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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691944/developmental-performance-of-5-year-old-bulgarian-children-an-example-of-translational-neuroscience-in-practice
#1
Ralitsa Yordanova, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental testing is essential for early recognition of the various developmental impairments. The tools used should be composed of items that are age specific, adapted, and standardized for the population they are applied to. The achievements of neurosciences, medicine, psychology, pedagogy, etc. are applied in the elaboration of a comprehensive examination tool that should screen all major areas of development. The key age of 5 years permits identification of almost all major developmental disabilities leaving time for therapeutic intervention before school entrance...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691720/invariance-of-adhd-symptoms-across-sex-and-age-a-latent-analysis-of-adhd-and-impairment-ratings-from-early-childhood-into-adolescence
#2
Daniel R Leopold, Micaela E Christopher, Richard K Olson, Stephen A Petrill, Erik G Willcutt
A population-based longitudinal sample of 489 twin pairs was assessed at six time points over ten years to examine the measurement invariance and stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the developmental relations between inattention (IN), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI), and multiple aspects of functional impairment. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and functional impairment were obtained in preschool and after the completion of kindergarten, first, second, fourth, and ninth grades...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#3
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689695/association-of-comorbidity-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-with-suicidal-behaviors
#4
Xiao Wang, Zhaorui Liu, Yanxiang Li, Guohua Li, Yueqin Huang
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviors are strong predictors of suicide death and are much more common than completed suicides. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and transitions of suicidal behaviors in an Inner Mongolian City of China and to explore the association of comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders with suicidal behaviors. METHOD: This study was a cross-sectional study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) was administered face-to-face to make diagnoses of mental disorders, measure suicidal behaviors and collect social demographic information...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689517/neuropsychological-predictors-of-performance-based-measures-of-functional-capacity-and-social-skills-in-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness
#5
Zanjbeel Mahmood, Cynthia Z Burton, Lea Vella, Elizabeth W Twamley
Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689421/immune-system-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti, Federico Mucci, Leonardo F Fontenelle
BACKGROUND: Recently, much attention has been devoted to the possible alterations of the immune system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the relationships between OCD and immune system. METHODS: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed with specific keywords. RESULTS: In the childhood, much emphasis has been given to the relationship between group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection and the development of a group of clinical syndromes characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms known as "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" (PANDAS)...
April 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689342/electroencephalogram-oscillations-support-the-involvement-of-task-unrelated-thoughts-in-the-mechanism-of-boredom-a-pilot-study
#7
Eri Miyauchi, Masahiro Kawasaki
Boredom is a universal experience; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unclear. Previous research suggests that boredom is related to attentional failure and derives a possible explanation for the cognitive processes of boredom as a product of appraisals made about task-unrelated thoughts. There are little published data regarding proposed processes from neuroscientific perspectives. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine whether cognitive processes of boredom with task-unrelated thoughts followed by appraisals of them can be explained by examining oscillatory correlates...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689173/comparison-of-children-with-and-without-adhd-on-a-new-pictorial-self-assessment-of-executive-functions
#9
Ruthie Traub Bar-Ilan, Noa Cohen, Adina Maeir
OBJECTIVE: We examined the Pictorial Interview of Children's Metacognition and Executive Functions' (PIC-ME's) reliability and validity, targeting children's appraisal of their executive function (EF) in daily life. METHOD: One hundred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 44 typically developing children (ages 5-10 yr) completed the PIC-ME. Parents completed the PIC-ME and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). RESULTS: Cronbach's α for the child PIC-ME was ...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#10
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688639/-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-clinical-activity-in-israel
#11
Yuval Bloch
This editorial relates to the study published in the current issue on how our current knowledge is practiced in screening, diagnosing and treating children suffering from ADHD in Israel. It seems that there is an awareness of the disorder by parents and teachers, thus there is no need for community screening. The roles of the different medical professions: pediatricians (after receiving training on ADHD), child neurologists and child psychiatrists are not clear enough and thus services are not utilized properly...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688638/-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-accessibility-and-availability-of-services-in-israel
#12
Asher Ornoy, Dori Rivkin, Lital Barlev
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among children ranges from 8% -12% and is more common in males. Most ADHD children suffer from related disorders such as learning disabilities and behavioral problems. Treatment with stimulants improves the learning and social abilities of most children and the addition of non-pharmaceutical treatments induces further improvement. OBJECTIVES: Our previous study, four years ago, screened 1,129 1st and 2nd grade children in Jerusalem and identified 105 with high risk for ADHD...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688261/prenatal-exposure-to-acetaminophen-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autistic-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#13
Reem Masarwa, Hagai Levine, Einat Gorelik, Shimon Reif, Amichai Perlman, Ilan Matok
Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic during pregnancy. Evidence of neuro-disruptive properties is accumulating. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring of women exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane up to January 2017. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. Seven eligible retrospective cohorts included 132,738 mother and child pairs and with a follow-up period of 3-11 years...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688116/association-between-altered-lipid-profiles-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-boys
#14
Sibelnur Avcil
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is multifactorial, complex, and seen most commonly in childhood. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that altered serum lipid profiles are associated with ADHD. METHODS: The study inluded 32 boys diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-R criteria and a control group of 29 healthy subjects. All patients were assessed with The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version, the Turgay DSM-IV-based Disruptive Behavior Disorders Child and Adolescent Rating and Screening Scale, the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised Long Form, and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale...
April 24, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687944/association-of-copy-number-variation-across-the-genome-with-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-the-general-population
#15
Anna L Guyatt, Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, James Walters, Michael O'Donovan, Michael Owen, Anita Thapar, George Kirov, Santiago Rodriguez, Dheeraj Rai, Stan Zammit, Tom R Gaunt
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687930/deficient-neural-activity-subserving-decision-making-during-reward-waiting-time-in-intertemporal-choice-in-adult-adhd
#16
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting, i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward, is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687164/central-noradrenergic-interactions-with-alcohol-and-regulation-of-alcohol-related-behaviors
#17
Elena M Vazey, Carolina R den Hartog, David E Moorman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results from disruption of a number of neural systems underlying motivation, emotion, and cognition. Patients with AUD exhibit not only elevated motivation for alcohol but heightened stress and anxiety, and disruptions in cognitive domains such as decision-making. One system at the intersection of these functions is the central norepinephrine (NE) system. This catecholaminergic neuromodulator, produced by several brainstem nuclei, plays profound roles in a wide range of behaviors and functions, including arousal, attention, and other aspects of cognition, motivation, emotional regulation, and control over basic physiological processes...
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687078/firing-of-putative-dopamine-neurons-in-ventral-tegmental-area-is-modulated-by-probability-of-success-during-performance-of-a-stop-change-task
#18
Stephen S Tennyson, Adam T Brockett, Nicholas W Hricz, Daniel W Bryden, Matthew R Roesch
Response inhibition, the ability to refrain from unwanted actions, is an essential component of complex behavior and is often impaired across numerous neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Accordingly, much research has been devoted to characterizing brain regions responsible for the regulation of response inhibition. The stop-signal task, a task in which animals are required to inhibit a prepotent response in the presence of a STOP cue, is one of the most well-studied tasks of response inhibition...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686705/intraoral-potentially-malignant-disorders-in-a-brazilian-oral-pathology-service-epidemiological-clinical-and-histopathological-findings
#19
Fernanda Weber Mello, Gilberto Melo, Maria Inês Meurer, Elena Riet Correa Rivero
The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of individuals with intraoral potentially malignant disorders (IOPMD) in an oral pathology service in Brazil. Cases were screened based on clinical diagnosis of leukoplakia (LKP), erythroleukoplakia (ELKP), and erythroplakia (EP). Clinical data and information regarding associated factors were gathered from biopsy reports. Histological diagnoses were collected from histopathological records. Among 208 IOPMD cases, 84.13% involved LKP; 11.1%, ELKP; and 4...
2018: Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686490/autonomic-instability-in-a-dehydrated-child-on-guanfacine-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Eva Welisch, Amrita Sarpal
An 8-year-old girl on guanfacine extended-release (GXR) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented with somnolence, bradycardia and hypotension during a heat wave. No overdose was suspected. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for monitoring and ongoing fluid resuscitation for hypotension. Electrocardiogram showed intermittent atrioventricular dissociation. Upon restarting the drug post-discharge, blood pressures were normal, and follow-up electrocardiograms documented asymptomatic bradycardia but no dissociation...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
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