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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231963/body-composition-in-long-term-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-diagnosed-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-focus-on-sarcopenic-obesity
#1
Christopher J C Marriott, Lesley F Beaumont, Troy H Farncombe, Amy N Cranston, Uma H Athale, Valerie N Yakemchuk, Colin E Webber, Ronald D Barr
BACKGROUND: The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231739/phospholipase-a2-induced-degradation-and-release-from-lipid-containing-polymersomes
#2
Mudassar Mumtaz Virk, Erik Reimhult
Hybrid vesicles, comprising blends of amphiphilic block copolymers and phospholipids, have attracted significant attention recently due to their unique combination of chemical and physical properties. We report a method to make unilanellar hybrid vesicles with diameters of 100 nm by mixing polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and phosphocholine lipids using a combination of solvent inversion and sonication. We show that homogeneous hybrid vesicles are formed when one component is a minor fraction. At compositions with balanced mass fractions, separate populations of similarly sized pure liposomes and hybrid vesicles were observed...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230059/genome-wide-association-study-of-delay-discounting-in-23-217-adult-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#3
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10-8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230023/pharmacogenetics-predictors-of-methylphenidate-efficacy-in-childhood-adhd
#4
N M Myer, J R Boland, S V Faraone
Stimulant medication has long been effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is currently the first-line pharmacological treatment for children. Both methylphenidate and amphetamine modulate extracellular catecholamine levels through interaction with dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic system components; it is therefore likely that catecholaminergic molecular components influence the effects of ADHD treatment. Using meta-analysis, we sought to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy to further the clinical implementation of personalized medicine...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229680/prenatal-paternal-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-use-and-risk-of-adhd-in-offspring
#5
Fen Yang, Hong Liang, Jianping Chen, Maohua Miao, Wei Yuan, Mette Nørgaard, Jiong Li
OBJECTIVES: It has been shown that maternal prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. Our goal was to examine whether paternal SSRI use before conception increases the risk of ADHD in offspring. METHODS: On the basis of Danish national registers, we conducted a cohort study of 781 470 singletons born between 1996 and 2008 with follow-up throughout 2013...
December 11, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229570/medicinal-plants-used-for-hypertension-treatment-by-folk-healers-in-songkhla-province-thailand
#6
Oratai Neamsuvan, Panadda Komonhiran, Kamonvadee Boonming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229557/%C3%AE-1b-adrenergic-receptor-localization-relationship-to-the-d1-dopamine-receptor-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Darlene A Mitrano, Kelsey Jackson, Samantha Finley, Allison Seeley
The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) have been implicated in numerous actions of the brain, including attention and wakefulness. Additionally, they have been identified as contributing to disorders of the brain, such as drug addiction, and recent work has shown a role of these receptors in relapse to psychostimulants. While some functionality is known, the actual subcellular localization of the subtypes of the α1ARs remains to be elucidated. Further, their anatomical relationship to receptors for other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA), remains unclear...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229556/experimental-and-clinical-strategies-for-treating-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#8
REVIEW
Zijian Wang
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), or Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the ataxin-3 protein. To date, there is no effective therapy available to prevent progression of this disease. However, clinical strategies for alleviating various symptoms are imperative to promote a better quality of life for SCA3/MJD patients. Furthermore, experimental therapeutic strategies, including gene silencing or mutant protein clearance, mutant polyQ protein modification, stabilizing the native protein conformation, rescue of cellular dysfunction and neuromodulation to slow the progression of SCA3/MJD, have been developed...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#9
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229467/renal-involvement-in-pmm2-cdg-a-mini-review
#10
REVIEW
Ruqaiah Altassan, Peter Witters, Zubaida Saifudeen, Dulce Quelhas, Jaak Jaeken, Elena Levtchenko, David Cassiman, Eva Morava
Phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) is the most common N-linked glycosylation disorder. The majority of patients present with a multisystem phenotype, including central nervous system involvement, hepatopathy, gastrointestinal and cardiac symptoms, endocrine dysfunction and abnormal coagulation. Renal abnormalities including congenital malformations and altered renal function are part of the multisystem manifestations of congenital disorders of glycosylation. We reviewed the literature on 933 patients with molecularly and/or enzymatically confirmed PMM2 deficiency to evaluate the incidence of renal involvement in PMM2-CDG...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229170/care-of-the-pediatric-patient-on-chronic-dialysis
#11
REVIEW
Annabelle N Chua, Bradley A Warady
Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229166/holding-water-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-ckd-and-the-ongoing-role-of-excellence-in-plumbing
#12
REVIEW
Lars J Cisek
Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tracts can result in diminished natal kidney function, possibly through common embryologic pathway disruption or as a result of development taking place in the face of disordered 'post-renal' drainage. Impaired conduit and reservoir function present potential for an ongoing assault leading to further deterioration and progression of chronic kidney disease, a risk that extends to adults with these conditions, even after "correction". The drainage and storage aspects of the urinary system that can impact kidney function are reviewed with attention to correctable or manageable problems including: Bladder dysfunction wherein the low pressure storage of urine is compromised requiring the kidney to work against a pressure gradient, the classic post renal failure problem...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229018/prenatal-influences-on-temperament-development-the-role-of-environmental-epigenetics
#13
Maria A Gartstein, Michael K Skinner
This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social-emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease...
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228518/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-poorer-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#14
Andrew J Petkus, Eric J Lenze, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth W Twamley, Julie Loebach Wetherell
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is common and associated with both worse cognitive performance and disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in younger adults. The extent to which these associations persist into older adulthood remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported childhood trauma in relation to cognitive performance, and the extent to which cortisol explained this association, in 2 independent samples of older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in the discovery sample (N = 76) consisted of older adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (N = 57) and age-equated psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects (N = 19) who were referred largely through primary care clinics between 2004-2006...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228340/hydrophobicity-diversity-in-globular-and-nonglobular-proteins-measured-with-the-gini-index
#15
Oliviero Carugo
Amino acids and their properties are variably distributed in proteins and different compositions determine all protein features, ranging from solubility to stability and functionality. Gini index, a tool to estimate distribution uniformity, is widely used in macroeconomics and has numerous statistical applications. Here, Gini index is used to analyze the distribution of hydrophobicity in proteins and to compare hydrophobicity distribution in globular and intrinsically disordered proteins. Based on the analysis of carefully selected high-quality data sets of proteins extracted from the Protein Data Bank (http://www...
December 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228151/multimodal-treatment-of-the-school-aged-child-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Tanya E Froehlich, William B Brinkman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227243/cue-reactivity-essentials-event-related-potentials-during-identification-of-visual-alcoholic-stimuli-in-social-drinkers
#17
Agnes M Kroczek, Florian B Haeussinger, Justin Hudak, Lucy D Vanes, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: Cue reactivity is an automatic reaction to alcohol-related cues, contributing to the maintenance of drinking behavior and relapse in alcohol dependency. The identification of valid cue-reactivity features is a prerequisite for its clinical application. We were interested in the effects of visual features of alcohol cues (e.g., color) on cue reactivity. Assuming its development at a pre-pathological stage, we analyzed cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers, with light social drinkers as controls...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227200/telepsychiatry-for-children-and-adolescents-a-review-of-the-prometted-project
#18
Catherine M Doyen, Marie-Joëlle Oreve, Eric Desailly, Virginie Goupil, Kevin Zarca, Yann L'Hermitte, Pauline Chaste, Marie-Ode Bau, Didier Beaujard, Sliman Haddadi, Ana Bibay, Yves Contejean, Marie-Thérèse Coutrot, Liora Crespin, Isabelle Frioux, Mario Speranza, Nolwenn Francois, Kelley Kaye
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine for children and adolescents is a public health topic, and since 2009 in France, the legal framework defines practical modalities. Some children with Attention Deficit with or without Hyperactivity Disorder, social anxiety, or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be easily engaged within a teleconsultation model. Literature suggests new opportunities to facilitate the care process for the ASD person and his family: diagnosis with the use of validated instruments and parental accompaniment...
December 11, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227128/noncredible-cognitive-performance-at-clinical-evaluation-of-adult-adhd-an-embedded-validity-indicator-in-a-visuospatial-working-memory-test
#19
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Klaus W Lange, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48)...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227127/symptom-and-performance-validity-with-veterans-assessed-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#20
Robert D Shura, John H Denning, Holly M Miskey, Jared A Rowland
Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
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