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Hande Boyaci, James Chen, Mirjana Lilic, Margaret Palka, Rachel Anne Mooney, Robert Landick, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell
Fidaxomicin (Fdx) is an antimicrobial RNA polymerase (RNAP) inhibitor highly effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNAP in vitro, but clinical use of Fdx is limited to treating Clostridium difficile intestinal infections due to poor absorption. To identify the structural determinants of Fdx binding to RNAP, we determined the 3.4 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a complete M. tuberculosis RNAP holoenzyme in complex with Fdx. We find that the actinobacteria general transcription factor RbpA contacts fidaxomycin, explaining its strong effect on M...
February 26, 2018: ELife
Avi Peretz, Izhar Ben Shlomo, Orna Nitzan, Luigi Bonavina, Pmela M Schaffer, Moshe Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Although mucositis, diarrhea, and constipation as well as immunosuppression are well recognized side-effects of cancer treatment, the underlying mechanisms including changes in the composition of gut microbiota and Clostridium difficile infection have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. OBJECTIVE: We herein set out to review the literature regarding the relations between cancer chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Peter M Keller, Marko H Weber
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasingly important in patients with antibiotic treatments, ranging from mild, self-limiting to severe, life-threatening disease. Currently, diagnostic algorithms and treatment guidelines are being adapted to novel tests and therapeutic options for recurrent CDI. METHODS: A systematic literature search using the terms 'Clostridium difficile' and 'treatment' was carried out. Current guidelines are being discussed from a clinical point of view...
October 2014: Viszeralmedizin
C Lübbert, S Weis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the most commonly occurring diseases. AIM: This article gives a review of the current state of the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea (part 1) and chronic infectious diarrhea (part 2) as well as of the most important pathogens. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following a presentation of the general principles of the therapy of diarrhea, the targeted antimicrobial therapy of the most important bacterial gastrointestinal infections is described...
November 2013: Der Internist
E V Luzina, N V Lareva
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126...
2013: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
C Monneret
Among the 35 new molecular entities approved by the FDA in 2011, 17 were particularly notable for their significant contributions to the health of patients, including abiraterone acetate, vandetanib, belatacept and fidaxomicin. Thus, abiraterone acetate, namely Zytiga®, was included as the first in a new class of drugs to treat late-stage prostate cancer. The ability of Zytiga® to prolong survival in these patients was considered as significant because they have few other treatments options and the benefits of Zytiga® outweighed the risks of reported side-effects...
March 2013: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer, Trish M Perl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review comprises recent insights on epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approaches, pathophysiologic mechanisms, novel treatment options and prevention strategies of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence of Clostridium difficile continues to rise and hypervirulent subtypes such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027 and 078 have emerged worldwide. Children and postpartum women are increasingly recognized as being at risk for development of CDI and community-associated infection is no longer rare...
August 2012: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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