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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340321/exploring-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-functional-verbal-reasoning-in-adults-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-at-six-months-post-injury
#1
Petra Avramović, Belinda Kenny, Emma Power, Skye McDonald, Robyn Tate, Louise Hunt, Sheila MacDonald, Rob Heard, Leanne Togher
OBJECTIVE(S): This study aims to determine the association between cognitive impairment and functional verbal reasoning in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), at six months post-injury. METHOD(S): 38 participants with severe TBI were assessed using the four tasks on the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES) [1] and a battery of neuropsychological tests at 6 months post injury in a cross-sectional observational study...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340001/early-life-origin-of-intestinal-inflammatory-disorders
#2
Delphine Ley, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Mona Mischke, Jan Knol, Dominique Turck, Frédéric Gottrand
A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the link between perinatal factors, such as breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, and antibiotic use, and an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease and/or celiac disease...
March 7, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339895/does-parental-health-mediate-the-relationship-between-parental-uninsurance-and-insured-children-s-health-outcomes-evidence-from-a-u-s-national-survey
#3
Ilhom Akobirshoev, Diana Bowser, Susan L Parish, Cindy Thomas, Sara S Bachman
Although the United States has made great strides in ensuring near universal health care access for children, the health insurance coverage gap between children and their parents remains high. This study analyzed aggregated data from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey to investigate the direct relationships between parental uninsurance and children's health outcomes. Authors explored how parental health mediates the relationship between parents' health and children's health outcomes. Results suggest that insured children of uninsured parents have worse health status and are at higher risk of asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental delays, learning disabilities, and mental disabilities compared with insured children of insured parents...
March 2, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339122/mortality-risk-in-a-nationwide-cohort-of-individuals-with-tic-disorders-and-with-tourette-syndrome
#4
Sandra M Meier, Søren Dalsgaard, Preben B Mortensen, James F Leckman, Kerstin J Plessen
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated mortality risk in individuals with tic disorders. METHODS: We thus measured the risk of premature death in individuals with tic disorders and with Tourette syndrome in a prospective cohort study with 80 million person-years of follow-up. We estimated mortality rate ratios and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, urbanicity, maternal and paternal age, and psychiatric disorders to compare individuals with and without tic disorders...
March 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#5
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338919/genetic-overlap-between-schizophrenia-and-developmental-psychopathology-longitudinal-and-multivariate-polygenic-risk-prediction-of-common-psychiatric-traits-during-development
#6
Michel G Nivard, Suzanne H Gage, Jouke J Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Bart M L Baselmans, Lannie Ligthart, Beate St Pourcain, Dorret I Boomsma, Marcus R Munafò, Christel M Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338738/task-related-functional-connectivity-analysis-of-emotion-discrimination-in-a-family-study-of-schizophrenia
#7
Vina M Goghari, Nicole Sanford, Michael J Spilka, Todd S Woodward
Poor emotion recognition is a core deficit in schizophrenia and is associated with poor functional outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) multivariate analysis methods were used to elucidate the neural underpinnings of face and emotion processing associated with both genetic liability and disease-specific effects. Schizophrenia patients, relatives, and controls completed a task that included 4 facial emotion discrimination conditions and an age discrimination condition during fMRI. Three functional networks were derived from the data: the first involved in visual attention and response generation, the second a default mode network (DMN), and a third involved in face and emotion processing...
February 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337734/diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-findings-in-adult-civilian-military-and-sport-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-a-systematic-critical-review
#8
Breton Michael Asken, Steven T DeKosky, James R Clugston, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI"...
March 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337552/clinical-utility-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-mood-and-cognitive-disorders
#9
REVIEW
T Takamura, T Hanakawa
Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has long been used to assess task-related brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders, it has not yet become a widely available clinical tool. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the subject of recent attention in the fields of basic and clinical neuroimaging research. This method enables investigation of the functional organization of the brain and alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Rs-fMRI does not require participants to perform a demanding task, in contrast to task fMRI, which often requires participants to follow complex instructions...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337525/phosphodiesterase-1b-pde1b-knockout-mice-are-resistant-to-forced-swim-and-tail-suspension-induced-immobility-and-show-upregulation-of-pde10a
#10
Jillian R Hufgard, Michael T Williams, Matthew R Skelton, Olivera Grubisha, Filipa M Ferreira, Helen Sanger, Mary E Wright, Tracy M Reed-Kessler, Kurt Rasmussen, Ronald S Duman, Charles V Vorhees
RATIONALE: Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of suicide and disability. Despite this, current antidepressants provide insufficient efficacy in more than 60% of patients. Most current antidepressants are presynaptic reuptake inhibitors; postsynaptic signal regulation has not received as much attention as potential treatment targets. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of disruption of the postsynaptic cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 1b, on depressive-like behavior and the effects on PDE1B protein in wild-type (WT) mice following stress...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337301/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-new-wrestler-in-the-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Lei Zhang, Yi Wang, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Guorao Wu, Xudong Xiang, Quan Gong, Weining Xiong, Cong-Yi Wang, Ping Yang, Boxu Ren
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has attracted extensive attention for its unexplained progressive lung scarring, short median survival and its unresponsiveness to traditional therapies. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying IPF pathoetiologies, however, remain poorly understood. Recent advances delineated a potential function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in meeting the need of fibrotic response, which pinpointed a critical role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways in IPF pathogenesis...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336432/behavioral-abnormalities-and-reduced-norepinephrine-in-ep4-receptor-associated-protein-eprap-deficient-mice
#12
Risako Fujikawa, Sei Higuchi, Taichi Ikedo, Manabu Nagata, Kosuke Hayashi, Tao Yang, Takeshi Miyata, Masayuki Yokode, Manabu Minami
EP4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) is a newly identified molecule that regulates macrophage activation. We recently demonstrated the presence of EPRAP in the mice brain; however, little is known about the function of EPRAP in this tissue. Therefore, we investigated the role of EPRAP in behavior and emotion using behavioral analysis in mice. In this study, we subjected EPRAP-deficient (KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. EPRAP-KO mice tended to have shorter latencies to fall in the wire hang test, but had normal neuromuscular strength...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335878/psychotic-symptoms-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-mta-database
#13
Benedetto Vitiello, Guillermo Perez Algorta, L Eugene Arnold, Andrea L Howard, Annamarie Stehli, Brooke S G Molina
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among youths (14-25 years of age) with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type. METHOD: Participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) were systematically assessed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years after the original enrollment at a mean age of 8.5 years. Trained research assistants administered a psychosis screener, and positive screens were referred to study clinicians to confirm or exclude psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335874/course-of-tourette-syndrome-and-comorbidities-in-a-large-prospective-clinical-study
#14
Camilla Groth, Nanette Mol Debes, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Theis Lange, Liselotte Skov
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and frequent comorbidities. Although tics often improve during adolescence, recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to persist. This large prospective follow-up study describes the clinical course of tics and comorbidities during adolescence and the prevalence of coexisting psychopathologies. METHOD: The clinical cohort was recruited at the Danish National Tourette Clinic, and data were collected at baseline (n = 314, age range 5-19 years) and at follow-up 6 years later (n = 227) to establish the persistence and severity of tics and comorbidities...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335872/cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Liana R Elias, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Antônio M O Vale, Cristiano A Köhler, Hanne L Kjærstad, Brendon Stubbs, Lars V Kessing, Eduard Vieta, Michael Maes, Benjamin I Goldstein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up until March 23, 2016, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated neurocognition in euthymic youths with BD compared to HCs. Effect sizes (ES) for individual tests were extracted...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335869/how-environmental-factors-can-get-under-the-skin-epigenetics-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
EDITORIAL
Venkat Bhat, Ridha Joober, Sarojini M Sengupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335811/three-patients-presenting-with-severe-macrosomia-and-congenital-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-case-series
#17
Marie Vincent, Nadir Benbrik, Bénédicte Romefort, Agnès Colombel, Stéphane Bézieau, Bertrand Isidor
BACKGROUND: Macrosomia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are two features often associated in neonates of diabetic mothers. We report the cases of three patients with severe macrosomia and critical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without severely unbalanced maternal diabetes. Only three patients with those two features and no uncontrolled maternal diabetes have been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: The first patient was a 39-week-old girl, the second patient was a 39-week-old girl, and the third patient was a 41-week-old boy...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335040/-new-ways-of-diagnosing-adhd-in-adults
#18
Marco Grabemann, Marco Zimmermann, Laura Strunz, Monika Ebbert-Grabemann, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Objective Diagnosing Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults requires that ADHD has already been present in childhood. However, recall of ADHD-symptoms in childhood is fallible, for example influenced by mood. Furthermore, diagnostics need a procedure to handle oblivion and judgment biases. The Essen-Interview-for-school-days-related-biography (EIS-B) addresses these problems and offers a tool for retrospectively diagnosing childhood ADHD in adults. Method 36 patients with ADHD, 27 patients with depression or adjustment disorders and 39 healthy controls were included in the pilot study...
March 23, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335013/lifetime-and-1-year-prevalence-of-homelessness-in-the-us-population-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#19
Jack Tsai
Background: Homelessness remains a major public health problem in the USA but there have been few recent epidemiological studies in the general population. Methods: Using data from structured interviews with a nationally representative sample of 36 299 US adults from the 2012-13 Wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness, and its correlates. Results: Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population was found to be 4...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335000/better-than-sham-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-neurofeedback-study-in-primary-insomnia
#20
Manuel Schabus, Hermann Griessenberger, Maria-Teresa Gnjezda, Dominik P J Heib, Malgorzata Wislowska, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the 'law of effect'. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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