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Attention Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092198/attentional-bias-in-excessive-internet-gamers-experimental-investigations-using-an-addiction-stroop-and-a-visual-probe
#1
Franziska Jeromin, Nele Nyenhuis, Antonia Barke
Background and aims Internet Gaming Disorder is included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5(th) edition) as a disorder that merits further research. The diagnostic criteria are based on those for Substance Use Disorder and Gambling Disorder. Excessive gamblers and persons with Substance Use Disorder show attentional biases towards stimuli related to their addictions. We investigated whether excessive Internet gamers show a similar attentional bias, by using two established experimental paradigms...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091851/operative-treatments-for-reflux-after-bariatric-surgery-current-and-emerging-management-options
#2
Daniela Treitl, Derek Nieber, Kfir Ben-David
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder that has a well-established connection with obesity. To ameliorate the morbidity associated with obesity, bariatric procedures have become an established pathway to accomplish sustained weight loss. In some procedures, such as with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, weight loss is also accompanied by the resolution of GERD symptoms. However, other popular bariatric surgeries, such as the sleeve gastrectomy, have a controversial impact on their effect on reflux...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091799/prenatal-risk-factors-and-the-etiology-of-adhd-review-of-existing-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Emma Sciberras, Melissa Mulraney, Desiree Silva, David Coghill
While it is well accepted that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder, not all of the risk is genetic. It is estimated that between 10 and 40% of the variance associated with ADHD is likely to be accounted for by environmental factors. There is considerable interest in the role that the prenatal environment might play in the development of ADHD with previous reviews concluding that despite demonstration of associations between prenatal risk factors (e.g. prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy) and ADHD, there remains insufficient evidence to support a definite causal relationship...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091794/the-impact-of-liver-disorders-on-perioperative-management-of-reoperative-cardiac-surgery-a-retrospective-study-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease-patients
#4
Koko Adachi, Hiroaki Toyama, Yu Kaiho, Osamu Adachi, Hiroto Hudeta, Masanori Yamauchi
PURPOSE: We evaluated the preoperative prevalence of risk factors for liver disorders and the relationship between the liver disorders and perioperative outcomes in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included 32 ACHD patients who underwent reoperative cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Preoperatively, 38% of the study patients had risk factors, including congestive liver (CL) due to right heart failure (31%), chronic hepatitis C (HC) (22%), and both CL and HC (16%)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090806/randomized-sham-controlled-study-of-high-frequency-bilateral-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-to-treat-adult-attention-hyperactive-disorder-adhd-negative-results
#5
Yaniv Paz, Keren Friedwald, Yeheal Levkovitz, Abraham Zangen, Uri Alyagon, Uri Nitzan, Aviv Segev, Hagai Maoz, May Koubi, Yuval Bloch
BACKGROUND: Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of rTMS as a treatment for ADHD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. METHODS: Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomized blindly to sham or actual deep TMS. Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 deep TMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088702/the-social-nature-of-overimitation-insights-from-autism-and-williams-syndrome
#6
Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R Hocking, Peter Fanning, Cheryl Dissanayake
When imitating novel actions, typically developing preschoolers often copy components of the demonstration that are unrelated to the modeled action's goal, a phenomenon known as 'overimitation'. According to the social motivation account, overimitation fulfills social affiliation motives (i.e., the imitator's drive to experience social connectedness with the demonstrator and the social context). Conversely, according to the social-cognitive account, overimitation reflects overattribution of causal relevance (i...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088557/meta-analysis-of-organizational-skills-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Aida Bikic, Brian Reichow, Spencer A McCauley, Karim Ibrahim, Denis G Sukhodolsky
BACKGROUND: In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088260/korean-chungtaejeon-tea-extract-attenuates-body-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6j-lep-ob-ob-mice-and-regulates-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu
OBJECTIVE: Traditional Korean Chungtaejeon (CTJ) tea is a type of fermented tea, which has received increasing attention in recent years because of its purported health benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CTJ tea extract on body weight gain using C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. METHODS: The effects of CTJ on cell viability, lipid accumulation, and expression of protein and mRNA were measured in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, oil red O staining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088052/positive-and-negative-life-events-and-reasons-for-living-modulate-suicidal-ideation-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-history-of-suicide-attempts
#9
Camélia Laglaoui Bakhiyi, Isabelle Jaussent, Séverine Beziat, Renaud Cohen, Catherine Genty, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Marion Leboyer, Pascal Le Vaou, Sébastien Guillaume, Philippe Courtet
BACKGROUND: The influence of life events on suicidal behavior remains inconclusive, while reasons for living (RFL) may be protective. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between positive and negative life events and suicidal ideation (SI) and the interaction between life events and RFL on SI. METHOD: Patients with history of suicide attempts (n = 338) underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including SI (Beck's Suicidal Ideation scale), RFL (Reasons for Living Inventory, RFLI) and life events (family, school, student or professional, social, health and religion-related and other life events) during the last twelve months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087837/off-target-effects-of-neuroleptics-and-antidepressants-on-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
M Caldara, S Graziano, M Gullì, S Cadonici, Nelson Marmiroli
Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087243/using-deep-learning-to-investigate-the-neuroimaging-correlates-of-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders-methods-and-applications
#11
REVIEW
Sandra Vieira, Walter H L Pinaya, Andrea Mechelli
Deep learning (DL) is a family of machine learning methods that has gained considerable attention in the scientific community, breaking benchmark records in areas such as speech and visual recognition. DL differs from conventional machine learning methods by virtue of its ability to learn the optimal representation from the raw data through consecutive nonlinear transformations, achieving increasingly higher levels of abstraction and complexity. Given its ability to detect abstract and complex patterns, DL has been applied in neuroimaging studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders, which are characterised by subtle and diffuse alterations...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087213/cholesterolomics-an-update
#12
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Eylan Yutuc, Alwena H Morgan, Ian Gilmore, Thomas Hearn, Yuqin Wang
Cholesterolomics can be regarded as the identification and quantification of cholesterol, its precursors post squalene, and metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors, in a biological sample. These molecules include 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, steroid hormones and bile acids and intermediates in their respective biosynthetic pathways. In this short article we will concentrate our attention on intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis pathways, in particular oxysterols and cholestenoic acids. These molecular classes are implicated in the aetiology of a diverse array of diseases including autoimmune disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, breast cancer, the lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C and the autosomal recessive disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087202/family-adaptation-to-cerebral-palsy-in-adolescents-a-european-multicenter-study
#13
Audrey Guyard, Susan I Michelsen, Catherine Arnaud, Jerome Fauconnier
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Factors promoting family adaptation to child's disability are poorly studied together. The aim of the study was to describe the family adaptation to disability and to identify determinants associated with using a global theoretical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 286 families of teenagers [13-17 years] with cerebral palsy (CP) from 4 European disability registers were included and visited at home. Face to face interviews were performed in order to measure parental distress, perceived impact in various dimensions of family life, family resources and stressors...
January 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081198/molecular-analysis-of-chinese-celastrus-and-tripterygium-and-implications-in-medicinal-and-pharmacological-studies
#14
Xian-Yun Mu, Liang-Cheng Zhao, Zhi-Xiang Zhang
Celastrus and Tripterygium species, which are used in traditional Chinese medicine, have attracted much attention due to their anti-tumor promoting and neuroprotective activities, in addition to their applications in autoimmune disorders. However, systematic relationships between them and among species are unclear, and it may disturb their further medicinal utilization. In the present study, the molecular analysis of combined chloroplast and nuclear markers of all Chinese Celastrus and Tripterygium was performed, and clear inter- and intra-genus relationships were presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080970/differentiating-attention-styles-and-regulatory-aspects-of-self-reported-interoceptive-sensibility
#16
REVIEW
Wolf Mehling
Based on prior research, multiple discriminable dimensions of interoception have been defined: awareness, accuracy and sensibility. Some investigators defined interoceptive awareness as metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, assessed as correspondence between subjective confidence in and objective accuracy of one's heartbeat detection. However, metacognitive awareness has been understood quite differently: 'a cognitive set in which negative thoughts/feelings are experienced as mental events, rather than as the self' or as 'error awareness'...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080145/neuropsychological-predictors-of-odd-symptom-dimensions-in-young-children
#17
Shayl F Griffith, David H Arnold, Benjamin Rolon-Arroyo, Elizabeth A Harvey
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood behavior disorder, yet knowledge of relations between ODD and early neuropsychological functions, particularly independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is still limited. In addition, studies have not examined neuropsychological functioning as it relates to the different ODD symptom dimensions. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate how preschool neuropsychological functioning predicted negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior symptom dimensions of ODD in 224 six-year-old children, oversampled for early behavior problems...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080108/the-brief-problem-monitor-parent-form-bpm-p-a-short-version-of-the-child-behavior-checklist-psychometric-properties-in-spanish-6-to-8-year-old-children
#18
Eva Penelo, Núria de la Osa, José Blas Navarro, Josep Maria Domènech, Lourdes Ezpeleta
We provide the first validation data on the Spanish version of the Brief Problem Monitor-Parent form (BPM-P), a recently developed abbreviated version of the 120-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) in young schoolchildren. Parents of a community sample of 521 children aged 6-8 answered the CBCL/6-18 yearly, and the 19 BPM-P items were examined; parents also provided different measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis of the expected 3-factor model (attention, externalizing, and internalizing) showed adequate fit (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA ≤ ...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#19
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#20
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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