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Attention Disorders

Pietro Muratori, Simone Pisano, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), (high scores in Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior subscales), has been related to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation in children and adolescents. Our aim is to evaluate if it may be associated with auto-aggression in youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Method In 72 consecutively referred youths with ODD, emotional dysregulation was assessed with the CBCL-DP, auto-aggression and physical aggression against other persons with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andrew J Flannery, Aaron M Luebbe, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. METHOD: 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
R M Islam, R J Bell, B Billah, M B Hossain, S R Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in women in Bangladesh. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1590 Bangladeshi women, aged 30-59 years, was recruited using a multistage cluster sampling technique, between September 2013 and March 2014. Urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were assessed using validated questionnaires. The weighted prevalence and the factors associated with each PFD were investigated using multivariable weighted logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
R D Goodwin, M Robinson, P D Sly, P G Holt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested a relationship between atopy and mental health, although methodological barriers have limited the generalizability of these findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between early-life atopy and vulnerability to mental health problems among youth in the community. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Raine Study (N = 2868), a population-based birth cohort study in Western Australia. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between atopy at ages 1-5 years [using parent report and objective biological confirmation (sera IgE)], and the range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems at ages 5-17 years...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Paula Neumeister, Katharina Feldker, Carina Heitmann, Bettina Gathmann, Tanja Andor, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable effort, the neurobiological underpinnings of hyper-responsive threat processing specific to patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remain poorly understood. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims to delineate GAD-specific brain activity during immediate threat processing by comparing GAD patients to healthy controls (HC), to social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to panic disorder (PD) patients. METHOD: Brain activation and functional connectivity patterns to threat vs...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zerrin Demirtürk, Evren Şentürk, Abbas Köse, Perihan Ergin Özcan, Lütfi Telci
BACKGROUND: Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disorder that is treatable within childhood. We present a patient with pneumonia and respiratory acidosis who was not diagnosed with any systemic disorders; the patient was finally diagnosed as BD. CASE REPORT: A thirty-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure that had persisted for a few days and progressively weakening over the previous six months...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
David Gloss, Jay K Varma, Tamara Pringsheim, Marc R Nuwer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for EEG theta/beta power ratio for diagnosing, or helping to diagnose, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We identified relevant studies and classified them using American Academy of Neurology criteria. RESULTS: Two Class I studies assessing the ability of EEG theta/beta power ratio and EEG frontal beta power to identify patients with ADHD correctly identified 166 of 185 participants...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Joanna Granich, Alena Dass, Margherita Busacca, Dennis Moore, Angelika Anderson, Svetha Venkatesh, Thi Duong, Pratibha Vellanki, Amanda Richdale, David Trembath, Darin Cairns, Wendy Marshall, Tania Rodwell, Madeleine Rayner, Andrew J O Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: Evidence for early intensive behavioural interventions (EIBI) by therapists as an effective treatment for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is growing. High-intensity and sustained delivery of quality EIBI is expensive. The TOBY (Therapy Outcomes by You) Playpad is an App-based platform delivering EIBI to facilitate learning for young children with ASD, while enabling parents to become co-therapists. Intervention targets include increasing joint attention, imitation and communication of children with ASD...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Kerry Dwan, Carrie A Phillipi, Robert D Steiner, Donald Basel
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by a genetic defect resulting in an abnormal type I collagen bone matrix which typically results in multiple fractures with little or no trauma. Bisphosphonates are used in an attempt to increase bone mineral density and reduce these fractures in people with osteogenesis imperfecta. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates in increasing bone mineral density, reducing fractures and improving clinical function in people with osteogenesis imperfecta...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephanie M Morris, Maria T Acosta, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Susan Huson, Eric Legius, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne, Ellen Plasschaert, Thomas W Frazier, Lauren A Weiss, Yi Zhang, David H Gutmann, John N Constantino
Importance: Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Giuseppe Pastura, Tadeu Takao Almodovar Kubo, Maria Angélica Regalla, Cíntia Machado Mesquita, Gabriel Coutinho, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Otávio Figueiredo, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos Araújo
Objective: To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods: Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Flavia Petrini, Ida Di Giacinto, Rita Cataldo, Clelia Esposito, Vittorio Pavoni, Paolo Donato, Antonella Trolio, Guido Merli, Massimiliano Sorbello, Paolo Pelosi
Proper management of obese patients requires a team vision and appropriate behaviors by all health care providers in hospital. Specialist competencies are fundamental, as are specific clinical pathways and good clinical practices designed to deal with patients whose body mass index is ≥30 kg/m2. Standards of care for bariatric and non-bariatric surgery and for the critical care management of this population exist but are not well defined nor clearly followed in every hospital. Thus every anesthesiologist is likely to deal with this challenging population...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Michele Zorzetto, Francesca Datturi, Laura Divizia, Cristiana Pistono, Ilaria Campo, Annalisa De Silvestri, Mariaclara Cuccia, Giovanni Ricevuti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests the importance of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. Complement activation occurs in the brain of patients with AD and seems to contribute to an important local inflammatory state. Increased expression of the fourth serum complement component 4 (C4) has been observed in AD patients in many studies. This protein has two isoforms, encoded by two genes: C4A and C4B localized to the HLA class III region...
October 12, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Katharina A Schindlbeck, Janek Becker, Felix Berger, Arne Mehl, Charlotte Rewitzer, Sarah Geffe, Peter M Koch, Jan C Preiß, Britta Siegmund, Jochen Maul, Frank Marzinzik
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with neurological symptoms including restless legs syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, mood, cognition, and quality of life. METHODS: Two groups of inflammatory bowel disease patients, with and without restless legs syndrome, were prospectively evaluated for sleep disorders, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Hang Xu, Yu Zhang, Fan Zhang, San-Na Yuan, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Early stress is a significant risk factor for the onset of mood disorders such as depression during adulthood. Impairments in cognitive flexibility mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction are increasingly recognized as important etiological and pathological factors in the development of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that social defeat stress during early adolescence produced delayed deficits in cognitive flexibility in adult mice. The potential molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Marie-Josée Fleury, Guy Grenier, Catherine Vallée, Denise Aubé, Lambert Farand, Jean-Marie Bamvita, Geneviève Cyr
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health (MH) Reform (2005-2015) which aimed to improve accessibility, quality and continuity of care by developing primary care and optimizing integrated service networks. Implementation of MH primary care teams, clinical strategies for consolidating primary care, integration strategies to improve collaboration between primary care and specialized services, and facilitators and barriers related to these measures were examined...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Danella Hafeman, Genna Bebko, Michele A Bertocci, Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Lisa Bonar, Susan B Perlman, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey L Sunshine, Scott K Holland, Robert A Kowatch, Boris Birmaher, David Axelson, Sarah M Horwitz, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Thomas W Frazier, Eric A Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Mary L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Both bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present with emotion-regulation deficits, but require different clinical management. We examined how the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation might differentiate youth with BPSD versus ADHD (and healthy controls, HCs), specifically assessing functional connectivity (FxC) of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during an implicit emotion processing task. METHODS: We scanned a subset of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a clinically recruited cohort with elevated behavioral and emotional dysregulation, and age/sex-ratio matched HCs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andresa H Betti, Camila B Antonio, Thais E T Pompeu, Thaise S Martins, Vivian Herzfeldt, Eveline D Stolz, Carlos A M Fraga, Eliezer Barreiro, François Noël, Stela M K Rates
Aiming to identify new antipsychotic lead-compounds, our group has been working on the design and synthesis of new N-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Here, we characterized LASSBio-1422 as a pharmacological prototype of this chemical series. Adult male Wistar rats and CF1 mice were used for in-vitro and in-vivo assays, respectively. LASSBio-1422 [1 and 5 mg/kg, postoperatively (p.o.)] inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing as well as ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion (1 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.), animal models predictive of efficacy on positive symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
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