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Applied Psychology

C Kenis, L Decoster, J Flamaing, P R Debruyne, I De Groof, C Focan, F Cornelis, V Verschaeve, C Bachmann, D Bron, S Luce, G Debugne, H Van den Bulck, J-C Goeminne, D Schrijvers, K Geboers, B Petit, C Langenaeken, R Van Rijswijk, P Specenier, G Jerusalem, J-P Praet, K Vandenborre, J-P Lobelle, M Lycke, K Milisen, H Wildiers
Background: In the general older population, geriatric assessment (GA)-guided treatment plans can improve overall survival, quality of life and functional status (FS). In GA-related research in geriatric oncology, studies mainly focused on geriatric screening and GA but not on geriatric recommendations, interventions and follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to geriatric recommendations and subsequent actions undertaken in older patients with cancer. Patient and methods: A prospective Belgian multicenter (N=22) cohort study included patients ≥70 years with a malignant tumor upon oncologic treatment decision...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Juan José Calvo Aguirrey, Josu Alustiza Navarro, Joana Uranga Zaldúa, Cristina Sarasqueta Eizaguirre, Olga Bueno Yáñez
INTRODUCTION: Physical and psychological functional conditions are key factors in the elderly population. Many evaluation tools are available, but they cannot be applied to the whole geriatric population. The use Alusti Test is presented. This test consists of 2versions, which enable it to encompass this wide and complex population spectrum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study with the institutionalised, hospitalised, and community population, was conducted between September and December 2016...
June 11, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Keng-Yen Huang, Nancy Grote, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies present a great public health burden in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNFPA, Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy, 2013). The disenfranchisement from public institutions and services is further compounded by cultural stigma and gender inequality creating emotional, psychosocial, health, and educational problems in the lives of vulnerable pregnant adolescents (Int J Adolesc Med Health 15(4):321-9, 2003; BMC Public Health 8:83, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Milija Šimleša, Jérôme Guegan, Edouard Blanchard, Franck Tarpin-Bernard, Stéphanie Buisine
Flow is a well-known concept in the fields of positive and applied psychology. Examination of a large body of flow literature suggests there is a need for a conceptual model rooted in a cognitive approach to explain how this psychological phenomenon works. In this paper, we propose the Flow Engine Framework, a theoretical model explaining dynamic interactions between rearranged flow components and fundamental cognitive processes. Using an IPO framework (Inputs - Processes - Outputs) including a feedback process, we organize flow characteristics into three logically related categories: inputs (requirements for flow), mediating and moderating cognitive processes (attentional and motivational mechanisms) and outputs (subjective and objective outcomes), describing the process of the flow...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Lennie R C Geerlings, Claire L Thompson, Vivian Kraaij, Ger P J Keijsers
This is the first research into preparation for multicultural clinical psychology practice in Europe. It applies the theory of multicultural counselling competency (MCC) to a case study in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that cross-cultural practice experience, identification as a cultural minority, and satisfaction with cultural training was associated with MCC. The Multicultural Awareness Knowledge and Skills Survey was completed by 106 participants (22 students, 10 academics, 74 alumni) from clinical psychology masters' programs...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
K Bíró, V Dombrádi, A Jani, K Boruzs, M Gray
Background: Because of the limited success of population-based prevention methods and due to developments in genomic screening, public health professionals and health policy makers are increasingly interested in more individualized prevention strategies. However, the terminology applied in this field is still ambiguous and thus has the potential to create misunderstandings. Methods: A narrative literature review was conducted to identify how individualized, personalized and precision prevention are used in research papers and documents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Wentian Lu, Hynek Pikhart, Amanda Sacker
Purpose of the Study: Few studies have recommended the essential domains of healthy aging and their relevant measurement to assess healthy aging comprehensively. This review is to fill the gap, by conducting a literature review of domains and measures of healthy aging in epidemiological studies. Design and Methods: A literature search was conducted up to March 31, 2017, supplemented by a search of references in all relevant articles in English. We made a final selection of 50 studies across 23 countries or regions...
April 20, 2018: Gerontologist
Thor Gamst-Klaussen, Admassu N Lamu, Gang Chen, Jan Abel Olsen
BACKGROUND: Many clinical studies including mental health interventions do not use a health state utility instrument, which is essential for producing quality-adjusted life years. In the absence of such utility instrument, mapping algorithms can be applied to estimate utilities from a disease-specific instrument.AimsWe aim to develop mapping algorithms from two widely used depression scales; the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), onto the most widely used health state utility instrument, the EQ-5D-5L, using eight country-specific value sets...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Edgar Galindo, Adelinda A Candeias, Heldemerina S Pires, Luísa Grácio, Marcus Stück
This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST) was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Simone Rodda, Stephanie S Merkouris, Charles Abraham, David C Hodgins, Sean Cowlishaw, Nicki A Dowling
Background and aims To date, no systematic approach to identifying the content and characteristics of psychological interventions used to reduce gambling or problem gambling has been developed. This study aimed to develop a reliable classification system capable of identifying intervention characteristics that could, potentially, account for greater or lesser effectiveness. Methods Intervention descriptions were content analyzed to identify common and differentiating characteristics. A coder manual was developed and applied by three independent coders to identify the presence or absence of defined characteristics in 46 psychological and self-help gambling interventions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Mei-Yin Lee, Huei-Shyong Wang, Chen-Jung Chen, Mei-Hua Lee
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the experience of social adjustment of adolescents with Tourette syndrome in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: Although Tourette syndrome is a non-life-threatening disease, the inherent difficulties in controlling tics and comorbidities can cause long-term physical and psychological issues, as well as social maladjustment among adolescents. Good social adjustment can promote mental health among adolescents. Currently, it is not clear how adolescents with Tourette syndrome can self-adjust and maintain harmonious social interaction with others...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Dorian Peters, Rafael A Calvo, Richard M Ryan
Research in psychology has shown that both motivation and wellbeing are contingent on the satisfaction of certain psychological needs. Yet, despite a long-standing pursuit in human-computer interaction (HCI) for design strategies that foster sustained engagement, behavior change and wellbeing, the basic psychological needs shown to mediate these outcomes are rarely taken into account. This is possibly due to the lack of a clear model to explain these needs in the context of HCI. Herein we introduce such a model: Motivation, Engagement and Thriving in User Experience (METUX)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dale Glaser
Measurement is an integral part of many disciplines, ranging from the social, healthcare/medical, to management sciences. The field of psychometrics has had a wide-ranging impact in the varied disciplines housed within psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, etc.) as researchers and test developers aim to construct, refine, and modify their instruments. Given that test validation is a key component in furnishing evidence of validity, the intent of this nontechnical article is to reinforce (or serve as a reminder) for the applied audience the necessary efforts in optimizing the psychometric properties of their measurement tool...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Maria E Farrugia, Marina Di Marco, Denyse Kersel, Caroline Carmichael
BackgroundFatigue in myasthenia gravis (MG) is common and difficult to manage. Unlike myasthenic weakness it is not amenable to drug therapies.ObjectiveOur primary aim was to investigate whether a combination of physical and psychological therapy would help address symptoms of fatigue in MG patients, who have stable disease but residual problematic fatigue. Our secondary aim was to quantitate fatigue by applying different scores and to ascertain which would be most relevant to apply in MG.MethodsWe recruited 10 MG patients with stable disease and who suffer from fatigue...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Péter Osváth, Attila Kovács, Adrienn Boda-Jörg, Tamás Tényi, Sándor Fekete, Viktor Vörös
Modern information and communication tools have increasingly become an indispensable part of our everyday life. Research data demonstrate that it can be used effectively to preserve and restore health, not just among young people but also among the elderly, as for nowadays the use of the internet is widespread among the elderly, but healthcare applications are less well-known. This supports the significance of our project since it is important to develop and introduce disease-specific healthcare applications...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Elja van der Wolf, Susan A H van Hooren, Wim Waterink, Lilian Lechner
BACKGROUND: The gerontopsychiatric population consists of nursing home residents with combined psychiatric and physical disabilities. A validated measure to assess well-being among this population is currently not available. This article is a first step toward the development of a well-being instrument for the gerontopsychiatric population. METHODS: Potential measurement items were gathered and selected with the help of both gerontopsychiatric residents and care professionals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Ramya Hettiarachchi, Chrishantha Abeysena
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hence, CKD patients are often in chronic psychological distress. The objective of the study was to describe factors associated with psychological distress of CKD patients attending National Nephrology Unit. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 CKD patients above 18 years of age applying systematic sampling. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires to assess the psychological distress (GHQ-12), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (BRIEFCOPE), pain (0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale), and physical role limitation due to ill health (SF36QOL)...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology
Ragni B Haukaas, Ingrid B Gjerde, Grunde Varting, Håvard E Hallan, Stian Solem
The Attention Training Technique (ATT) and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group ( n = 40) or a MSC-group ( n = 41)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ekaterina Zotcheva, Geir Selbæk, Espen Bjertness, Linda Ernstsen, Bjørn H Strand
Background: Leisure-time physical activity (PA) has been proposed as a protective factor against dementia, whereas psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of dementia. We investigated the associations of leisure-time PA and psychological distress with dementia-related mortality, and whether the association between leisure-time PA and dementia-related mortality differs according to level of psychological distress. Methods: 36,945 individuals from the Cohort of Norway aged 50-74 years at baseline (1994-2002) were included and followed up until January 1st 2015...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Christiane Ahlheim, Bradley C Love
Recent advances in multivariate fMRI analysis stress the importance of information inherent to voxel patterns. Key to interpreting these patterns is estimating the underlying dimensionality of neural representations. Dimensions may correspond to psychological dimensions, such as length and orientation, or involve other coding schemes. Unfortunately, the noise structure of fMRI data inflates dimensionality estimates and thus makes it difficult to assess the true underlying dimensionality of a pattern. To address this challenge, we developed a novel approach to identify brain regions that carry reliable task-modulated signal and to derive an estimate of the signal's functional dimensionality...
June 7, 2018: NeuroImage
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