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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146862/complete-genome-sequence-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-healthy-indian-adult
#1
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Bhabatosh Das
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant (~4%) member of the phylum Firmicutes found in the colon of healthy humans. It is a strict anaerobe and plays an important role in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of F. prausnitzii strain Indica.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#2
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#3
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112296/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-induces-greater-tlr2-and-tlr2-6-activation-than-the-dead-bacterium-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-system
#4
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Eric Altermann, Nicole C Roy
Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089436/protease-mediated-suppression-of-drg-neuron-excitability-by-commensal-bacteria
#5
Jessica L Sessenwein, Corey C Baker, Sabindra Pradhananga, Megan E Maitland, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Curtis Noordhof, David E Reed, Stephen J Vanner, Alan E Lomax
Peripheral pain signaling reflects a balance of pro and anti-nociceptive influences; the contribution by the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to this balance has received little attention. Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with exaggerated visceral nociceptive actions that may involve altered microbial signaling, particularly given the evidence for bacterial dysbiosis. Thus, we tested whether a community of commensal GI bacteria derived from a healthy human donor (microbial ecosystem therapeutics; MET-1) can affect the excitability of male mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061705/polyphenol-and-caffeine-rich-post-fermented-pu-er-tea-improves-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-by-remodeling-intestinal-homeostasis-in-mice
#6
Xiaoyu Gao, Qiuhong Xie, Ping Kong, Ling Liu, Sheng Sun, Boyu Xiong, Baojia Huang, Liang Yan, Jun Sheng, Hongyu Xiang
Post-fermented Pu-er tea (PE) protects against metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known regarding its underlying mechanisms. Animal experiments were performed to determine whether gut microbiota mediated the improvement in diet-induced MS by PE and its main active components (PEAC). We confirmed that PE altered the body composition and energy efficiency; attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and systemic and multiple-tissue inflammation; and improved the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via multiple pathways...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051757/role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cardio-metabolic-parameters-and-immunity-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045794/allosteric-modulation-of-the-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-hepatitis-delta-virus-like-ribozyme-by-glucosamine-6-phosphate-the-substrate-of-the-adjacent-gene-product
#8
Luiz F M Passalacqua, Randi M Jimenez, Jennifer Y Fong, Andrej Lupták
Self-cleaving ribozymes were discovered 30 years ago and have been found throughout nature, from bacteria to animals, but little is known about their biological functions and regulation, particularly how cofactors and metabolites alter their activity. A hepatitis delta virus-like self-cleaving ribozyme maps upstream of a phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) open reading frame in the genome of the human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The presence of a ribozyme in the untranslated region of glmM suggests a regulation mechanism of gene expression...
November 3, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045349/male-specific-association-between-fat-free-mass-index-and-faecal-microbiota-in-2-to-3-year-old-australian-children
#9
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#10
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#11
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilize pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. E. eligens DSM3376 utilizes apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980453/cryopreservation-of-artificial-gut-microbiota-produced-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-fermentation-technology
#12
Lea Bircher, Clarissa Schwab, Annelies Geirnaert, Christophe Lacroix
Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active 'artificial' colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v) and inulin (5% w/v) alone and in combination, in preserving short-chain fatty acid formation and recovery of major butyrate-producing bacteria in three artificial microbiota during cryopreservation for 3 months at -80°C...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970823/new-insights-into-the-diversity-of-the-genus-faecalibacterium
#13
Leandro Benevides, Sriti Burman, Rebeca Martin, Véronique Robert, Muriel Thomas, Sylvie Miquel, Florian Chain, Harry Sokol, Luis G Bermudez-Humaran, Mark Morrison, Philippe Langella, Vasco A Azevedo, Jean-Marc Chatel, Siomar Soares
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal bacterium, ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. This species is a functionally important member of the microbiota and studies suggest it has an impact on the physiology and health of the host. F. prausnitzii is the only identified species in the genus Faecalibacterium, but a recent study clustered strains of this species in two different phylogroups. Here, we propose the existence of distinct species in this genus through the use of comparative genomics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958174/dietary-soy-meat-and-fish-proteins-modulate-the-effects-of-prebiotic-raffinose-on-composition-and-fermentation-of-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#14
Gaowa Bai, Takeshi Tsuruta, Naoki Nishino
Soy, meat (mixture of pork and beef), and fish proteins were fed to rats with and without prebiotic raffinose (RAF), and the composition and fermentation of gut microbiota were examined. Bifidobacterium spp. populations were higher, and propionic acid concentration was lower in soy protein-fed than meat protein-fed rats. Likewise, Enterobacteriaceae populations were higher in fish protein-fed rats than other rats. RAF feeding increased Bifidobacterium spp. and decreased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii populations regardless of the dietary protein source...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955311/safety-of-novel-microbes-for-human-consumption-practical-examples-of-assessment-in-the-european-union
#15
REVIEW
Theodor Brodmann, Akihito Endo, Miguel Gueimonde, Gabriel Vinderola, Wolfgang Kneifel, Willem M de Vos, Seppo Salminen, Carlos Gómez-Gallego
Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928206/microbial-metabolic-networks-at-the-mucus-layer-lead-to-diet-independent-butyrate-and-vitamin-b12-production-by-intestinal-symbionts
#16
Clara Belzer, Loo Wee Chia, Steven Aalvink, Bhawani Chamlagain, Vieno Piironen, Jan Knol, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of Amuciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924190/microbiome-of-pacific-whiteleg-shrimp-reveals-differential-bacterial-community-composition-between-wild-aquacultured-and-ahpnd-ems-outbreak-conditions
#17
Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Alonso A Lopez-Zavala, Luigui Gallardo-Becerra, Alfredo Mendoza-Vargas, Filiberto Sánchez, Rodrigo Vichido, Luis G Brieba, Maria Teresa Viana, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Adrián Ochoa-Leyva
Crustaceans form the second largest subphylum on Earth, which includes Litopeneaus vannamei (Pacific whiteleg shrimp), one of the most cultured shrimp worldwide. Despite efforts to study the shrimp microbiota, little is known about it from shrimp obtained from the open sea and the role that aquaculture plays in microbiota remodeling. Here, the microbiota from the hepatopancreas and intestine of wild type (wt) and aquacultured whiteleg shrimp and pond sediment from hatcheries were characterized using sequencing of seven hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923537/metagenomic-shotgun-sequencing-and-unbiased-metabolomic-profiling-identify-specific-human-gut-microbiota-and-metabolites-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-therapy-efficacy-in-melanoma-patients
#18
Arthur E Frankel, Laura A Coughlin, Jiwoong Kim, Thomas W Froehlich, Yang Xie, Eugene P Frenkel, Andrew Y Koh
This is the first prospective study of the effects of human gut microbiota and metabolites on immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICT) response in metastatic melanoma patients. Whereas many melanoma patients exhibit profound response to ICT, there are fewer options for patients failing ICT-particularly with BRAF-wild-type disease. In preclinical studies, specific gut microbiota promotes regression of melanoma in mice. We therefore conducted a study of the effects of pretreatment gut microbiota and metabolites on ICT Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response in 39 metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, nivolumab, ipilimumab plus nivolumab (IN), or pembrolizumab (P)...
October 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#19
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904265/changes-in-gut-microbial-ecology-and-immunological-responses-of-mice-fed-the-insoluble-fraction-of-brassica-rapa-l-that-was-fermented-or-not
#20
Sachi Tanaka, Kana Yamamoto, Chisato Hamajima, Fuka Takahashi, Kazuki Yamada, Kanon Furuya, Yutaka Uyeno
We aimed to investigate the effects of feeding fermented Brassica rapa L. on ecological and immunological changes in the mouse gut using in vitro cultivation tests and in vivo experiments in normal mice. In the preliminary in vitro study, two B. rapa L. products from different fermentation periods (one d [SF] or six months [LF]) were evaluated along with non-fermented vegetables (NF). Among the components of each product, the insoluble fraction resulted in the most prominent change such as a relative increase in butyrate production during a cultivation inoculated with mouse cecum contents...
September 27, 2017: Microbes and Environments
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