang Friess
Parenteral sustained release systems for proteins which provide therapeutic levels over a longer period avoiding frequent administration, which preserve protein stability during manufacturing, storage and application and which are biodegradable and highly biocompatible in the body are intensively sought after. The aim of this study was to generate and study mannitol core microparticles loaded with a monoclonal antibody IgG1 and coated with lipid either hard fat or glyceryl stearate at different coating levels...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sunny Sharma, Vishal Sharma, Parushi Nargotra, Bijender Kumar Bajaj
Huge industrial application potential of xylanases is stalled due to lack of process suitable characteristics like thermostability, broad range pH stability, and high catalytic efficiency in the available enzymes. Current study presents the first ever report of a pH stable (pH 6-11) and thermostable (80-100 °C) xylanase from a novel strain of Aspergillus terreus S9. The xylanase was purified to homogeneity (6.67-fold) by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and molecular exclusion chromatography...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Karen Gertz, Ria Uhlemann, Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Ruben Marquina Barrientos, Kai Kappert, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Pierre Djoufack, Clemens Kirschbaum, Klaus B Fink, Andreas Heinz, Ulrich Kintscher, Matthias Endres, Golo Kronenberg
Evidence for a critical pathophysiological role of aberrant cytoskeletal dynamics is being uncovered in a growing number of neuropsychiatric syndromes. A sedentary lifestyle as well as overt psychopathology is prevalent in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Using mice deficient in gelsolin (Gsn-/- ), a crucial actin-severing protein, we here investigated reduced actin turnover as a potential common driver of metabolic disturbances, sedentary behavior, and an anxious/depressive phenotype. Gelsolin deficiency resulted in reduced lifespan...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Nicole Bidmon, Sonja Kind, Marij J P Welters, Deborah Joseph-Pietras, Karoline Laske, Dominik Maurer, Sine Reker Hadrup, Gerty Schreibelt, Richard Rae, Ugur Sahin, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Cedrik M Britten, Sjoerd H van der Burg
Cell-based assays to monitor antigen-specific T-cell responses are characterized by their high complexity and should be conducted under controlled conditions to lower multiple possible sources of assay variation. However, the lack of standard reagents makes it difficult to directly compare results generated in one lab over time and across institutions. Therefore TCR-engineered reference samples (TERS) that contain a defined number of antigen-specific T cells and continuously deliver stable results are urgently needed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Melissa Zuiderwijk, Marlieke Geerts, Connie Janssen van Rhijn, Antoon van den Bogaerdt, Jaap F Hamming, Rogier A van Dijk, Jan H Lindeman
Atherosclerosis is a complex process with strong inflammatory component. We developed a straightforward 7-fold staining protocol for simultaneous assessment of dominant leucocyte classes, vascularization, and expression of the putative foam cell maker CD36. The method was applied on human coronaries covering the full spectrum of atherosclerotic disease. Results confirm the progressive association of macrophages and T-cells with the process, and a global presence of mast cells. B-cells exclusively present in adventitial follicles that accompany the process plaque destabilization (thin cap and ruptured lesions) and are otherwise absent...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Franca Rossi, Castrese Morrone, Alberto Massarotti, Davide Maria Ferraris, Anna Valenti, Giuseppe Perugino, Riccardo Miggiano
The self-labeling protein tags are robust and versatile tools for studying different molecular aspects of cell biology. In order to be suitable for a wide spectrum of experimental conditions, it is mandatory that these systems are stable after the fluorescent labeling reaction and do not alter the properties of the fusion partner. SsOGT-H5 is an engineered variant alkylguanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase (OGT) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, and it represents an alternative solution to the SNAP-tag® technology under harsh reaction conditions...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anantanarayanan Parameswaran, Muruganand V Ganeshmurthy, Yashoda Ashok, Manikandhan Ramanathan, Anthony F Markus, Hermann F Sailer
PURPOSE: Children undergoing cleft palate repair have pain, dysphagia, and wound irritation in the immediate postoperative phase that may compromise surgical outcomes. This trial evaluates the efficacy of the sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) in optimizing intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative analgesia in children undergoing primary palatoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing the use of SPGB with general anesthesia (GA) (study group) versus the use of only GA (control group)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Clara Jiménez-Saelices, Bastien Seantier, Yves Grohens, Isabelle Capron
Thermal superinsulating properties of biobased-materials are investigated via the structuration of aerogels through a biphasic system. Highly stable Pickering emulsions are produced using TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (NFC) adsorbed at an oil/water interface. NFCs form an entangled system of clusters of droplets that lead to excellent mechanical properties. The emulsions produced are strong gels that are further used as template to form aerogels. The freeze-dried emulsions result in porous bioaerogels with extremely low densities (0...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mashkoor Alam, Abhishek Srivastava, Ankita Dutta, Apurba Kumar Sau
Despite importance of arginine decarboxylase (ADC: EC of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) 26695 pathogenic strain for acid adaptation in host, the enzyme has not yet been studied at a molecular level. Using combined approaches that include kinetic assays, site-directed mutagenesis, circular dichroism, heat-induced denaturation, analytical gel-filtration, and homology modeling, we report here a detailed investigation of H. pylori ADC. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme exhibits higher catalytic activity in the presence of Mg2+ ions at pH ∼8...
April 23, 2018: IUBMB Life
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