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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454227/a-pilot-trial-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-biomarkers-of-injury
#1
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454198/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of-suicide-death-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Jin-Young Min, Hye-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Bok Min
Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454164/self-reported-inhibition-predicts-history-of-suicide-attempts-in-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression
#3
André Ponsoni, Laura Damiani Branco, Charles Cotrena, Flávio Milman Shansis, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rochele Paz Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples...
February 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453707/brief-report-when-large-becomes-slow-zooming-out-visual-attention-is-associated-to-orienting-deficits-in-autism
#4
Luca Ronconi, Maria Devita, Massimo Molteni, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typically developing peers. We modified a classical spatial cuing task, presenting two small or large cues in the two visual hemifields and subsequently cueing attention to one of them...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453686/antipsychotic-prescribing-and-safety-monitoring-practices-in-children-and-youth-a-population-based-study-in-alberta-canada
#5
Wenxin Chen, Monica Cepoiu-Martin, Antonia Stang, Diane Duncan, Chris Symonds, Lara Cooke, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic medication use has steadily increased in Canada, with an expansion in the profile of users and the diagnoses for which they are used. The use of antipsychotics is associated with a number of adverse effects for which routine monitoring is recommended. The objectives of this study were to determine the most common diagnoses associated with antipsychotic use in children in Alberta, Canada and the proportion who receive recommended laboratory tests for adverse effects...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453553/-microbiome-atopic-eczema-and-blockade-of-type-2-immunity
#6
REVIEW
M Köberle, T Biedermann
Atopic dermatitis affects roughly 20% of children and 3% of adults in Germany and other industrial countries, with an increasing prevalence. Its causality has still not been conclusively clarified but a type‑2 T‑helper cell mediated immunity reaction (type 2 immunity) dominates cutaneous inflammation. In the quest for the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and the development of improved prevention and treatment options, attention is also increasingly being paid to the influence of microbial colonization...
February 16, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#7
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453304/protocol-investigating-the-clinical-utility-of-an-objective-measure-of-attention-impulsivity-and-activity-qbtest-for-optimising-medication-management-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd-qbtest-utility-for-optimising-treatment-in-adhd-quota-a-feasibility
#8
Charlotte L Hall, Marilyn James, Sue Brown, Jennifer L Martin, Nikki Brown, Kim Selby, Julie Clarke, Hena Vijayan, Boliang Guo, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J Groom
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective information such as reports from parents and teachers to ascertain improvement...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453208/parent-reported-prevalence-and-persistence-of-19-common-child-health-conditions
#9
Tracy Liu, Raghu Lingam, Kate Lycett, Fiona K Mensah, Joshua Muller, Harriet Hiscock, Md Hamidul Huque, Melissa Wake
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and persistence of 19 common paediatric conditions from infancy to 14-15 years. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Parallel cohorts assessed biennially from 2004 to 2014 from ages 0-1 and 4-5 years to 10-11 and 14-15 years, respectively, in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 19 health conditions: 17 parent-reported, 2 (overweight/obesity, obesity) directly assessed...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453081/sluggish-dorsally-driven-inhibition-of-return-during-orthographic-processing-in-adults-with-dyslexia
#10
S Franceschini, S Mascheretti, S Bertoni, V Trezzi, C Andreola, S Gori, A Facoetti
Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. To investigate the visuo-spatial attention efficiency during orthographic processing, inhibition of return (IOR) was measured in adults with and without D in a lexical decision task...
February 13, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452149/facial-gender-but-not-emotion-distinguishes-neural-responses-of-10-to-13-year-old-children-with-social-anxiety-disorder-from-healthy-and-clinical-controls
#11
Verena Keil, Andero Uusberg, Jens Blechert, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to angry, happy and neutral faces in childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHOD: Behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and electrocortical measures (P100, N170, EPN, LPP) were assessed during a facial emotion identification task in children (age 10-13) with SAD (n = 32), clinical controls with mixed anxiety disorders (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 33). RESULTS: Overall, there were no group differences in behavioral or neural responses to emotional faces...
February 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452000/optimal-items-for-assessing-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-across-mother-father-and-teacher-ratings
#12
Belén Sáez, Mateu Servera, Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns
A recent meta-analysis identified optimal items for assessing sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) as distinct from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), and a preliminary study with teacher ratings of children in the United States found strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of 15 SCT items. The current study evaluated whether the same 15 SCT items demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity from ADHD-IN in a large, community-based sample of children in Spain, and whether validity results were replicated across mother, father, and teacher ratings...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451959/network-analysis-an-innovative-framework-for-understanding-eating-disorder-psychopathology
#13
Kathryn E Smith, Ross D Crosby, Stephen A Wonderlich, Kelsie T Forbush, Tyler B Mason, Markus Moessner
Network theory and analysis is an emerging approach in psychopathology research that has received increasing attention across fields of study. In contrast to medical models or latent variable approaches, network theory suggests that psychiatric syndromes result from systems of causal and reciprocal symptom relationships. Despite the promise of this approach to elucidate key mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), thus far, few applications of network analysis have been tested in ED samples...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451590/by-the-book-adhd-prevalence-in-medical-students-varies-with-analogous-methods-of-addressing-dsm-items
#14
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451303/sex-specific-manifestation-of-genetic-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-general-population
#15
Joanna Martin, Mark J Taylor, Mina Rydell, Lucy Riglin, Olga Eyre, Yi Lu, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Larsson, Anita Thapar, Paul Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more commonly diagnosed in males than in females. A growing body of research suggests that females with ADHD might be underdiagnosed or receive alternative diagnoses, such as anxiety or depression. Other lines of reasoning suggest that females might be protected from developing ADHD, requiring a higher burden of genetic risk to manifest the disorder. METHODS: We tested these two hypotheses, using common variant genetic data from two population-based cohorts...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451300/decreased-anterior-cingulate-activation-in-a-motor-task-in-youths-with-bipolar-disorder
#16
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Punitha Subramaniam, Marie R Ehrler, Melissa P Lopez-Larson
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task. METHODS: Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self-paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451225/quality-of-life-among-adolescents-aged-14-to-18-years-with-beta-thalassemia-major-tm-in-qatar
#17
Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Mohamed A Yassin, Ganga Devi J Babu, Sindhumole L K Nair, Izette L Libo-On, Hothaifah A Hijazi, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf Soliman
BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It is a common disease in Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Middle East countries, including Qatar. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) among patients aged 14 to 18 years with thalassemia major (TM) in Qatar and correlates their QOL with bio-demographic data of the patients compared to healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured the QOL in adolescents with thalassemia major who were attending ambulatory units in a tertiary hospital in Qatar...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451082/the-short-term-placebo-response-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#18
Ayala Cohen, Moran Plonsky-Toder, Emanuel Tirosh
To assess short-term placebo response in 6- to 13-year-old children with ADHD, children who were administered a double-blind placebo-methylphenidate trial, 1 week each, were included in the analysis. Conners' parents and Teacher Rating scales, the Aggregate Neurobehavioral Student Health and Educational Review inventory, and the Matching Familiar Figure Test were employed. A reduction of 30% or more in one or more of the teachers report subscales was observed in 18.8% of the participants. Attention test performance resulted in 58% of children exhibiting reduction in error rates and 36...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451074/negative-emotional-face-perception-is-diminished-on-a-very-early-level-of-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Anna Lorenzen, Fabian Grabe, Lioba Baving
Deficits in facial affect recognition (FAR) are often reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to inappropriate visual search strategies. It is unclear, however, whether or not deficits in subliminal FAR are still present in autism when visual focus is controlled. Thirteen persons with ASD and 13 healthy participants took part in this experiment. Supraliminal FAR was assessed using a standardized, computer-aided test. Subliminal FAR was obtained by an emotional face priming paradigm. By using an eye-tracking technique, it was assured that the initial visual focus was on the eyes of the prime...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451009/risk-factors-influencing-severity-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-sample-of-preparatory-school-students-in-cairo
#20
Hisham Ramy, Mona El Sheikh, Marwa Sultan, Rasha Bassim, Maissa Eid, Ramy Ali, Marwa El Missiry
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Severity of symptoms is associated with more behavioral problems, poor academic performance, and persistence of symptoms into adulthood. METHODS: To examine the clinical and social correlates that may be identified as risk factors associated with ADHD severity in a sample of adolescent ADHD school students. A total of 925 students were recruited from two public and two private schools from eastern Cairo...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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