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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#1
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
January 16, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094505/self-assembly-and-disassembly-of-amphiphilic-zwitterionic-perylenediimide-vesicles-for-cell-membrane-imaging
#2
Yong Ye, Yang Zheng, Chendong Ji, Jie Shen, Meizhen Yin
Animal cells have complicated dynamics of cell membrane structures which require desirable dyes to in vivo imaging. Here, an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylenediimide (ZP) has been constructed by introducing an octyl chain and a zwitterionic head to each imide position of perylenediimide chromophore. ZP can self-assemble into vesicles in aqueous solution. The aggregated ZP vesicles have been explored to image cell inner or surface membrane structures by controlled disassembly process. The ZP vesicles, when are uptaken into cells, disassemble into single molecules and incorporate into cell inner membranes...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092742/short-term-in-vivo-exposure-to-graphene-oxide-can-cause-damage-to-the-gut-and-testis
#3
Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Maria Augustyniak, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska
Graphene oxide (GO) has unique physicochemical properties and also has a potentially widespread use in every field of daily life (industry, science, medicine). Demand for nanotechnology is growing every year, and therefore many aspects of its toxicity and biocompatibility still require further clarification. This research assesses the in vivo toxicity of pure and manganese ion-contaminated GO that were administrated to Acheta domesticus with food (at 200mgkg(-1) of food) throughout their ten-day adult life...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#4
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091894/mechanisms-of-action-of-surgical-interventions-on-weight-related-diseases-the-potential-role-of-bile-acids
#5
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Pedro Paulo P de Caravatto, John R Speakman, Ricardo V Cohen
Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear...
January 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077402/elemental-metabolomics
#6
Ping Zhang, Constantinos A Georgiou, Vladimir Brusic
Elemental metabolomics is quantification and characterization of total concentration of chemical elements in biological samples and monitoring of their changes. Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have enabled simultaneous measurement of concentrations of > 70 elements in biological samples. In living organisms, elements interact and compete with each other for absorption and molecular interactions. They also interact with proteins and nucleotide sequences. These interactions modulate enzymatic activities and are critical for many molecular and cellular functions...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069123/pepsin-diffusion-in-dairy-gels-depends-on-casein-concentration-and-microstructure
#7
J Thévenot, C Cauty, D Legland, D Dupont, J Floury
Fundamental knowledge of gastric digestion had only focused on acid diffusion from the gastric fluid, but no data are available for pepsin diffusion. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, diffusion coefficients D of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-pepsin were measured in rennet gels across a range of casein concentrations allowing to form networks of protein aggregates with different structures. To investigate the microstructural parameters of native gels, electron microscopy image analysis were performed and qualitatively related to diffusion behavior of FITC-pepsin in these dairy gels...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068492/enzyme-based-strategies-for-structuring-foods-for-improved-functionality
#8
Benjamin Zeeb, David Julian McClements, Jochen Weiss
Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize foodgrade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structure, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068491/bioavailabilty-of-nutrients-and-micronutrients-advances-in-modeling-and-in-vitro-approaches
#9
Sébastien Marze
The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions.Onone hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#10
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068489/legumes-as-functional-ingredients-in-gluten-free-bakery-and-pasta-products
#11
Martina Foschia, Stefan W Horstmann, Elke K Arendt, Emanuele Zannini
The increasing demand of gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068488/side-streams-of-plant-food-processing-as-a-source-of-valuable-compounds-selected-examples
#12
Andreas Schieber
Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068487/a-new-look-at-kinetics-in-relation-to-food-storage
#13
Micha Peleg, Mark D Normand, Maria G Corradini
Modern mathematical software and user-friendly interactive programs can simplify and speed up kinetics calculations. They also open the way for new approaches to storage data gathering and analysis. This is demonstrated with a recently introduced simple exponential model that is interchangeable with the Arrhenius equation and endpoints and successive points methods. This model estimates chemical degradation kinetics parameters from a small number of isothermal or nonisothermal experimental data and determines shelf life using two chemical markers, and it is a global phenomenological model for peaked reactions, such as those encountered in lipid oxidation...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#14
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062106/medical-geology-in-the-framework-of-the-sustainable-development-goals
#15
REVIEW
Jochen Bundschuh, Jyoti Prakash Maity, Shahbaz Mushtaq, Meththika Vithanage, Saman Seneweera, Jerusa Schneider, Prosun Bhattacharya, Nasreen Islam Khan, Ihsan Hamawand, Luiz R G Guilherme, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Faruque Parvez, Nury Morales-Simfors, Sara Ghaze, Christa Pudmenzky, Louis Kouadio, Chien-Yen Chen
Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#16
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056363/establishing-health-benefits-of-bioactive-food-components-a-basic-research-scientist-s-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Rumana Yasmeen, Naomi K Fukagawa, Thomas Ty Wang
Bioactive food components or functional foods have recently received significant attention because of their widely touted positive effects on health beyond basic nutrition. However, a question continues to lurk: are these claims for 'super foods' backed by sound science or simply an exaggerated portrayal of very small 'benefits'? Efforts to establish health benefits by scientific means pose a real challenge in regards to defining what those benefits are, as well as how effective the foods are in justifying any health claim...
January 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052398/multi-state-multi-stage-modeling-of-nest-success-suggests-interaction-between-weather-and-land-use
#18
Mark W Miller, David I Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Robert A Robinson
Many factors may affect daily nest survival. We present a novel multi-state, multi-stage model to estimate daily survival for each nest stage, daily hatching probability and probability that a failed nest died during a specific stage when stage of failure is unknown. The model does not require that hatching date be known. We used data from a large citizen science dataset to demonstrate the application of this approach, exploring the impact of laying dates, weather conditions, conserved soil moisture, soil carbon, habitat type and urbanization on failure rates of common blackbird (Turdus merula) nests...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052194/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-food-and-human-dietary-intake-a-review-of-the-recent-scientific-literature
#19
José L Domingo, Martí Nadal
Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051943/previous-repeated-exposure-to-food-limitation-enables-rats-to-spare-lipid-stores-during-prolonged-starvation
#20
Marshall D McCue, Audrey Albach, Giovanni Salazar
The risk of food limitation and, ultimately, starvation dates back to the dawn of heterotrophy in animals, yet starvation remains a major factor in the regulation of modern animal populations. Researchers studying starvation more than a century ago suggested that animals subjected to sublethal periods of food limitation are somehow more tolerant of subsequent starvation events. This possibility has received little attention over the past decades, yet it is highly relevant to modern science for two reasons. First, animals in natural populations are likely to be exposed to bouts of food limitation once or more before they face prolonged starvation, during which the risk of mortality becomes imminent...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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