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Attention Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734254/childhood-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-exposure-and-neurobehavior-in-children-at-8-years
#1
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. METHODS: We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734177/manual-morphometry-of-hippocampus-and-amygdala-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Kathrin Nickel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Evgeniy Perlov, Renate Jitten-Schachenmeier, Daniel Beier, Dominique Endres, Peter Goll, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon Maier
Previous studies have pointed to the involvement of limbic structures in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present researchers manually segmented magnetic resonance images of 30 individuals with ADHD and 30 individually matched controls, focusing on amygdala and hippocampus volumes. Neither hippocampus nor amygdala volume differed significantly between individuals with and without ADHD. However, ADHD patients with higher hyperactivity scores had significantly smaller left amygdala volumes...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732208/longitudinal-investigation-of-the-parietal-lobe-anatomy-in-bipolar-disorder-and-its-association-with-general-functioning
#3
Adele Ferro, Carolina Bonivento, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Nicola Dusi, Veronica Marinelli, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Paolo Brambilla
The parietal lobe (PL) supports cognitive domains, including attention and memory, which are impaired in bipolar disorder (BD). Although cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies found reduced PL grey matter (GM) in BD, none has longitudinally focused on PL anatomy in BD, relating it to patients' functioning. Thirty-eight right-handed BD patients and 42 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan at baseline. Seventeen BD patients and 16 matched HS underwent a follow-up MRI...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731911/expert-and-self-assessment-of-lifetime-symptoms-and-diagnosis-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-large-scale-genetic-studies-in-the-general-population-comparison-of-a-clinical-interview-and-a-self-administered-checklist
#4
Jessica Martin, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Maren Lang, Josef Frank, Andreas J Forstner, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas G Schulze, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Marcella Rietschel, Jana Strohmaier
Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder and an increasing number of genetic risk variants are being identified. Investigation of their influence in the general population requires accurate and efficient assessment of depressive symptoms. Here, clinical interviews conducted by clinicians are the gold standard. We investigated whether valid and reliable clinical phenotypes can be obtained efficiently using self-administered instruments. Lifetime depressive symptoms and lifetime MDD diagnosis were assessed in 464 population-based individuals using a clinical interview and a structured, self-administered checklist...
July 20, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731886/collegiate-student-athletes-with-history-of-adhd-or-academic-difficulties-are-more-likely-to-produce-an-invalid-protocol-on-baseline-impact-testing
#5
Lisa Manderino, John Gunstad
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other academically-relevant diagnoses have been suggested as modifiers of neurocognitive testing in sport-related concussion, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). These preexisting conditions may suppress ImPACT scores to the extent that they are indistinguishable from low scores because of poor effort. The present study hypothesized that student athletes with history of ADHD or academic difficulties produce lower ImPACT composite scores and are more likely to produce invalid protocols than those without such conditions...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#6
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731362/greater-cognitive-deficits-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-among-individuals-with-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#7
Dayna A Johnson, Jacqueline Lane, Rui Wang, Michelle Reid, Ina Djonlagic, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Rapp, Luenda E Charles, Ruth O'Hara, Richa Saxena, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: There are conflicting findings regarding the link between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations between indicators of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein ε-4 (APOE-ε4) allele. METHODS: A diverse population (N=1,752) underwent Type 2 in-home polysomnography, which included measurement of % sleep time <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation (%Sat<90%) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)...
July 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#8
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731214/from-positive-psychology-to-psychopathology-the-continuum-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar, Giovanni A Salum
BACKGROUND: Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730860/prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-other-disruptive-behaviour-disorder-symptoms-among-primary-school-age-children-in-kayseri-turkey
#10
Vesile Senol, Demet Unalan, Raziye Peksen Akca, Mustafa Basturk
Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD), and their influencing factors on primary school-age children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2045 students, 7-15 years old, who were randomly selected from seven schools in Kayseri, Turkey, in 2012. Participants were stratified by socioeconomic status. Data were collected using the Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioural Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730282/blockade-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-prelimbic-cortex-impact-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-following-adolescent-atomoxetine-treatment
#11
Britahny M Baskin, Bríd Á Nic Dhonnchadha, Linda P Dwoskin, Kathleen M Kantak
RATIONALE: Research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder demonstrated that chronic methylphenidate treatment during adolescence increased cocaine self-administration established during adulthood under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Compared to vehicle, chronic atomoxetine treatment during adolescence failed to increase cocaine self-administration under a PR schedule in adult SHR. OBJECTIVES: We determined if enhanced noradrenergic transmission at α2-adrenergic receptors within prefrontal cortex contributes to this neutral effect of adolescent atomoxetine treatment in adult SHR...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730183/aberrant-cerebellar-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis
#12
Ann K Shinn, Youkyung S Roh, Caitlin T Ravichandran, Justin T Baker, Dost Öngür, Bruce M Cohen
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. METHODS: Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729328/comparative-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-neurological-development-in-children-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Patricia Rios, Elise Cogo, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
OBJECTIVES: Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. PARTICIPANTS: 29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729196/legalization-of-cannabis-considerations-for-intervening-with-adolescent-consumers
#14
Denise D Walker
Eight states and the District of Columbia have legalized the recreational use of cannabis for adults and more are expected to follow suit. After alcohol, cannabis is the most commonly used drug by adolescents. Consumption of this drug during this developmental period poses unique risks. Therefore, attention must be paid both to how legalization affects adolescents and how tailored interventions can effectively address their needs for assistance. This commentary offers considerations for how legalization might be crafted so as to benefit adolescents...
July 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#15
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regards to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition processes (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728796/-lifetime-psychiatric-disorders-a-comparision-study-between-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-type-i-versus-the-offspring-of-community-controls-parents
#16
Juan David Palacio-Ortiz, Cristian Esteban Peña-Quintero, María Alejandra Gómez-Valero, Paula Andrea Bustamante-Gómez, Pilar Helena Arroyave-Sierra, Cristian David Vargas-Upeguí, Carlos López-Jaramillo
INTRODUCTION: Literature reports show that Bipolar Offspring (BO) present with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Comparison between BO and Control Parent Offspring (CPO) may help to identify which psychopathological findings are specific to this high-risk group. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathological characteristics between a group of BO type-I and a group of CPO, by identifying the presence of psychiatric disorders according the DSM-IV-TR. METHODS: A descriptive-correlational, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted with 127 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder type-I from the multimodal intervention program (PRISMA) and with 150 CPO between 6 and 30 years of age...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728761/predictors-of-co-occurring-neurodevelopmental-disabilities-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Lauren Head Zauche, Ashley E Darcy Mahoney, Melinda K Higgins
PURPOSE: Co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities (including cognitive and language delays and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) affect over half of children with ASD and may affect later behavioral, language, and cognitive outcomes beyond the ASD diagnosis. However, no studies have examined predictors of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with ASD. This study investigated whether maternal sociodemographic, perinatal and neonatal factors are associated with co-occurring disabilities...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728631/genes-environments-and-sex-differences-in-alcohol-research
#18
Jessica E Salvatore, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: The study of sex differences has been identified as one way to enhance scientific reproducibility, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have implemented a new policy to encourage the explicit examination of sex differences. Our goal here is to address sex differences in behavioral genetic research on alcohol outcomes. METHOD: We review sex differences for alcohol outcomes and whether the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the same across sexes; describe common research designs for studying sex-specific gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects; and discuss the role of statistical power and theory when testing sex-specific genetic effects...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728604/target-d-a-stratified-individually-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-diamond-clinical-prediction-tool-to-triage-and-target-treatment-for-depressive-symptoms-in-general-practice-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Jane Gunn, Caroline Wachtler, Susan Fletcher, Sandra Davidson, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Victoria Palmer, Kelsey Hegarty, Amy Coe, Elizabeth Murray, Christopher Dowrick, Gavin Andrews, Patty Chondros
BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent and costly disorder. Effective treatments are available but are not always delivered to the right person at the right time, with both under- and over-treatment a problem. Up to half the patients presenting to general practice report symptoms of depression, but general practitioners have no systematic way of efficiently identifying level of need and allocating treatment accordingly. Therefore, our team developed a new clinical prediction tool (CPT) to assist with this task...
July 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728574/creation-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-clinical-trials-of-people-with-shoulder-pain-a-study-protocol
#20
Joel J Gagnier, Matthew J Page, Hsiaomin Huang, Arianne P Verhagen, Rachelle Buchbinder
BACKGROUND: The selection of appropriate outcomes or domains is crucial when designing clinical trials, to appreciate the effects of different interventions, pool results, and make valid comparisons between trials. If the findings are to influence policy and practice, then the chosen outcomes need to be relevant and important to key stakeholders, including patients and the public, healthcare professionals and others making decisions about health care. There is a growing recognition that insufficient attention has been paid to the outcomes measured in clinical trials...
July 20, 2017: Trials
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