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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443022/evaluating-quality-of-decision-making-processes-in-medicines-development-regulatory-review-and-health-technology-assessment-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Magdalena Bujar, Neil McAuslane, Stuart R Walker, Sam Salek
Introduction: Although pharmaceutical companies, regulatory authorities, and health technology assessment (HTA) agencies have been increasingly using decision-making frameworks, it is not certain whether these enable better quality decision making. This could be addressed by formally evaluating the quality of decision-making process within those organizations. The aim of this literature review was to identify current techniques (tools, questionnaires, surveys, and studies) for measuring the quality of the decision-making process across the three stakeholders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433336/the-association-of-postoperative-glycemic-control-and-lower-extremity-procedure-outcomes
#2
Todd R Vogel, Jamie B Smith, Robin L Kruse
OBJECTIVE: The effect of postoperative hyperglycemia in patients undergoing open and endovascular procedures on the lower extremities has not been fully characterized with regard to associated admission diagnoses, hospital complications, mortality, and 30-day readmission. This study evaluated the relationship of postoperative hyperglycemia on outcomes after lower extremity vascular procedures for peripheral artery disease. METHODS: Patients with peripheral artery disease admitted for elective lower extremity procedures between September 2008 and March 2014 were selected from the Cerner Health Facts (Cerner Corporation, Kansas City, Mo) database using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426321/hansae-vietnam-s-garment-factory-latest-example-of-how-corporate-social-responsibility-has-failed-to-protect-workers
#3
Garrett Brown
A Korean-operated garment factory complex in Vietnam was subject to 26 separate corporate social responsibility (CSR) audits in 2015. However, thorough inspections by two other non-governmental organizations in 2016 found numerous violations of Vietnamese occupational health and safety and labor laws as well as violations of the corporate codes of conduct of the international clothing brands which source apparel from the facility. The 2016 investigations indicate the lack of efficacy of the 2015 CSR audits and call into question whether voluntary CSR programs and audits by for-profit CSR monitoring companies can effectively protect the health, safety and legal rights of workers in global supply chains...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377849/tobacco-use-and-preferences-for-wellness-programs-among-health-aides-and-other-employees-of-an-alaska-native-health-corporation-in-western-alaska
#4
Christi A Patten, Carrie A Bronars, Matthew Scott, Rahnia Boyer, Harry Lando, Matthew M Clark, Kenneth Resnicow, Paul A Decker, Tabetha A Brockman, Agnes Roland, Marcelo Hanza
This study assessed health behaviors and preferences for wellness programs among employees of a worksite serving Alaska Native-people. Village-based Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) were compared with all other employees on health indicators and program preferences. Using a cross-sectional design, all 1290 employees at the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) in Western Alaska were invited in 2015 to participate in a 30-item online survey. Items assessed health behaviors, perceived stress, resiliency, and preferences for wellness topics and program delivery formats...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361077/extra-corporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-ethical-dilemmas
#5
EDITORIAL
Tony Makdisi, George Makdisi
The vast expansion of patients treated with of extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) emerge novel ethical questions about the use of this new technology. In regard the indications, duration of support and timing of withdrawal of support, these questions sometimes create disagreement among surrogates, between health care team and surrogates, and even disagreement among health care team, these disagreements occurs because of the extreme emergency of support initiation, the ambiguity of the outcome as well as lack of clarity on the intended treatment direction, whether it is ineffective, bridge to recovery or bridge to lifetime mechanical support or transplant...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360849/embodied-medicine-mens-sana-in-corpore-virtuale-sano
#6
Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Daniele Di Lernia, Enea Francesco Pavone, Antonios Dakanalis
Progress in medical science and technology drastically improved physicians' ability to interact with patient's physical body. Nevertheless, medicine still addresses the human body from a Hippocratic point of view, considering the organism and its processes just as a matter of mechanics and fluids. However, the interaction between the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness (BSC), fundamentally rooted in the integration of multisensory bodily inputs, with virtual reality (VR), haptic technologies and robotics is giving a new meaning to the classic Juvenal's latin dictum "Mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319714/occupational-exposure-of-firefighters-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-non-fire-work-environments
#7
Marta Oliveira, Klara Slezakova, Adília Fernandes, João Paulo Teixeira, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Simone Morais
This work aims to characterize personal exposure of firefighters to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-fire work environments (fire stations), and assesses the respective risks. Eighteen PAHs (16 considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were monitored in breathing zones of workers at five Portuguese fire stations during a normal shift. The obtained levels of PAHs fulfilled all existent occupational exposure limits as well as air quality guidelines with total concentrations (ΣPAHs) in range of 46...
August 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315689/in-silico-prediction-of-hpxr-activators-using-structure-based-pharmacophore-modeling
#8
Nao Torimoto-Katori, Ruili Huang, Harutoshi Kato, Rikiya Ohashi, Menghang Xia
The activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, can mediate potential drug-drug interactions by regulating the expression of several drug- mediated enzymes and transporters, resulting in reduced therapeutic efficacy or increased toxicity by producing reactive metabolites. Therefore, in the early stage of drug development, it is important to predict these risks using an in silico approach. We constructed a human PXR (hPXR) pharmacophore model based on known structural information of compounds that activate PXR...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314229/how-did-the-good-school-toolkit-reduce-the-risk-of-past-week-physical-violence-from-teachers-to-students-qualitative-findings-on-pathways-of-change-in-schools-in-luwero-uganda
#9
N Kyegombe, S Namakula, J Mulindwa, J Lwanyaaga, D Naker, S Namy, J Nakuti, J Parkes, L Knight, E Walakira, K M Devries
Violence against children is a serious violation of children's rights with significant impacts on current and future health and well-being. The Good School Toolkit (GST) is designed to prevent violence against children in primary schools through changing schools' operational cultures. Conducted in the Luwero District in Uganda between 2012 and 2014, findings from previous research indicate that the Toolkit reduced the odds of past week physical violence from school staff (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.64, p < 0...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243461/days-out-of-role-due-to-common-physical-and-mental-conditions-in-portugal-results-from-the-who-world-mental-health-survey
#10
Graça Cardoso, Miguel Xavier, Gemma Vilagut, Maria Petukhova, Jordi Alonso, Ronald C Kessler, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida
BACKGROUND: One important aspect of the societal burden of mental disorders is the extent to which these problems cause disability. AIMS: To assess days out of role associated with commonly occurring mental disorders in comparison with physical disorders in Portugal. METHOD: National cross-sectional survey, with home interviews carried out with 3849 adult (aged 18+) respondents (57.3% response rate). RESULTS: Twelve-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 21...
January 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239459/effects-of-individual-household-and-community-characteristics-on-child-nutritional-status-in-the-slums-of-urban-bangladesh
#11
Karar Zunaid Ahsan, Shams El Arifeen, Md Abdullah Al-Mamun, Shusmita H Khan, Nitai Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh urban population is expected to overtake rural population by 2040, and a significant part of the increase will be in slums. Wide disparities between urban slums and the rest of the country can potentially push country indicators off track unless the specific health and nutrition needs of the expanding slum communities are addressed. The study aims at describing the individual, household and community determinants of undernutrition status among children living in major urban strata, viz...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167709/tracking-the-changing-landscape-of-corporate-wellness-companies
#12
Jean Abraham, Katie M White
The corporate wellness industry is diversifying and now includes legacy wellness companies, divisions of health plans or delivery systems, and new technology-focused solution enterprises. We conducted in-depth interviews with leaders in the industry to understand the changes in its supply side, the drivers of these changes, future trends, and their implications for employers and policy makers. Three key trends emerged from the interviews: The industry is expanding and becoming increasingly diverse and competitive; wellness companies are redefining their business models to promote a culture of health; and the value proposition of employee wellness programs is shifting from a return on investment to a new idea: value on investment...
February 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166124/association-between-employee-sleep-with-workplace-health-and-economic-outcomes
#13
Wayne N Burton, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B Schultz, Xingquan Li
OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep can impact occupational functioning. The current study examines health risks, medical conditions, and workplace economic outcomes associated with self-reported hours of sleep among employees. METHODS: Employees of a global financial services corporation were categorized on the basis of their self-reported average hours of sleep. Differences in health care costs, productivity measures, health risks, and medical conditions were analyzed by hours of sleep while controlling for confounding variables...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164355/analysis-of-the-appropriateness-of-off-label-antipsychotic-use-for-mental-health-indications-in-a-veteran-population
#14
Jacob T Painter, Richard Owen, Kathy L Henderson, Mark S Bauer, Dinesh Mittal, Teresa J Hudson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of antipsychotic (AP) use in veterans is for nonapproved indications (i.e., off-label prescribing). Not all off-label use is necessarily detrimental to patients, however, and in certain situations, off-label prescribing could be considered justifiable. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which off-label AP prescribing in a veteran population was potentially appropriate. DESIGN: Expert panel and retrospective analysis...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139964/the-taiwan-tobacco-and-liquor-corporation-to-join-the-ranks-of-global-companies
#15
Jappe Eckhardt, Jennifer Fang, Kelley Lee
Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures...
March 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114624/patient-advocacy-organizations-industry-funding-and-conflicts-of-interest
#16
Susannah L Rose, Janelle Highland, Matthew T Karafa, Steven Joffe
Importance: Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) are influential health care stakeholders that provide direct counseling and education for patients, engage in policy advocacy, and shape research agendas. Many PAOs report having financial relationships with for-profit industry, yet little is known about the nature of these relationships. Objective: To describe the nature of industry funding and partnerships between PAOs and for-profit companies in the United States...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110486/spectra-optia-%C3%A2-for-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-nice-medical-technology-guidance
#17
REVIEW
Iain Willits, Helen Cole, Roseanne Jones, Kimberley Carter, Mick Arber, Michelle Jenks, Joyce Craig, Andrew Sims
The Spectra Optia(®) automated apheresis system, indicated for red blood cell exchange in people with sickle cell disease, underwent evaluation by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, which uses its Medical Technologies Advisory Committee to make recommendations. The company (Terumo Medical Corporation) produced a submission making a case for adoption of its technology, which was critiqued by the Newcastle and York external assessment centre. Thirty retrospective observational studies were identified in their clinical submission...
January 21, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108913/religion-and-public-health-moral-tradition-as-both-problem-and-solution
#18
Michael Rozier
Despite strong religious influence in the development of medicine and medical ethics, religion has been relatively absent in the rise of preventive medicine and population health. Episodic, clinical medicine has a powerful hold on the religious imagination in health care. Nevertheless, Hebrew Scripture, elements of rabbinical teaching, and modern concepts of social justice all can be used to inspire action in health care that goes beyond clinical medicine. The Christian tradition can call upon the corporal works of mercy, virtue ethics, and Catholic social teaching, as well as the modern history Catholic sisters in the U...
June 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099060/understanding-medicaid-managed-care-investments-in-members-social-determinants-of-health
#19
Laura Gottlieb, Sara Ackerman, Holly Wing, Rishi Manchanda
Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities...
January 18, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071266/biogen-s-portfolio-and-research-efforts-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-interview-with-dr-ralph-kern
#20
Ralph Kern
Ralph Kern speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Ralph Kern is Senior Vice President and Head of Worldwide Medical at Biogen in Cambridge, MA, USA. In this role, he oversees Biogen's global therapeutic, regional and country medical teams, global medical operations, as well as medical research and scientific communications functions. Prior to joining Biogen, he was head of the Neuroscience Medical Unit at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation and held various medical and commercial leadership roles at Genzyme Corporation...
February 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
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