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Applied Psychology

Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Mary P Galea, Roman Gonzenbach, Jürg Kesselring
The prevalence of disability due to neurological conditions is escalating worldwide. Neurological disorders have significant disability-burden with long-term functional and psychosocial issues, requiring specialized rehabilitation services for comprehensive management, especially treatments tapping into brain recovery 'neuroplastic' processes. Neurorehabilitation is interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial, requiring coordinated effort of diverse sectors, professions, patients and community to manage complex condition-related disability...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Y S Choi, E J Lee
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Panic disorder patients display various panic-related physical symptoms and catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations, which lower their quality of life by interfering with daily activities. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a useful strategy for panic disorder patients to manage symptoms associated with inaccurate cognitive interpretation of situations resulting from the patient's cognitive vulnerability. In South Korea, however, despite the increasing prevalence of panic disorder, CBT is not a common element of nursing care plans for panic disorder patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Kirsten Bulteel, Francis Tuerlinckx, Annette Brose, Eva Ceulemans
In psychology, studying multivariate dynamical processes within a person is gaining ground. An increasingly often used method is vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling, in which each variable is regressed on all variables (including itself) at the previous time points. This approach reveals the temporal dynamics of a system of related variables across time. A follow-up question is how to analyze data of multiple persons in order to grasp similarities and individual differences in within-person dynamics. We focus on the case where these differences are qualitative in nature, implying that subgroups of persons can be identified...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Senol Emre, Rahsan Ozcan, Mehmet Elicevik, Haluk Emir, Yunus Soylet, Cenk Buyukunal
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyze testis-sparing surgical procedures in boys with Leydig cell pathologies. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital records of four boys with Leydig cell hyperplasia who underwent testis-sparing surgery for testicular masses between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Tumor markers were evaluated and all boys underwent scrotal ultrasonography preoperatively. The hormonal profile was also analyzed for symptoms of precocious puberty. The testis was delivered through a high transverse inguinal incision and the tumor was excised by enucleation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Juan Jose Saldaña Barrios, Luis Mendoza, Edgardo Pitti, Miguel Vargas
In this work, the authors present two eHealth platforms that are examples of how health systems are migrating from client-server architecture to the web-based and ubiquitous paradigm. These two platforms were modeled, designed, developed and implemented with positive results. First, using ambient-assisted living and ubiquitous computing, the authors enhance how palliative care is being provided to the elderly patients and patients with terminal illness, making the work of doctors, nurses and other health actors easier...
October 21, 2016: Health Informatics Journal
Michelle Hadjiconstantinou, Jo Byrne, Danielle H Bodicoat, Noelle Robertson, Helen Eborall, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
BACKGROUND: Poor diabetes self-care can have a negative impact on psychological well-being and quality of life. Given the scarcity of traditional psychological support and the barriers to uptake of and attendance at face-to-face education programs, Web-based interventions are becoming a popular approach to provide an additional platform for psychological support in long-term conditions. However, there is limited evidence to assess the effect of Web-based psychological support in people with type 2 diabetes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Stefan E Schulenberg
This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera, Patricia Bolaños-Ríos, Eva Valero-Blanco, Ángeles Ortega-de-la-Torre
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and discrepancies between actual weight and weight perception seem much higher in dancers. The aims analysed in 77 dancers were: risk for ED; relationship between eating attitudes and psychological variables; dieting and self-weighing, and body image distortion. METHOD: Weight- and body image-related variables, dieting, self-reported physical fitness, specific ED-related variables and other psychological variables were assessed...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
S J H van Erp, L K M P Brakenhoff, M Vollmann, D van der Heijde, R A Veenendaal, H H Fidder, D W Hommes, A A Kaptein, Andrea E van der Meulen-de Jong, M Scharloo
PURPOSE: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often experience severe impairment in different life domains. Psychological factors, such as illness perceptions and coping, may play a role in the adjustment to IBD as indicated by mental and physical health, activity, and work impairment. The present study aimed at examining the assumption of the Common Sense Model (CSM) that coping mediates the relationship between illness perceptions and adjustment in patients with IBD. METHOD: In a cross-sectional design, 211 IBD patients (73 % Crohn's disease, 40 % male, mean age 42...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Eun Sook Kim, Robert F Dedrick, Chunhua Cao, John M Ferron
We provide reporting guidelines for multilevel factor analysis (MFA) and use these guidelines to systematically review 72 MFA applications in journals across a range of disciplines (e.g., education, health/nursing, management, and psychology) published between 1994 and 2014. Results are organized in terms of the (a) characteristics of the MFA application (e.g., construct measured), (b) purpose (e.g., measurement validation), (c) data source (e.g., number of cases at Level 1 and Level 2), (d) statistical approach (e...
October 18, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Cristóbal Ovidio Muñoz, Diego Restrepo, Doris Cardona
Objective Characterize the theoretical models that have underpinned empirical research on the concept of positive mental health from the time it first emerged in the field of health up to the present. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Academic Source, MasterFILE Premier, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, and the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), Science Direct, Psicodoc, Springer Link, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Redalyc, SciELO, Ovid, Embase, and ProQuest (including Health and Medical Complete, the Nursing and Allied Health Source, Psychology Journals, and Social Science Journals)...
March 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Jeffrey Fagen, Phyllis Ohr, Kimberly Boller
In this article, we reflect upon Carolyn Rovee-Collier's pioneering research on learning and memory in infants, especially that using the mobile conjugate reinforcement task, for our understanding of (a) cognitive development in infants born prematurely and those with Down's syndrome and (b) her prediction that infants' performance in the mobile conjugate reinforcement and similar operant tasks would predict later intellectual functioning. We then examine the implications of her research on time windows (the integration of new information into a memory) and memory reactivation (the retrieval of a forgotten memory as a result of the re-exposure to a component of the original learning experience) for early intervention programs and clinicians treating victims of early trauma...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Stefanie Doebler, Assumpta Ryan, Sally Shortall, Aideen Maguire
Informal care-giving can be a demanding role which has been shown to impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. Methodological weaknesses including small sample sizes and subjective measures of mental health have led to inconclusive evidence about the relationship between informal care-giving and mental ill-health. This paper reports on a study carried out in a UK region which investigated the relationship between informal care-giving and mental ill-health. The analysis was conducted by linking three data sets, the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study, the Northern Ireland Enhanced Prescribing Database and the Proximity to Service Index from the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency...
October 18, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Isabel Rossen, Mark J Hurlstone, Carmen Lawrence
Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mary Thuss, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn, Heather K S Laschinger
The purpose of this study was to explore Rwandan nursing clinical instructors' (CIs) experiences of structural and psychological empowerment. CIs play a vital role in students' development by facilitating learning in health care practice environments. Quality nursing education hinges on the CI's ability to enact a professional role. A descriptive qualitative method was used to obtain an understanding of CIs empowerment experiences in practice settings. Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations and Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to interpret experiences...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Zeynep Sofuoğlu, Görkem Sarıyer, M Gökalp Ataman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Youssef Shiban, Julia Dieme, Simone Brandl, Rebecca Zack, Andreas Mühlberger, Stefan Wüst
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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