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Retinoid X Receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762675/rxr-ligands-modulate-thyroid-hormone-signaling-competence-in-young-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#1
Brenda J Mengeling, Michael L Goodson, J David Furlow
Appropriate thyroid hormone (TH) signaling through thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) is essential for vertebrate development. Amphibian metamorphosis is initiated and sustained through the action of TH on TRs which are conserved across vertebrates. TRs heterodimerize with retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) on thyroid hormone-response elements (TREs) in the genome, yet in most cell line and adult animal studies, RXR ligands do not affect expression of TR target genes. We used a quantitative, precocious metamorphosis assay to interrogate the effects of the RXR agonist bexarotene (Bex) and the RXR antagonist UVI 3003 (UVI) on T3-induced resorption phenotypes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles one-week post-fertilization...
May 11, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757674/eicosapentaenoic-acid-induces-dna-demethylation-in-carcinoma-cells-through-a-tet1-dependent-mechanism
#2
Veronica Ceccarelli, Virginia Valentini, Simona Ronchetti, Lorenza Cannarile, Monia Billi, Carlo Riccardi, Laura Ottini, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa, Francesco Grignani, Alba Vecchini
In cancer cells, global genomic hypomethylation is found together with localized hypermethylation of CpG islands within the promoters and regulatory regions of silenced tumor suppressor genes. Demethylating agents may reverse hypermethylation, thus promoting gene re-expression. Unfortunately, demethylating strategies are not efficient in solid tumor cells. DNA demethylation is mediated by ten-eleven translocation enzymes (TETs). They sequentially convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is associated with active transcription; 5-formylcytosine; and finally, 5-carboxylcytosine...
May 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754009/dietary-nitrogen-and-calcium-modulate-cyp27b1-expression-in-young-goats
#3
M R Wilkens, K Elfers, M Schmicke, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In livestock, feeding a reduced nitrogen (N) diet is favored for economic and ecological reasons. Ruminants cope more easily with a reduced N diet than monogastric species. However, changes in mineral homeostasis such as a reduction in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3 ) concentrations, calcium (Ca), and IGF1 levels were observed in goats kept on a reduced N diet. The decrease in 1,25-(OH)2 D3 occurred even during a simultaneous reduction in dietary N and Ca, whereas a solitary Ca reduction stimulated 1,25-(OH)2 D3 synthesis...
April 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750879/dha-upregulates-fads2-expression-in-primary-cortical-astrocytes-exposed-to-vitamin-a
#4
B Dziedzic, D Bewicz-Binkowska, E Zgorzynska, D Stulczewski, L Wieteska, B Kaza, A Walczewska
The fads2 gene encoding delta6-desaturase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the LCPUFA biosynthesis is expressed in astrocytes. Dietary fatty acids, which cross the blood-brain barrier may regulate the transcription of lipogenic enzymes through activation of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The PPARs form the transcription complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) that are activated by 9-cis retinol, a metabolite of vitamin A (VA). The study examines whether challenge of astrocytes with VA, prior 24-hour treatment with palmitic acid (PA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has the effect on the FADS2 expression...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748541/rxr%C3%AE-provokes-tumor-suppression-through-p53-p21-p16-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-during-stem-cell-differentiation-and-in-cancer-cells
#5
Rui Zhang, Hui Li, Shuangshuang Zhang, Yujie Zhang, Nan Wang, Hao Zhou, Hongpeng He, Guang Hu, Tong-Cun Zhang, Wenjian Ma
The retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) is an important therapeutic target impacting diverse biological processes. Activation of RXRα is known to suppress cancer cell growth. However, the cellular mechanism has been elusive. In the present study, we addressed its role during stem cell differentiation and the underlying connections with carcinogenesis. RXRα was significantly upregulated following the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) toward the formation of endothelial cell (EC). However, overexpression of RXRα in hMSC provoked a senescence-like phenotype accompanied by the elevation of tumor suppressor p53, p21, and p16...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748133/retinoic-acid-inhibits-neuronal-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#6
Eric de Hoog, Mark K Lukewich, Gaynor E Spencer
Retinoic acid is the active metabolite of vitamin A and regulates several important cellular processes by activating retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). These receptors generally act as transcription factors, though non-genomic actions of both retinoic acid and the receptors have also been reported. One such nongenomic effect includes the modulation of Ca2+ levels during homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid can thus affect Ca2+ signaling and can potentially control both synaptic plasticity and neuronal firing...
February 13, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743862/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-retinoid-receptors-cross-talk-at-the-cyp1a1-promoter-in-vitro
#7
Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Anke Ehlers, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
The epithelium of the small intestine plays an important role in detoxification processes due to the presence of various xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes from phase I and II, as well as transport proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. Exposure to xenobiotics induces the expression of these proteins in the small intestine, with multiple signaling pathways stimulated by exogenous compounds converging at individual gene promoters by mechanisms which have not been fully understood yet. In this context the promoter region of the CYP1A1 gene, encoding the phase I monooxygenase cytochrome P450 1A1, was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with regard to binding of xeno-sensing receptors following stimulation of Caco-2 cells with agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and retinoid receptors...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742492/integrated-analysis-of-mirna-and-genes-associated-with-meat-quality-reveals-that-gga-mir-140-5p-affects-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-chickens
#8
Meng Zhang, Dong-Hua Li, Fang Li, Jun-Wei Sun, Rui-Rui Jiang, Zhuan-Jian Li, Rui-Li Han, Guo-Xi Li, Xiao-Jun Liu, Xiang-Tao Kang, Gui-Rong Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Poultry meat quality is affected by many factors, among which intramuscular fat (IMF) is predominant. IMF content affects the tenderness, juiciness, and favor of chicken. An increasing number of studies are focusing on the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the adipogenic process. However, little is known about miRNAs associated with poultry IMF deposition, especially intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: The IMF content of two physiological stages was measured, and miRNA-Seq and RNA-Seq data were integrated and analyzed...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740162/molecular-targets-of-chinese-herbs-a-clinical-study-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-based-on-network-pharmacology
#9
Hongxu Zhu, Jian Hao, Yangyang Niu, Dan Liu, Dan Chen, Xiongzhi Wu
Increasing evidence has shown that Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has promising therapeutic effects in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the active ingredients and potential targets remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relative molecular targets of the Chinese herbs that have been found effective in treating metastatic CRC (mCRC) based on clinical data and network pharmacology. In multivariate analysis CHM resulted an independent prognostic factor. The hazard ratio was 0.103 (95% confidence interval = 0...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734115/transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-repression-of-histone-deacetylases-by-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-macrophages
#10
Tho X Pham, Minkyung Bae, Yoojin Lee, Young-Ki Park, Ji-Young Lee
Histone deacetylation is one of the posttranslational modifications of histones by which eukaryotic cells alter gene transcription. Although fatty acids are the best known macronutrients that modulate gene expression in inflammatory pathways, it is unclear whether common fatty acids in diets can regulate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in macrophages. We determined the effects of fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the expression of HDAC isoforms in RAW 264...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704526/a-novel-gene-expression-analytics-based-approach-to-structure-aided-design-of-rexinoids-for-development-as-next-generation-cancer-therapeutics
#11
Bentley J Hanish, Jennifer F Hackney Price, Ichiro Kaneko, Ning Ma, Arjan van der Vaart, Carl E Wagner, Peter W Jurutka, Pamela A Marshall
Rexinoids are powerful ligands that bind to retinoid-X-receptors (RXRs) and show great promise as therapeutics for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. However, only one rexinoid, bexarotene (Targretin TM) has been successfully transitioned from the bench to the clinic and used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Our goal is to develop novel potent rexinoids with a less untoward side effect profile than bexarotene. To this end, we have synthesized a wide array of rexinoids with EC50 values and biological activity similar to bexarotene...
April 25, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688151/bexarotene-attenuates-early-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-micoglia-activation-through-ppar%C3%AE-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#12
Li Tu, Xiu-Lin Yang, Qian Zhang, Qian Wang, Tian Tian, Dan Liu, Xiang Qu, Jin-Yong Tian
Objectives Early brain injury (EBI) is considered to be one of the main causes of poor outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Bexarotene is an agonist of retinoid X receptor and plays a protective role in central nervous system diseases. However, the exact role of bexarotene in SAH has not been reported. Therefore, the present study was to determine whether bexarotene administration attenuate EBI after SAH in mice and to explore the underlying mechanism. Methods SAH was induced in C57BL/6 mice by endovascular perforation...
April 24, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681823/successful-treatment-of-advanced-primary-cutaneous-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-with-oral-bexarotene-monotherapy
#13
Yota Sato, Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, Akira Hashimoto, Setsuya Aiba
Bexarotene is a third-generation retinoid X receptor-selective retinoid that is widely used for the early treatment of advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. In this report, we describe a case of successful treatment of advanced primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) with oral bexarotene monotherapy. After the administration of oral bexarotene at a dose of 300 mg/m2 /day, all skin lesions and lymph nodes regressed, and complete remission was achieved for 1 year. Our case suggested that bexarotene monotherapy could be one of the possible therapies for the treatment of primary cutaneous PTCL-NOS...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680643/phosphorylation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-2-nfe2l2-in-mammary-tissue-of-holstein-cows-during-the-periparturient-period-is-associated-with-mrna-abundance-of-antioxidant-gene-networks
#14
L Q Han, Z Zhou, Y Ma, F Batistel, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mammary gland of dairy cows during the periparturient period could lead to oxidative stress and potentially impair mammary function. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, controls mRNA abundance of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and enzymes. The hypothesis was that NFE2L2 phosphorylation status and target gene mRNA abundance in the mammary gland of dairy cows is altered around parturition...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661715/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-in-esophageal-carcinoma
#15
Hong-Yue Ren, Yi-He Guo, Li-Min Yang, Tai-Jian Dai, Ming-Zhu Lin, Le Yu, Qi-Gan Zhu, Jia-Rong Meng
PURPOSE: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most aggressive type cancers and dysregulation of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) involves various tumors. However, the relationship of RXRα with the clinicopathological factors of EC, particularly prognostic characteristics, remains unclear. This present study was to evaluate the effect of RXRα expression in the development of EC. METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression level of RXRα in EC and normal esophageal tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively...
March 28, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655815/evidence-for-retinoic-acid-involvement-in-the-regulation-of-vitellogenesis-in-the-fresh-water-edible-crab-oziotelphusa-senex-senex
#16
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621670/characterization-and-comparison-of-transcriptional-activities-of-the-retinoid-x-receptors-by-various-organotin-compounds-in-three-prosobranch-gastropods-thais-clavigera-nucella-lapillus-and-babylonia-japonica
#17
Hiroshi Urushitani, Yoshinao Katsu, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Ana C A Sousa, Carlos M Barroso, Yasuhiko Ohta, Hiroaki Shiraishi, Taisen Iguchi, Toshihiro Horiguchi
Two cDNAs of RXR were isolated, for the first time, from the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica, and the transcriptional activities were tested in vitro to compare with other gastropod (Thais clavigera and Nucella lapillus) RXR isoforms. The transcriptional activities of all of these RXR isoforms were significantly induced by mammalian RXR agonist, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA). The transcriptional activity of T. clavigera RXR-1 was also examined by using 9cRA and 16 organotin compounds, and significant ligand-dependent transactivations were observed by 9cRA and 5 organotins (tributyltin (TBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), tripropyltin (TPrT), tricyclohexyltin (TcHT) and triphenyltin (TPhT))...
March 26, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608331/rsjp40-protein-promotes-ppar%C3%AE-expression-in-lx-2-cells-through-microrna-27b
#18
Dandan Zhu, Lei Lyu, Pei Shen, Jianxin Wang, Jinling Chen, Xiaolei Sun, Liuting Chen, Li Zhang, Qi Zhou, Yinong Duan
miR-27b is reported to participate in the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to regulate fat metabolism of rat HSCs by targeting retinoid X receptor α. Our previous study also indicated that the recombinant P40 protein from Schistosoma japonicum (rSjP40) inhibited the activation of HSCs. In this study, we observed the expression of miR-27b in rSjP40-treated LX-2 cells and explored its potential mechanisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that rSjP40 inhibits the expression of miR-27b in LX-2 cells...
April 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599065/the-retinoid-x-receptor-agonist-9-cis-uab30-inhibits-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-proliferation-through-the-skp2-p27kip1-axis
#19
Chu-Fang Chou, Yu-Hua Hsieh, Clinton J Grubbs, Venkatram R Atigadda, James A Mobley, Reinhard Dummer, Donald D Muccio, Isao Eto, Craig A Elmets, W Timothy Garvey, Pi-Ling Chang
BACKGROUND: Bexarotene (Targretin® ) is currently the only FDA approved retinoid X receptor (RXR) -selective agonist for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). The main side effects of bexarotene are hypothyroidism and elevation of serum triglycerides (TGs). The novel RXR ligand, 9-cis UAB30 (UAB30) does not elevate serum TGs or induce hypothyroidism in normal subjects. OBJECTIVES: To assess preclinical efficacy and mechanism of action of UAB30 in the treatment of CTCLs and compare its action with bexarotene...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587291/retinoic-acid-increases-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-irisin-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-and-impacts-irisin-in-vivo
#20
Jaume Amengual, Francisco J García-Carrizo, Andrea Arreguín, Hana Mušinović, Nuria Granados, Andreu Palou, M Luisa Bonet, Joan Ribot
BACKGROUND/AIMS: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has protective effects against obesity and metabolic syndrome. We here aimed to gain further insight into the interaction of ATRA with skeletal muscle metabolism and secretory activity as important players in metabolic health. METHODS: Cultured murine C2C12 myocytes were used to study direct effects of ATRA on cellular fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate (using radioactively-labelled palmitate), glucose uptake (using radioactively-labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose), triacylglycerol levels (by an enzymatic method), and the expression of genes related to FAO and glucose utilization (by RT-real time PCR)...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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