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Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Anton Reiner
Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the ventromedial part of the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) mediate vasodilation of orbital and choroidal blood vessels, via their projection to the nitrergic pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) neurons that innervate these vessels. We recently showed that the baroresponsive part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) innervates choroidal control parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of SSN in rats. As this projection provides a means by which blood pressure (BP) signals may modulate choroidal blood flow (ChBF), we investigated if activation of baroresponsive NTS evokes ChBF increases in rat eye, using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to measure ChBF transclerally...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Pierre R Bourque, Gabrielle Bourque, William Miller, John Woulfe, Jodi Warman Chardon
Perineural invasion is a targeted cellular proliferation guided by neurotrophins, rather than a simple diffusion of tumor in a path of least resistance. Invasion of cranial nerves by squamous cell carcinoma can represent an important diagnostic dilemma. It commonly presents as a distinct clinical neurological syndrome of combined isolated trigeminal and facial neuropathies. The focal cancer source may have been overlooked or remain occult. This case series illustrates diverse clinical presentations and neuroimaging challenges in four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cranial nerves...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Russell S Frautschi, Brianna Halasa, Susan Orra, Karolina Mlynek, Charles P Steiner, Francis A Papay
The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial neural structure within the pterygopalatine fossa. Modulation of this region via implantation of a neuromodulatory device presents a novel therapy for the treatment of facial and head pain. Yet sex, race, and genetic factors contribute to morphological variations between individuals. This study defines the standards and variations of the bony landmarks surrounding the pterygopalatine fossa. One hundred dry skulls were analyzed from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
W Zhou, Q Liu, W D Zhao, H P Yu, X C Sun, J J Wang, Z F Liu, H Y Li, C Q Zheng, S Y Wang, D H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by analyzing the clinical features. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for cases of invasive fungal sinusitis proved by histological analysis between March 2006 and November 2015. All relevant factors including interval from the onset of symptoms to initiation of diagnosis, clinical characteristics, features of CT and MRI, treatment and prognosis were collected. A total of 18 patients (10 males; 8 females) were identified...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Filippo Gagliardi, Carmine A Donofrio, Alfio Spina, Michele Bailo, Cristian Gragnaniello, Alberto L Gallotti, Samer K Elbabaa, Anthony J Caputy, Pietro Mortini
OBJECTIVE: Anterolateral skull base surgery to sellar and parasellar region has always represented a technical challenge for neurosurgeons. The microscopic endoscope-assisted trans-maxillo-sphenoidal approach (MEMSA) affords a direct surgical corridor free from critical skull base structures. The aim of this study is to describe and critically evaluate its application to access the sellar and parasellar areas in terms of surgical exposure and operability. METHODS: Six cadaveric heads were examined...
August 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Trichy Narayanan Janakiram, Shilpee Bhatia Sharma, Vidya Bhargavan Panicker
To approach Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma extending to the sphenoid sinus, pterygoid wedge and minimal involvement of the pterygopalatine fossa (Radkowski Stage 2 A) with an endoscopic technique without embolization with no recurrence and minimal morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical records of 15 patients with histologically confirmed JNA who underwent endoscopic binostril four handed endoscopic excision in our centre without embolisation between 2010 and 2015...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Hikari Shimoda, Koichiro Yonezawa, Hirotaka Shinomiya, Naoki Otsuki, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Ryohei Sasaki, Eiji Komura, Ken-Ichi Nibu
BACKGROUND: Extirpation of tumors arising in the pterygopalatine fossa is challenging because of its anatomic complexity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 67-year-old man was referred to our department with a diagnosis of a tumor in his left pterygoid fossa. An incisional biopsy through the canine fossa was diagnosed as myxofibrosarcoma. The upper part of the maxilla was swung laterally to remove the tumor while the hard plate was preserved. The defect was reconstructed using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free and ipsilateral temporal...
August 8, 2016: Head & Neck
A Zoghlami, N Bon Mardion, F Callonnec, D Dehesdin, F Proust, J-P Marie
INTRODUCTION: Skull base meningoencephaloceles are rare congenital malformations. The two cases of transalar transsphenoidal malformation reported here differ from the classical transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. CASE REPORTS: Case 1 was a three-and-a-half-year-old boy and case 2 was a 36-year-old man. Both cases presented with clinical features of recurrent meningitis. Surgical management of case 1 was performed via an intradural infratemporal fossa craniotomy with reoperation 2years later...
July 15, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
X Han, H Lu, S Li, Y Xu, N Zhao, Y Xu, W Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the cellular morphologic changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression within craniofacial sutures in growing Rhesus monkeys treated with a Class III functional appliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six Rhesus monkeys in the mixed dentition stage were divided into three groups: a 45-day experimental group, a 90-day experimental group, and a control group. Monkeys in the experimental groups were fitted with a Class III magnetic twin-block appliance...
July 13, 2016: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Jacob L Freeman, Raghuram Sampath, Michael A Casey, Steven Craig Quattlebaum, Vijay R Ramakrishnan, A Samy Youssef
BACKGROUND: Fixed retraction of the internal carotid artery (ICA) has previously been described for use during transcranial microscopic surgery. We report the novel use of a self-retaining microvascular retractor for static repositioning and protection of the ICA during expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches to the paramedian skull base. METHODS: The transmaxillary, transpterygoid approach was performed in five cadaver heads (ten sides). The self-retaining microvascular retractor was used to laterally reposition the pterygopalatine fossa contents during exposure of the pterygoid base/plates and the paraclival ICA to expose the petrous apex...
August 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Mehdi Bakhshaee, Amin Bojdi, Abolghasem Allahyari, Mohammad Reza Majidi, Sherwin Tavakol, Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh, Masoud Asghari
Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a rapidly progressive life threatening infection that is seen most commonly among immunocompromised patients. We present a case series of 18 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with AIFRS with a mean follow-up of 9.11 ± 2.51 months (range 6-17). Demographic data, apparent symptoms and signs, underlying disorders, and outcomes are discussed. The mean age was 39.56 ± 20.66 years (range 2-75). The most common underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (50 %) and leukemia (44...
June 7, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Sonam Tashi, Bela S Purohit, Minerva Becker, Pravin Mundada
UNLABELLED: The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is a small, clinically inaccessible, fat-filled space located in the deep face that serves as a major neurovascular crossroad between the oral cavity, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, orbit, masticator space, and the middle cranial fossa. Due to its inherent complex location and connections, it can potentially act as a natural conduit for the spread of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases across the various deep spaces in the head and neck. This review aims to acquaint the reader with the imaging anatomy of the PPF, its important communications, and to identify some major pathological conditions that can involve the PPF, especially in conditions where its involvement can have serious diagnostic and therapeutic implications, such as in perineural tumour spread...
August 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Taro Takanami, Yasushi Ota, Mitsuya Suzuki
A 57-year-old woman presented to our department with a 2-month history of pain and paresthesia on the left side of the face 12 years after having undergone surgery for breast cancer. We performed an endoscopic biopsy and diagnosed metastatic breast cancer to the pterygopalatine fossa. There has been no recurrence for two years since the metastatic tumor was treated by radiation therapy. A literature search shows only one case of metastatic breast cancer with severe trigeminal neuralgia located in the V2 division of the trigeminal nerve area...
May 18, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Rivka Bendrihem, Christian Vacher
PURPOSE: In Le Fort 1 osteotomies there is a risk of injuring the maxillary artery, during the pterygomaxillary (PM) disjunction. To improve the knowledge of the relation between the maxillary artery and the PM suture, an anatomic study of the pterygopalatal fossa has been performed. METHODS: The study was based on CT scan head with vascular injection of the supraaortic trunks in 92 patients. The vertical length of the PM junction and the position of maxillary artery in relation to PM junction have been measured on a parasagittal plane passing through the lateral surface of the PM junction, and on a plane where the PM suture is the highest...
May 18, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Tomohiro Otsuka, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Yuki Inoue, Yusuke Nakano, Kazuki Ojino, Hiroshi Izawa, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Takashi Ishibashi, Hideaki Hara
PURPOSE: Astaxanthin exhibits various pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects, and is thought to exert a neuroprotective effect via these mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on neuronal cell death using a retinal ischemia/reperfusion model. METHODS: In vivo, retinal ischemia was induced by 5 h unilateral ligation of the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) in ddY mice...
May 9, 2016: Current Eye Research
Bayram Şahin, Said Sönmez, Emine Dilek Yılmazbayhan, Kadir Serkan Orhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Dennis C Nguyen, Kamlesh B Patel, Rajiv P Parikh, Gary B Skolnick, Albert S Woo
INTRODUCTION: This biomechanical study aims to characterize the nasal mucosa during palatoplasty, thereby describing the soft tissue attachments at different zones and quantifying movement following their release. METHODS: Palatal nasal mucosa was exposed and divided in the midline in 10 adult cadaver heads. Five consecutive maneuvers were performed: (1) elevation of nasal mucosa off the maxilla, (2) dissection of nasal mucosa from soft palate musculature, (3) separation of nasal mucosa from palatine aponeurosis, (4) release of mucosa at the pterygopalatine junction, and (5) mobilization of vomer flaps...
June 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Li Gao, Xinsheng Huang
As an important landmark, the posterolateral wall of maxillary sinus can help to locate numbers of significant signs such as maxillary artery and its branches, maxillary nerve and infraorbital nerve, infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa etc. in the endoscopic surgery for paranasal sinuses and lateral skull base. This article reviewed related researches about the anatomy and endoscopic surgery of posterolateral wall of maxillary sinus.
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Maysam Alimohamadi, Mohamadreza Hajiabadi, Venelin Gerganov, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Madjid Samii
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kristina Lee, Navin Mani, Zhi En Tan, Nick Slevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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