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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Francesca Borgo, Stefania Garbossa, Alessandra Riva, Marco Severgnini, Carmelo Luigiano, Albero Benetti, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Gut microbiota is considered a separate organ with endocrine capabilities, actively contributing to tissue homeostasis. It consists of at least two separate microbial populations, the lumen-associated (LAM) and the mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM). In the present study, we compared LAM and MAM, by collecting stools and sigmoid brush samples of forty adults without large-bowel symptoms, and through a 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. MAM sample analysis revealed enrichment in aerotolerant Proteobacteria , probably selected by a gradient of oxygen that decreases from tissue to lumen, and in Streptococcus and Clostridium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leon J Broom
The gut barrier, comprising the microbiota and their products, mucus layers, host-derived antimicrobial compounds [e.g., host defense peptides (HDP), IgA], epithelium, and underlying immune tissues, performs the essential function of preventing the passage of harmful microorganisms and substances into the body, while enabling the acquisition of dietary nutrients. Antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) are widely accepted as the "gold standard" of performance-enhancing feed additives, which had become integral and valuable components of modern, efficient animal production, but are now being phased out in many parts of the world...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Tariq Jamal Khan, Youssri M Ahmed, Mazin A Zamzami, Aisha M Siddiqui, Imran Khan, Othman A S Baothman, Mohamed G Mehanna, Abudukadeer Kuerban, Mohammed Kaleemuddin, Muhammad Yasir
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for development of cardiovascular diseases. The composition of gut microbiota (total microbes residing in the gut) impacts on cholesterol and lipid metabolism. On the contrary, alterations in gut microbiota in response to hypercholesterolemia or drug treatment with atorvastatin (a cholesterol-lowering agent) are rarely investigated. We performed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to evaluate the gut bacterial community of 15 untreated hypercholesterolemic patients (HP) and 27 atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients (At-HP) and compared with 19 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Yujiao Ji, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin, Francois Blachier, Xiangfeng Kong
Background: Pregnancy is associated with important changes in gut microbiota composition. Dietary factors may affect the diversity, composition, and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. Among amino acids, proline is known to play important roles in protein metabolism and structure, cell differentiation, conceptus growth and development, and gut microbiota re-equilibration in case of dysbiosis. Results: Dietary supplementation with 1% proline decreased ( P  < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Karin B Fieten, Joan E E Totté, Evgeni Levin, Marta Reyman, Yolanda Meijer, André Knulst, Frank Schuren, Suzanne G M A Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of atopic disease. Atopic diseases have been associated with specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiome. The link between intestinal microbiota and food allergy has rarely been studied, and the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge [DBPCFC]) has seldom been used. We aimed to distinguish fecal microbial signatures for food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
January 25, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Jennifer Cadnum, Bryan Glueck, Mark Obrenovich, Curtis Donskey, Gail A M Cresci
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) increases patient morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Antibiotic treatment induces gut dysbiosis and is both a major risk factor for CD colonization and treatment of CDI. Probiotics have been trialed to support commensal gut microbiota and reduce CDI. This study investigated commensal microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) and a prebiotic, both known to yield butyrate and be anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory, on CD colonization and gut integrity in mice...
January 31, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Matthew L Stoll, Pamela F Weiss, Jennifer E Weiss, Peter A Nigrovic, Barbara S Edelheit, S Lou Bridges, Maria I Danila, Charles H Spencer, Marilynn G Punaro, Kenneth Schikler, Andreas Reiff, Ranjit Kumar, Randy Q Cron, Casey D Morrow, Elliot J Lefkowitz
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have demonstrated abnormalities in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in pediatric and adult patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). In particular, diminished fecal abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and abnormalities in both directions in the abundance of the Bacteroides genus have been identified. METHODS: We obtained fecal specimens from 30 children with treatment-naïve enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) and 19 healthy controls, as well as specimens from 11 adult patients with longstanding SpA and 10 adult healthy controls...
January 30, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Hannah E Da Silva, Anastasia Teterina, Elena M Comelli, Amel Taibi, Bianca M Arendt, Sandra E Fischer, Wendy Lou, Johane P Allard
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between dysbiosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). This is a prospective cross-sectional study assessing the intestinal microbiome (IM) of 39 adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD (15 simple steatosis [SS]; 24 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) and 28 healthy controls (HC). IM composition (llumina MiSeq Platform) in NAFLD patients compared to HC were identified by two statistical methods (Metastats, Wilcoxon)...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lili Chen, Bowen Jiang, Chunge Zhong, Jun Guo, Lihao Zhang, Teng Mu, Qiuhua Zhang, Xiuli Bi
Freeze-dried black raspberry powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed AOM/DSS treated C57BL/6J mice with diet containing black raspberry anthocyanins for 12 weeks and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared to AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibriosp and Enterococcus spp, were increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota...
January 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Larry K Kociolek, Egon A Ozer, Dale N Gerding, David W Hecht, Sameer J Patel, Alan R Hauser
Background: Clostridium difficile strain DH/NAP11/106, a relatively antibiotic-susceptible strain, is now the most common cause of C. difficile infection (CDI) among adults in the USA. Objectives: To identify mechanisms underlying the evolution and transmission of an MDR DH/NAP11/106 clone. Methods: WGS (Illumina MiSeq), restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on 134 C. difficile isolates collected from paediatric patients with CDI over a 2 year period...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Xiao Cui, Lei Ye, Jing Li, Ling Jin, Wenjie Wang, Shuangyue Li, Minghui Bao, Shouling Wu, Lifeng Li, Bin Geng, Xin Zhou, Jian Zhang, Jun Cai
Previous studies suggested a possible gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, direct evidence was lacking. In this study, we investigated the composition and metabolic patterns of gut microbiota in CHF patients to provide direct evidence and comprehensive understanding of gut microbiota dysbiosis in CHF. We enrolled 53 CHF patients and 41 controls. Metagenomic analyses of faecal samples and metabolomic analyses of faecal and plasma samples were then performed. We found that the composition of gut microbiota in CHF was significantly different from controls...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie Schirmer, Eric A Franzosa, Jason Lloyd-Price, Lauren J McIver, Randall Schwager, Tiffany W Poon, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Elizabeth Andrews, Gildardo Barron, Kathleen Lake, Mahadev Prasad, Jenny Sauk, Betsy Stevens, Robin G Wilson, Jonathan Braun, Lee A Denson, Subra Kugathasan, Dermot P B McGovern, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic diseases of the digestive tract that affects millions of people worldwide. Genetic, environmental and microbial factors have been implicated in the onset and exacerbation of IBD. However, the mechanisms associating gut microbial dysbioses and aberrant immune responses remain largely unknown. The integrative Human Microbiome Project seeks to close these gaps by examining the dynamics of microbiome functionality in disease by profiling the gut microbiomes of >100 individuals sampled over a 1-year period...
March 2018: Nature Microbiology
Takamitsu Tsukahara, Ryo Inoue, Keizo Nakayama, Takio Inatomi
Coccidiosis is an intestinal parasitic infection and one of the most prevalent and economically damaging diseases of chickens. Furthermore, coccidia-induced mucogenesis promotes secondary colonization by Clostridium perfringens, a major pathogen of chickens that causes necrotic enteritis. Our previous work found that supernatant of a culture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain TOA5001 (BA) inhibited the growth of C. perfringens on Gifu anaerobic broth medium. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of dietary BA administration in inhibiting C...
December 28, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Michael A Henson, Poonam Phalak
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, cause chronic inflammation of the digestive tract in approximately 1.6 million Americans. A signature of IBD is dysbiosis of the gut microbiota marked by a significant reduction of obligate anaerobes and a sharp increase in facultative anaerobes. Numerous experimental studies have shown that IBD is strongly correlated with a decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and an increase of Escherichia coli...
December 28, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Nerea Arias-Jayo, Laura Alonso-Saez, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Miguel A Pardo
The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota...
December 20, 2017: Zebrafish
Sheeana Gangadoo, Ivan Dinev, James Chapman, Robert J Hughes, Thi Thu Hao Van, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
The poultry industry aims to improve productivity while maintaining the health and welfare of flocks. Pathogen control has been achieved through biosecurity, vaccinations and the use of antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance, in animal and human pathogens, has prompted researchers and chicken growers alike to seek alternative approaches. The use of new and emerging approaches to combat pathogen activity including nanotechnology, in particular, silver nanoparticles (NPs), has been found to not only eradicate pathogenic bacteria but also include issues of toxicity and bioaccumulation effects...
December 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sai-Long Zhang, Shu-Na Wang, Chao-Yu Miao
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with chronic and recurrent characteristics caused by multiple reasons. Although the pathogenic factors have not been clarified yet, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota plays a major role in UC, especially in the immune system. This review focuses on the description of several major microbiota communities that affect UC and their interactions with the host. In this review, eight kinds of microbiota that are highly related to IBD, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, Bacteroides, Roseburia species, Eubacterium rectale, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium , and Candida albicans are demonstrated on the changes in amount and roles in the onset and progression of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Pamela Vernocchi, Federica Del Chierico, Andrea Quagliariello, Danilo Ercolini, Vincenzina Lucidi, Lorenza Putignani
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction...
December 9, 2017: Nutrients
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Nicole C Roy
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
January 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
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