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Applied Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472851/self-active-relaxation-therapy-sart-and-self-regulation-a-comprehensive-review-and-comparison-of-the-japanese-body-movement-approach
#1
REVIEW
Russell S Kabir, Yutaka Haramaki, Hyeyoung Ki, Hiroyuki Ohno
Relaxation programs are known for their versatility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to help people obtain skills to regulate their mental states and promote and maintain health. Self-Active Relaxation Therapy (SART) is a body-oriented approach to psychological rehabilitation that grew out of the suite of movement tasks developed in the Japanese psychotherapy known as Dohsa-hou , or the body movement method. The program for SART is designed to stretch, twist, and release areas of the upper, lower, and whole body through a set of movements which are guided by the practitioner and performed "self-actively" by the client to empower them to learn to recognize points of tension in the body and act on their own to achieve a relaxed state...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470555/bernese-motive-and-goal-inventory-in-exercise-and-sport-validation-of-an-updated-version-of-the-questionnaire
#2
Julia Schmid, Vanessa Gut, Achim Conzelmann, Gorden Sudeck
Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468884/borrowing-benefits-group-treatment-with-clinical-emotional-freedom-techniques-is-associated-with-simultaneous-reductions-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms
#3
Dawson Church, Dennis House
Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety. The current study sought to elucidate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a nonclinical population. The sample (N = 81) comprised participants at five 2-day EFT workshops. All groups used an EFT protocol called Borrowing Benefits, in which the group facilitator works with a single client while other participants self-apply EFT. Participants were assessed on 9 specific conditions as well as on the breadth (Positive Symptom Total [PST]) and depth (General Symptom Index [GSI]) of psychological distress...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467701/are-expectations-the-missing-link-between-life-history-strategies-and-psychopathology
#4
Phillip S Kavanagh, Bianca L Kahl
Despite advances in knowledge and thinking about using life history theory to explain psychopathology there is still a missing link. That is, we all have a life history strategy, but not all of us develop mental health problems. We propose that the missing link is expectations - a mismatch between expected environmental conditions (including social) set by variations in life history strategies and the current environmental conditions. The mismatch hypothesis has been applied at the biological level in terms of health and disease and we believe that it can also be applied more broadly at the psychological level in terms of perceived expectations in the social environment and the resulting distress-psychopathology-that manifests when our expectations are not met...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466454/interaction-between-fkbp5-variability-and-recent-life-events-in-the-anxiety-spectrum-evidence-for-the-differential-susceptibility-model
#5
Beatriz Pérez-Pérez, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Thomas R Kwapil, Sergi Ballespí, Elionora Peña, Marta de Castro-Catala, Maria Dolors Riba, Araceli Rosa, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
BACKGROUND: Gene-environment interaction (GxE) research has highlighted the importance of investigating the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene as a sensitivity gene. However, previous GxE studies with FKBP5 have not measured the full environmental spectrum or applied statistical tests to discern whether the GxE interaction fits better with the differential-susceptibility or diathesis-stress hypotheses. This study examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on FKBP5 gene moderate the association of positive and negative recent life events (LEs) with depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, neuroticism, and social anxiety traits...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465450/gamification-in-action-theoretical-and-practical-considerations-for-medical-educators
#6
Chrystal Rutledge, Catharine M Walsh, Nathan Swinger, Marc Auerbach, Danny Castro, Maya Dewan, Mona Khattab, Alyssa Rake, Ilana Harwayne-Gidansky, Tia T Raymond, Tensing Maa, Todd P Chang
Gamification involves the application of game design elements to traditionally non-game contexts. It is increasingly being used as an adjunct to traditional teaching strategies in medical education to engage the millennial learner and enhance adult learning. The extant literature has focused on determining whether the implementation of gamification results in better learning outcomes, leading to a dearth of research examining its theoretical underpinnings within the medical education context. The authors define gamification, explore how gamification works within the medical education context using self-determination theory as an explanatory mechanism for enhanced engagement and motivation, and discuss common roadblocks and challenges to implementing gamification...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461714/failures-due-to-interruptions-or-distractions-a-review-and-a-new-framework
#7
Cyril Couffe, George A Michael
Interruptions of ongoing activities have spread since the development of and global increase in technology use and the general speeding in pace we all experience every day. Their negative effects are well known: decline in performance and emotional distress. However, the literature still needs to shed light on the exact cognitive mechanisms involved in the way users decide to reply to an interruption, on the effects of interruptions of different durations, and on factors influencing reactivation of task schemata and goals at resumption...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459839/psychological-characteristics-in-talented-soccer-players-recommendations-on-how-to-improve-coaches-assessment
#8
Lisa Musculus, Babett H Lobinger
Psychological characteristics, including personality traits and psychological skills, have been shown to be relevant predictors of soccer performance. In research, general and sport specific standardized self-report questionnaires have been applied in psychological diagnostics of sports talent. However, with regard to the assessment of psychological characteristics of talented soccer players, a gap between research and practice is apparent. While soccer clubs often ask their coaches to assess their players on self-designed, unevaluated scouting sheets, research widely neglects expert coaches' and clubs' perspectives on relevant performance characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458934/effect-of-aromatherapy-on-coping-with-premenstrual-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Tuğba Uzunçakmak, Sultan Ayaz Alkaya
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a health problem which begins approximately one week before menstruation in women occurs as a set of physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on coping with premenstrual syndrome in university students. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial design was used. This study included 40 students in the intervention and 37 students in the control groups. Data was collected by questionnaire form and PMS scale...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453443/role-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-relief-learning
#10
Dana Mayer, Evelyn Kahl, Taygun C Uzuneser, Markus Fendt
The relief from an aversive event is rewarding. Since organisms are able to learn which environmental cues can cease an aversive event, relief learning helps to better cope with future aversive events. Literature data suggest that relief learning is affected in various psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in relief learning. Using a relief learning procedure in Sprague Dawley rats, we applied a combination of behavioral experiments with anatomical tracing, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and local chemogenetic and pharmacological interventions to broadly characterize the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450531/screening-for-ovarian-cancer-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#11
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: With approximately 14 000 deaths per year, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among US women and the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer. More than 95% of ovarian cancer deaths occur among women 45 years and older. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for ovarian cancer. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer (ie, high risk includes women with certain hereditary cancer syndromes that increase their risk for ovarian cancer)...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448883/natural-frequencies-do-foster-public-understanding-of-medical-tests-comment-on-pighin-gonzalez-savadori-and-girotto-2016
#12
Michelle McDowell, Mirta Galesic, Gerd Gigerenzer
Patients and doctors often need to make decisions based on the results of medical tests. When these results are presented in the form of conditional probabilities, even doctors find it difficult to interpret them correctly. There is over 20 y of research supporting the finding that people are better able to calculate the correct positive predictive value of a test when given information in natural frequencies, as opposed to conditional probabilities. Natural frequencies are one of a few psychological tools that have made it into evidence-based medicine...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446469/clinical-trials-in-allergen-immunotherapy-current-concepts-and-future-needs
#13
REVIEW
O Pfaar, M Alvaro, V Cardona, E Hamelmann, R Mösges, J Kleine-Tebbe
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a safe, effective treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. However, AIT's clinical effect is still contested - primarily due to heterogeneity in clinical trial designs, study populations, therapeutic formulations and efficacy criteria. After discussing current concepts and unmet needs, an international panel of experts made several recommendations: (i) explore and validate definitions for [clinical] responders in AIT-trials; (ii) use of well-documented, standardized provocation tests prior to inclusion of subjects with relevant diseases in AIT trials; (iii) monitoring neo-sensitizations and occurrence of new allergy in extended AIT trials, and exclusion of polyallergic participants; (iv) validation of allergen exposure chambers with regard to natural exposure; (v) in studies of seasonal allergies, focus on peak exposure but also consider organising two parallel, geographically distinct but otherwise identical trials; (vi) discuss adaptive trial designs with the regulatory authorities; (vii) use e-health and m-health technologies to capture more information on individual exposure to allergens; (viii) initiate research on potential psychological, biochemical, immune, neural and even genomic markers of the placebo response; (ix) identify trial designs and primary endpoints that will give children with allergies easier, faster access to AIT formulations; and (x) promote and apply standardized methods for reporting systemic and local adverse events...
February 15, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445335/dual-tasking-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-a-cognitive-screening-instrument
#14
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Madlen Paucke, Tjalf Ziemssen
The monitoring of cognitive functions is central to the assessment and consecutive management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though, especially cognitive processes that are central to everyday behavior like dual-tasking are often neglected. We examined dual-task performance using a psychological-refractory period (PRP) task in N = 21 patients and healthy controls and conducted standard neuropsychological tests. In dual-tasking, MS patients committed more erroneous responses when dual-tasking was difficult. In easier conditions, performance of MS patients did not differ to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444130/-are-you-gonna-publish-that-peer-reviewed-publication-outcomes-of-doctoral-dissertations-in-psychology
#15
Spencer C Evans, Christina M Amaro, Robyn Herbert, Jennifer B Blossom, Michael C Roberts
If a doctoral dissertation represents an original investigation that makes a contribution to one's field, then dissertation research could, and arguably should, be disseminated into the scientific literature. However, the extent and nature of dissertation publication remains largely unknown within psychology. The present study investigated the peer-reviewed publication outcomes of psychology dissertation research in the United States. Additionally, we examined publication lag, scientific impact, and variations across subfields...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441737/cesium-137-contaminated-roads-and-health-problems-in-residents-an-epidemiological-investigation-in-seoul-2011
#16
Mina Ha, Young Su Ju, Won Jin Lee, Seung Sik Hwang, Sang Chul Yoo, Kyung Hwa Choi, Eunae Burm, Jieon Lee, Yun Keun Lee, Sanghyuk Im
BACKGROUND: In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. METHODS: The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439745/some-problems-with-non-inferiority-tests-in-psychotherapy-research-psychodynamic-therapies-as-an-example
#17
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437224/perception-and-measurement-of-food-texture-solid-foods
#18
K Nishinari, Y Fang
There is still a gap between instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation because of the complexity of food texture in spite of many efforts. In sensory evaluation, the terms describing the texture should be well understood by panelists, which poses a problem of establishing lexicons and training panelists. In the instrumental measurement, more efforts are required to understand the large deformation and fracture behaviour of foods. The texture profile analysis (TPA) proposed by Alina Szczesniak, Malcolm Bourne and Sherman has been applied to many foods, and was useful to develop the understanding of textures...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433379/work-related-musculoskeletal-discomfort-among-heavy-truck-drivers
#19
Ramtin Nazerian, Orhan Korhan, Ehsan Shakeri
Heavy truck drivers are exposed to various psychological, psychosocial, and physiological factors, some of which can cause musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the correlation between different factors of musculoskeletal discomfort in heavy truck drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 384 participants were interviewed by an updated version of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ)...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432793/the-impact-of-natural-aging-on-computational-and-neural-indices-of-perceptual-decision-making-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Dully, David P McGovern, Redmond G O'Connell
It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging...
February 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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