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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913342/effects-of-lifetime-noise-exposure-on-the-middle-age-human-auditory-brainstem-response-tinnitus-and-speech-in-noise-intelligibility
#1
Joaquin T Valderrama, Elizabeth Francis Beach, Ingrid Yeend, Mridula Sharma, Bram Van Dun, Harvey Dillon
Recent animal studies have shown that the synapses between inner hair cells and the dendrites of the spiral ganglion cells they innervate are the elements in the cochlea most vulnerable to excessive noise exposure. Particularly in rodents, several studies have concluded that exposure to high level octave-band noise for 2 h leads to an irreversible loss of around 50% of synaptic ribbons, leaving audiometric hearing thresholds unaltered. Cochlear synaptopathy following noise exposure is hypothesized to degrade the neural encoding of sounds at the subcortical level, which would help explain certain listening-in-noise difficulties reported by some subjects with otherwise 'normal' hearing...
June 12, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912797/successful-add-on-vortioxetine-for-an-adolescent-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Ahmed Naguy, Bibi Alamiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912727/ultrasound-imaging-for-sarcopenia-spasticity-and-painful-muscle-syndromes
#3
Levent Özçakar, Ayşe Merve Ata, Bayram Kaymak, Murat Kara, Dinesh Kumbhare
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: On the basis of its various advantages and the relevant awareness of physicians, ultrasound imaging has overwhelmingly taken its place in the scientific arena. This is true both from the side of daily clinical applications and also from the side of research. Yet, ultrasound provides real-time (diagnostic) imaging and (interventional) guidance for a wide spectrum of muscle disorders. In this regard, this review aims to discuss the potential/actual utility of ultrasound imaging in particular muscle disorders, that is, sarcopenia, spasticity and fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912442/eqtls-weighted-genetic-correlation-analysis-detected-brain-region-differences-in-genetic-correlations-for-complex-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Yan Wen, Feng Zhang, Xiancang Ma, Qianrui Fan, Wenyu Wang, Jiawen Xu, Feng Zhu, Jingcan Hao, Awen He, Li Liu, Xiao Liang, Yanan Du, Ping Li, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo
Background: Psychiatric disorders are usually caused by the dysfunction of various brain regions. Incorporating the genetic information of brain regions into correlation analysis can provide novel clues for pathogenetic and therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders. Methods: The latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), major depression disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were obtained from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912404/ventromedial-prefrontal-volume-in-adolescence-predicts-hyperactive-inattentive-symptoms-in-adulthood
#5
Matthew D Albaugh, Masha Ivanova, Bader Chaarani, Catherine Orr, Nicholas Allgaier, Robert R Althoff, Nicholas D' Alberto, Kelsey Hudson, Scott Mackey, Philip A Spechler, Tobias Banaschewski, Rüdiger Brühl, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Robert Goodman, Penny Gowland, Yvonne Grimmer, Andreas Heinz, Viola Kappel, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Jani Penttilä, Luise Poustka, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Maren Struve, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Alexandra S Potter
Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology often exhibit residual inattention and/or hyperactivity in adulthood; however, this is not true for all individuals. We recently reported that dimensional, multi-informant ratings of hyperactive/inattentive symptoms are associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) structure. Herein, we investigate the degree to which vmPFC structure during adolescence predicts hyperactive/inattentive symptomatology at 5-year follow-up. Structural equation modeling was used to test the extent to which adolescent vmPFC volume predicts hyperactive/inattentive symptomatology 5 years later in early adulthood...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912347/prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-and-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-pooled-analysis-of-seven-european-birth-cohort-studies
#6
Joan Forns, Hein Stigum, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Isabelle Sioen, Eva Sovcikova, Nikola Nowack, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mònica Guxens, Jesús Ibarluzea, Matias Torrent, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Eva Govarts, Tomas Trnovec, Cecile Chevrier, Gunnar Toft, Martine Vrijheid, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911759/medical-cognitive-and-psychiatric-characteristics-in-a-large-israeli-cohort-of-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#7
Chen Dror, Amanda Sinai, Doron Gothelf
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic syndrome characterized by a variety of medical conditions and cognitive deficits along with distinct psychiatric and behavioral characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, no studies to date have comprehensively reported the prevalence of medical, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders in one cohort of people with WS in one study. OBJECTIVES: To detail the prevalence of the various clinical features of WS in a large nationwide Israeli cohort...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911436/a-ptsd-screen-for-forensic-populations
#8
Kaitlin Guston, Elizabeth Combs, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio, Norman Hoffmann
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been observed in a sizable proportion of the U.S. adult correctional population. Jail administrators must pay particularly close attention to inmates with PTSD symptoms, considering these facilities serve as the gateway to the criminal justice system and inmates with PTSD may pose a risk to themselves, other inmates, and staff. The reality of conducting behavioral health assessments in a jail environment is wrought with significant challenges, including limited time...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910727/caffeine-and-selective-adenosine-receptor-antagonists-as-new-therapeutic-tools-for-the-motivational-symptoms-of-depression
#9
REVIEW
Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders. Some of the motivational symptoms of depression, such anergia (lack of self-reported energy) and fatigue are relatively resistant to traditional treatments such as serotonin uptake inhibitors. Thus, new pharmacological targets are being investigated. Epidemiological data suggest that caffeine consumption can have an impact on aspects of depressive symptomatology. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist for A1 /A2A receptors, and has been demonstrated to modulate behavior in classical animal models of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910014/the-association-between-impulsivity-emotion-regulation-and-symptoms-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#10
Andrzej Jakubczyk, Elisa M Trucco, Maciej Kopera, Paweł Kobyliński, Hubert Suszek, Sylwia Fudalej, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
Emotion dysregulation and impulsivity are important factors influencing the development and course of alcohol dependence. However, few empirical studies investigate the association between different aspects of impulsivity (cognitive, attentional, behavioral), emotion regulation, and alcohol use disorder symptoms in the same model. The goal of this study was to assess the association between emotion regulation and different facets of impulsivity among patients with an alcohol use disorder and healthy controls...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910010/cannabis-use-other-substance-use-and-co-occurring-mental-health-concerns-among-youth-presenting-for-substance-use-treatment-services-sex-and-age-differences
#11
Lisa D Hawke, Emiko Koyama, Joanna Henderson
Cannabis use among youth is of significant concern given the potential negative health impacts on young people. This study describes the mental health characteristics, cannabis use, and substance use profiles of youth aged 14 to 24 years seen at the Youth Addiction and Concurrent Disorders Service at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, through an age and gender lens. Almost all participating youth indicated lifetime cannabis use. Substance use and mental health profiles among those indicating a history of cannabis use differed along sex and age...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909941/sleep-and-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-a-pilot-actigraphy-study
#12
R Delaplace, S Garny de La Rivière, M Bon Saint Come, H Lahaye, I Popov, N Rey, A Visticot, J-M Guilé
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and motor activity profile during sleep periods of children and adolescents presenting with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). METHOD: Twenty-one youths (mean age±standard deviation, 11.7±3 years) wore a wrist actigraph for 9 consecutive days (including both school days and non-school days), to measure sleep parameters: sleep latency, sleep efficiency and the number and duration of periods of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO)...
June 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909923/cognitive-mechanisms-of-disgust-in-the-development-and-maintenance-of-psychopathology-a-qualitative-review-and-synthesis
#13
REVIEW
Kelly A Knowles, Rebecca C Cox, Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
A growing body of research has implicated disgust in various psychopathologies, especially anxiety-related disorders. Although the observed role of disgust in many disorders is robust, the mechanisms that may explain this role are unclear. Cutting-edge research in cognitive science has the potential to elucidate such mechanisms and consequently improve our understanding of how disgust contributes to the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. In this qualitative review, we systematically assess cognitive bias mechanisms that have been linked to disgust and its disorders...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909818/individual-responses-of-rodents-in-modelling-of-affective-disorders-and-in-their-treatment-prospective-review
#14
Haim Einat, Itamar Ezer, Nirit Z Kara, Catherine Belzung
IntroductionLack of good animal models for affective disorders, including major depression and bipolar disorder, is noted as a major bottleneck in attempts to study these disorders and develop better treatments. We suggest that an important approach that can help in the development and use of better models is attention to variability between model animals. RESULTS: Differences between mice strains were studied for some decades now, and sex differences get more attention than in the past...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909776/the-evolution-of-a-series-of-behavioral-traits-is-associated-with-autism-risk-genes-in-cavefish
#15
Masato Yoshizawa, Alexander Settle, Meredith C Hermosura, Lillian J Tuttle, Nicolas Cetraro, Courtney N Passow, Suzanne E McGaugh
BACKGROUND: An essential question in evolutionary biology is whether shifts in a set of polygenic behaviors share a genetic basis across species. Such a behavioral shift is seen in the cave-dwelling Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus. Relative to surface-dwelling conspecifics, cavefish do not school (asocial), are hyperactive and sleepless, adhere to a particular vibration stimulus (imbalanced attention), behave repetitively, and show elevated stress hormone levels. Interestingly, these traits largely overlap with the core symptoms of human autism spectrum disorder (ASD), raising the possibility that these behavioral traits are underpinned by a similar set of genes (i...
June 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909491/blood-levels-of-trace-elements-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study
#16
Rongwang Yang, Yanyi Zhang, Weijia Gao, Nannan Lin, Rong Li, Zhengyan Zhao
Some trace elements may participate in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the trace element status of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and lead (Pb) in children with ADHD, and to compare them with normal controls. Associations between examined elements and SNAP-IV rating scores of ADHD symptoms were also assessed. Four hundred nineteen children with ADHD (8.8 ± 2.1 years) and 395 matched normal controls (8.9 ± 1.7 years) were recruited in the study...
June 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909246/adenosine-role-in-brain-functions-pathophysiological-influence-on-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-brain-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Amira M Soliman, Ahmed M Fathalla, Ahmed A Moustafa
Although adenosine plays a key role in multiple motor, affective, and cognitive processes, it has received less attention in the neuroscience field compared to other neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine). In this review, we highlight the role of adenosine in behavior as well as its interaction with other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine. We also discuss brain disorders impacted by alterations to adenosine, and how targeting adenosine can ameliorate Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. We also discuss the role of caffeine (as an adenosine antagonist) on cognition as well as a neuroprotective agent against Parkinson's disease (PD)...
February 3, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909184/rates-causes-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-readmission-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders-analysis-of-the-u-s-nationwide-readmissions-database
#18
Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A Smith, Kenneth A Follett, Jules M Nazzaro, Paul M Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has proven benefit for several movement disorders and medically-refractory psychiatric conditions and is considered a fairly safe procedure. We sought to determine the national rates, causes, predictors, and outcomes associated with 30-day and 90-day readmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried (January-September 2013) using ICD-9-CM codes, identifying patients who underwent DBS for movement disorder (Parkinson's disease [PD], essential tremor [ET], or dystonia)...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909148/sustained-attention-and-interference-control-among-7-year-old-children-with-a-familial-high-risk-of-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-a-nationwide-observational-cohort-study
#19
Birgitte Klee Burton, Signe Vangkilde, Anders Petersen, Lene Theil Skovgaard, Jens Richardt Jepsen, Nicoline Hemager, Camilla Jerlang Christiani, Katrine Soeborg Spang, Ditte Ellersgaard, Aja Greve, Ditte Gantriis, Heike Eichele, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Anne Amalie Elgaard Thorup, Kerstin Jessica Plessen
BACKGROUND: Given the partially shared genetic liability between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we aimed to assess whether 7-year-old children with a familial high risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder display specific deficits of sustained attention and interference control compared with each other and with control children. METHODS: An observational cohort was identified through Danish registries and consisted of 522 children 7 years of age with no, one, or two parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder...
May 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909026/towards-using-fnirs-recordings-of-mental-arithmetic-for-the-detection-of-residual-cognitive-activity-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-doc
#20
Eva-Maria Kurz, Guilherme Wood, Silvia Erika Kober, Walter Schippinger, Gerald Pichler, Gernot Müller-Putz, Günther Bauernfeind
BACKGROUND: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). AIM: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect. METHODS: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task...
June 14, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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