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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Wenjun Liu, Jiachao Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Shunfeng Cai, Weiqiang Huang, Jing Chen, Xiaoxia Xi, Zebin Liang, Qiangchuan Hou, Bing Zhou, Nan Qin, Heping Zhang
The human gut microbiota varies considerably among world populations due to a variety of factors including genetic background, diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. Here we characterized 110 healthy Mongolian adults gut microbiota by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and compared the intestinal microbiome among Mongolians, the Hans and European cohorts. The results showed that the taxonomic profile of intestinal microbiome among cohorts revealed the Actinobaceria and Bifidobacterium were the key microbes contributing to the differences among Mongolians, the Hans and Europeans at the phylum level and genus level, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Valerio Iebba, Floriana Santangelo, Valentina Totino, Fabrizio Pantanella, Anatole Monsia, Veronica Di Cristanziano, David Di Cave, Serena Schippa, Federica Berrilli, Rossella D'Alfonso
INTRODUCTION: Literature data provide little information about protozoa infections and gut microbiota compositional shifts in humans. This preliminary study aimed to describe the fecal bacterial community composition of people from Côte d'Ivoire harboring Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Blastocystis hominis, in trying to discover possible alterations in their fecal microbiota structure related to the presence of such parasites. METHODOLOGY: Twenty fecal samples were collected from people inhabiting three different localities of Côte d'Ivoire for copromicroscopic analysis and molecular identification of G...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Michelle Prosberg, Flemming Bendtsen, Ida Vind, Andreas M Petersen, Lise L Gluud
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a published protocol. Included patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) classified as active or in remission. We selected bacteria assessed in at least three studies identified through electronic and manual searches (November 2015)...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Marlene Remely, Berit Hippe, Julia Zanner, Eva Aumueller, Helmuth Brath, Alexander G Haslberger
Beside the influence of nutritional habits and reduced physical activity, metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of gut microbiota influencing the inflammatory immune responses. Gut microbiota and microbial metabolic activities are known to affect the lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety and chronic low-grade inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to identify genera or even species affecting host metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes beside the commonly used indicator: Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio...
August 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Xiao-Bo Feng, Jun Jiang, Min Li, Gang Wang, Jin-Wei You, Jian Zuo
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of intestinal flora imbalance in the pathogenesis of pouchitis. METHODS: The pouchitis rat model was established and the faeces sample and the mucous membrane sample were collected regularly, in which the bacterial nucleic acids were extracted for quantitative analysis of the intestinal flora in the samples through using the real-time quantitative PCR technique and high energy sequencing technology. RESULTS: The disorder phenomenon of the intestinal flora appeared at the 7th day of the experiment, and the pouchitis was presented at the 21st day of the experiment...
August 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Grégory Dubourg, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Sophie Hüe, Mathieu Surenaud, Dipankar Bachar, Catherine Robert, Caroline Michelle, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Matthieu Million, Andreas Stein, Philippe Brouqui, Yves Levy, Didier Raoult
OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiota modifications occurring during HIV infection have recently been associated with inflammation and microbial translocation. However, discrepancies between studies justified a comprehensive analysis performed on a large sample size. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a case-control study, next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to the faecal microbiota of 31 HIV-infected patients, of whom 18 were treated with antiretroviral treatment (ART), compared with 27 healthy controls...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Jorrit L Opstelten, Jonathan Plassais, Saskia W C van Mil, Emna Achouri, Matthieu Pichaud, Peter D Siersema, Bas Oldenburg, Alessandra C L Cervino
BACKGROUND: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. METHODS: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500...
September 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yasuhiro Koga, Shouji Tokunaga, Jun Nagano, Fuyuhiko Sato, Kenta Konishi, Takumi Tochio, Youko Murakami, Natsuko Masumoto, Jun-Ichirou Tezuka, Nobuyuki Sudo, Chiharu Kubo, Rumiko Shibata
BACKGROUND: Although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major bacterium in the intestine of adults, which is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, the development in infants or the response to prebiotics remains unclear. METHODS: The counts of F. prausnitzii in the feces were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fecal samples were obtained from 65 atopic dermatitis (AD) infants who participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the therapeutic effect of kestose, the smallest fructooligosaccharide...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
Akira Andoh, Atsushi Nishida, Kenichiro Takahashi, Osamu Inatomi, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Shigeki Bamba, Katsuyuki Kito, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Toshio Kobayashi
Altered gut microbial ecology contributes to the development of metabolic diseases including obesity. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the gut microbiota profiles of obese and lean Japanese populations. The V3-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA of fecal samples from 10 obese and 10 lean volunteers were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq(TM)II system. The average body mass index of the obese and lean group were 38.1 and 16.6 kg/m(2), respectively (p<0.01). The Shannon diversity index was significantly higher in the lean group than in the obese group (p<0...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Kati Mokkala, Henna Röytiö, Eveliina Munukka, Sami Pietilä, Ulla Ekblad, Tapani Rönnemaa, Erkki Eerola, Asta Laiho, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (<17 wk of gestation; median: 13 wk)...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, David Lantin, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst
With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuanghong Jiang, Shan Xie, Dan Lv, Yan Zhang, Jun Deng, Lishan Zeng, Ye Chen
The human gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and might also be implicated in kidney disease. The interest in butyrate producing bacteria has recently increased and is a poorly understood faecal condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we evaluated differences of the butyrate producing species Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the faeces of Chinese patients with CKD. A case-control study was carried out for 65 CKD patients and 20 healthy controls. Differences were quantitatively validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
October 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Supatjaree Ruengsomwong, Orawan La-Ongkham, Jiahui Jiang, Bhusita Wannissorn, Jiro Nakayama, Sunee Nitisinprasert
Pyrosequencing analysis of intestinal microflora from healthy Thai vegetarians and non-vegetarians exhibited 893 OTUs covering 189 species. The strong species indicator of vegetarians and non-vegetarians were Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus as well as bacterium closed to Escherichia hermanii with % relative abundance of 16.9 and 4.5-4.7, respectively. Core gut microbiota of vegetarian and non-vegetarian group consisted of 11 and 20 different bacterial species, respectively, belonging to Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria commonly found in both groups...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Clark A Santee, Nabeetha A Nagalingam, Ali A Faruqi, Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Ellen R Wald, Susan V Lynch
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI. RESULTS: Healthy children (n = 47) aged 49-84 months from a prospective cohort study based in Wisconsin, USA, were examined...
2016: Microbiome
Zhiliang Wei, Shougen Cao, Shanglong Liu, Zengwu Yao, Teng Sun, Yi Li, Jiante Li, Dongfeng Zhang, Yanbing Zhou
Evidences have shown that dysbiosis could promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association of dysbiosis and prognosis of CRC is barely investigated. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to determine differences in microbiota among tumor tissues of different prognosis and found that Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis were more abundant in worse prognosis groups, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii displayed higher abundance in survival group. To further explore the prognostic value of the found bacteria, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional regression analyses were used and the results exhibited that high abundance of F...
June 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Albert Palleja, Alireza Kashani, Kristine H Allin, Trine Nielsen, Chenchen Zhang, Yin Li, Thorsten Brach, Suisha Liang, Qiang Feng, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Carsten Dirksen, Kristoffer S Burgdorf, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jun Wang, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Manimozhiyan Arumugam
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective means to achieve sustained weight loss for morbidly obese individuals. Besides rapid weight reduction, patients achieve major improvements of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and some of its co-morbidities, like type 2 diabetes, and major changes of gut microbial communities have been hypothesized to mediate part of the beneficial metabolic effects observed after RYGB...
2016: Genome Medicine
Xiao-Li Huang, Xin Zhang, Xian-Yan Fei, Zhao-Gui Chen, Yan-Ping Hao, Shu Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhang, Yan-Qiu Yu, Cheng-Gong Yu
AIM: To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) supernatant on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, model group, treatment group, and prevention group. Mice were weighed daily. On day 10, the colon length was measured, the colorectal histopathologic damage score (HDS) was assessed, and plasma interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-6, and IL-4 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Matthew L Stoll, Randy Q Cron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been increasing interest in the contents and function of the microbiota, as it relates to pediatric inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the factors underlying the development of the microbiota, its role in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and prospects for therapeutic interventions in the microbiota. RECENT FINDINGS: The human microbiota undergoes a succession of changes, until it reaches a mature form. A variety of early-life exposures, including mode of delivery and form of feeding, can affect the contents of the microbiota and possibly impact upon long-term risk of developing autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
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