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Peanut Allergy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779209/gata3-hypermethylation-and-foxp3-hypomethylation-are-associated-with-sustained-protection-and-bystander-effect-following-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-in-peanut-sensitized-mice
#1
Lucie Mondoulet, Vincent Dioszeghy, Florence Busato, Camille Plaquet, Véronique Dhelft, Kevin Bethune, Laurence Leclere, Christian Daviaud, Mélanie Ligouis, Hugh Sampson, Christophe Dupont, Jörg Tost
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a promising method for treating food allergies. In animal models, EPIT induces sustained unresponsiveness and prevents further sensitization mediated by Tregs. Here, we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of EPIT, by characterizing the kinetics of DNA methylation changes in sorted cells from spleen and blood and by evaluating its persistence and bystander effect compared to oral immunotherapy (OIT). METHODS: BALB/c mice orally sensitized to peanut proteins (PPE) were treated by EPIT using a PPE-patch or by PPE-OIT...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772091/sensitisation-to-outdoor-and-indoor-fungi-in-atopic-dermatitis-patients-and-the-relation-to-the-occurrence-of-food-allergy-to-peanuts-and-walnuts
#2
J Čelakovská, J Bukač, K Ettler, J Vaneckova, K Ettlerova, J Krejsek
The aim of this study is the evaluation of the relation between the sensitisation to outdoor and indoor fungi and allergy to peanuts and walnuts in atopic dermatitis patients aged 14 years and older. The complete dermatological and allergological examinations were perfomed in all included patients; the occurrence of food allergy to peanuts and walnuts was recorded (specific IgE, skin prick test, history of allergic reaction) and the sensitisation to mixture of outdoor fungi and indoor fungi was examined (skin prick test, specific IgE)...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754191/the-unique-molecular-signatures-of-contact-dermatitis-and-implications-for-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Alexandra Leonard, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common skin disorders that are characterized by inflammation, oozing, crusting, and pruritus. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by immune and barrier abnormalities and is additionally a risk factor for acquiring ICD and ACD. New work on allergic sensitization to common allergens (e.g., nickel and fragrance) in human skin has shown that different allergens have distinct molecular fingerprinting. For example, nickel promotes strong Th1/Th17 polarization, whereas fragrance allergy causes Th2/Th22 skewing, which is similar to the phenotype of AD...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751153/the-health-and-economic-outcomes-of-peanut-allergy-management-practices
#4
Marcus Shaker, Matthew Greenhawt
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is managed with strict avoidance, epinephrine carriage, and promptly treating reactions. OBJECTIVES: Assess the health and economic benefits of pre-emptively injecting epinephrine for peanut ingestion in the absence of any symptoms, and avoiding products with peanut precautionary allergen labeling (PAL). METHODS: We used Markov modeling and simulations, assuming a base-case 10-fold fatality risk increase for less conservative management, with sensitivity analysis investigating 100-1,000-fold increased fatality risk, incorporating risks of accidental exposures, reactions, fatality, and family costs of food allergy...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739687/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-acquisition-of-tolerance-to-food-allergens-in-children
#5
REVIEW
E Bernaldo de Quiros, E Seoane-Reula, E Alonso-Lebrero, M Pion, R Correa-Rocha
Food allergy is a pathological immune reaction that identifies certain harmless food proteins, usually tolerated by the majority of the people, as a threat. The prevalence of these food allergies is increasing worldwide and currently affects 8% of children. Exacerbated reactions to milk, egg and peanut are the most frequent in the pediatric population. It is well known that allergic diseases are a type 2 T-helper (Th2) immune response, characterized by the elevated production of IgE antibodies. However, little is known about the immune mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical tolerance toward food allergens...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732294/shellfish-crustacean-oral-allergy-syndrome-among-national-service-pre-enlistees-in-singapore
#6
Bernard Yu-Hor Thong, Shalini Arulanandam, Sze-Chin Tan, Teck-Choon Tan, Grace Yin-Lai Chan, Justina Wei-Lyn Tan, Mark Chong-Wei Yeow, Chwee-Ying Tang, Jinfeng Hou, Khai-Pang Leong
Background: All Singaporean males undergo medical screening prior to compulsory military service. A history of possible food allergy may require referral to a specialist Allergy clinic to ensure that special dietary needs can be taken into account during field training and deployment. Objective: To study the pattern of food allergy among pre-enlistees who were referred to a specialist allergy clinic to work up suspected food allergy. Methods: Retrospective study of all pre-enlistees registered in the Clinical Immunology/Allergy New Case Registry referred to the Allergy Clinic from 1 August 2015 to 31 May 2016 for suspected food allergy...
April 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731128/a-novel-human-mast-cell-activation-test-for-peanut-allergy
#7
Alexandra F Santos, Natália Couto-Francico, Natalia Bécares, Matthew Kwok, Henry T Bahnson, Gideon Lack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709643/development-of-a-tool-predicting-severity-of-allergic-reaction-during-peanut-challenge
#8
R Sharon Chinthrajah, Natasha Purington, Sandra Andorf, Jaime S Rosa, Kaori Mukai, Robert Hamilton, Bridget Marie Smith, Ruchi Gupta, Stephen J Galli, Manisha Desai, Kari C Nadeau
BACKGROUND: Reliable prognostic markers for predicting severity of allergic reactions during oral food challenges (OFC) have not been established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a predictive algorithm of a food challenge severity score (CSS) to identify those at higher risk for severe reactions to a standardized peanut OFC. METHODS: Medical history and allergy tests were obtained for 120 peanut-allergic participants who underwent double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs)...
April 27, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700872/oral-immunotherapy-with-omalizumab-reverses-the-th2-cell-like-program-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-restores-their-function
#9
Azza Abdel-Gadir, Lynda Schneider, Arianna Casini, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Sara V Little, Timothy Harrington, Dale T Umetsu, Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) successfully desensitizes patients with food allergies, but the immune mechanisms mediating its efficacy remain obscure. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cell function is impaired in food allergy and is restored by anti-IgE antibody (omalizumab)-supplemented OIT. METHODS: Peanut-specific T effector (Teff) and Treg cell proliferative responses, activation markers and cytokine expression were analyzed by flow cytometry in 13 peanut allergic subjects before the start of omalizumab- supplemented OIT and periodically in some subjects thereafter for up to two years...
April 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700869/tree-nut-allergies-allergen-homology-cross-reactivity-and-implications-for-therapy
#10
Johanna M Smeekens, Kenneth Bagley, Michael Kulis
Tree nut allergy is a potentially life-threatening disease that is increasing in prevalence, now affecting 1% of the general population in the United States. While other food allergies often resolve spontaneously, tree nut allergies are outgrown in less than 10% of cases. Due to the likelihood of cross-sensitization to multiple tree nut allergens, the current treatment guideline is strict avoidance of all nuts once one tree nut allergy has been diagnosed. For example, walnut and pecan are highly cross-reactive, along with cashew and pistachio, but the extent of clinical, IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among other tree nuts remains unclear, therefore making avoidance of all tree nuts a safe approach...
April 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681186/role-of-dendritic-cells-in-peanut-allergy
#11
Raquel Aguilera-Insunza, Luis F Venegas, Mirentxu Iruretagoyena, Leticia Rojas, Arturo Borzutzky
The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) has increased, affecting approximately 1.1% of children in Western countries. PA causes life-threatening anaphylaxis and frequently persists for life. There are no standardized curative therapies for PA, and avoidance of peanuts remains the main therapeutic option. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of PA is essential to identify new treatment strategies. Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in the induction and maintenance of food tolerance because they present dietary allergens to T cells, thereby directing subsequent immune responses...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656306/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-treatment-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#12
REVIEW
Amy M Scurlock
Development of active therapies for IgE-mediated food allergy is a critical action step toward alleviating the adverse medical, psychosocial, and economic burdens on affected patients and families. Significant progress has been observed specifically in the application of single-allergen oral and sublingual immunotherapy for treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy, with emphasis on milk, egg, and peanut as the primary allergens. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has demonstrated efficacy in promoting immunomodulatory effects that lead to the clinical outcome of desensitization, defined as reduced reactivity while on active OIT, in the majority of treated individuals; however, achievement of sustained unresponsiveness following cessation of therapy has been observed in a smaller subset of treated subjects...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655584/nanoemulsion-adjuvant-driven-redirection-of-t-h-2-immunity-inhibits-allergic-reactions-in-murine-models-of-peanut-allergy
#13
Jessica J O'Konek, Jeffrey J Landers, Katarzyna W Janczak, Rishi R Goel, Anna M Mondrusov, Pamela T Wong, James R Baker
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy for food allergies involves progressive increased exposures to food that result in desensitization to food allergens in some subjects but not tolerance to the food. Therefore new approaches to suppress allergic immunity to food are necessary. Previously, we demonstrated that intranasal immunization with a nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant induces robust mucosal antibody and TH 17-polarized immunity, as well as systemic TH 1-biased cellular immunity with suppression of pre-existing TH 2-biased immunity...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623581/clinical-presentation-of-cashew-nut-allergy-in-a-paediatric-cohort-attending-an-allergy-clinic-in-the-west-of-ireland
#14
Miranda Crealey, Salma Alamin, Vincent Tormey, Edina Moylett
BACKGROUND: Cashew nut (CN) allergy appears to be increasing. Reactions are variable and may include anaphylaxis. AIM: To describe the clinical features of CN allergy in a group of children attending an allergy clinic with suspected peanut allergy and confirmed sensitisation to CN. METHODS: Patients were identified retrospectively by reviewing the Immunology Database at University Hospital Galway over a 5-year period, Oct. 2010 to Sept. 2015...
April 5, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623490/food-allergy
#15
REVIEW
Onyinye I Iweala, Shailesh K Choudhary, Scott P Commins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to present an updated summary of the natural history of major childhood and adult food allergies and report recent advances in potential treatments for food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: The most common childhood food allergies are typically outgrown by adolescence or adulthood. However, peanut/tree nut allergies appear to more commonly persist into adulthood. Adults can develop new IgE-mediated food allergies; the most common is oral allergy syndrome...
April 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603410/low-dose-oral-immunotherapy-for-children-with-anaphylactic-peanut-allergy-in-japan
#16
Ken-Ichi Nagakura, Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Makoto Nishino, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Kiyotake Ogura, Motohiro Ebisawa
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for persons with allergy; however, it can also cause adverse allergic reactions. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of low-dose OIT for anaphylactic peanut allergy. METHODS: Twenty-four children (median age, 9.6 years) with anaphylaxis to peanuts were hospitalized for 5 days and then gradually fed increasing amounts of peanut powder up to 133 mg/day. One year later, they underwent an oral food challenge after 2 weeks of peanut avoidance...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601355/how-to-prevent-food-allergy-during-infancy-what-has-changed-since-2013
#17
William J Lavery, Amal Assa'ad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies and emerging consensus guidelines regarding food allergy prevention in infants of the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior to 2013, the general consensus regarding prevention of food allergy in infants was to recommend delayed introduction or complete avoidance of commonly allergenic foods, such as milk, egg and peanut. However, in the past 5 years, several landmark studies have been conducted, particularly with peanut...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601353/how-to-diagnose-food-allergy
#18
Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the recent studies that focus on specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) testing and basophil activation test (BAT) for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: The sIgE to allergen extract or component can predict reactivity to food. The cutoff value based on the positive predictive value (PPV) of sIgE can be considered whenever deciding whether oral food challenge (OFC) is required to diagnose hen's egg, cow's milk, wheat, peanut, and cashew nut allergy...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601091/-to-screen-or-not-to-screen-comparing-the-health-and-economic-benefits-of-early-peanut-introduction-strategies-in-five-countries
#19
Marcus Shaker, David Stukus, Edmond S Chan, David M Fleischer, Jonathan M Spergel, Matthew Greenhawt
BACKGROUND: Early peanut introduction (EPI) in the first year of life is associated with reduced risk of developing peanut allergy in children with either severe eczema and/or egg allergy. However, EPI recommendations differ among countries with formal guidelines. METHODS: Using simulation and Markov modeling over a 20-year horizon to attempt to explore optimal EPI strategies applied to the US population, we compared high-risk infant specific IgE peanut screening (US/Canadian) with the Australiasian Society for Clinical Immunology and Allergy (Australia/New Zealand) (ASCIA) and the United Kingdom Department of Health (UKDOH) published EPI approaches...
March 30, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588872/preventing-peanut-allergy
#20
REVIEW
Meng Chen, Michael Welch, Susan Laubach
The rising prevalence of food allergy and specifically peanut allergy has had significant implications for affected patients, families, and society. The current standard of care remains strict avoidance and the use of emergency medications for accidental ingestions. There is recent evidence-based information to suggest that one approach to preventing peanut allergy lies in early introduction of peanut. This represents a paradigm shift from previous recommendations and has led to updated guidelines in the United States, Europe, and Australasia on the introduction of potentially allergenic foods in the infant diet...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
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