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Liver X Receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220720/induction-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-by-a-steroid-alkaloid-derivative-in-mouse-keratinocytes
#1
Yan Weng, Natsumi Mizuno, Jiangxu Dong, Ryosuke Segawa, Takayuki Yonezawa, Byung Yoon Cha, Je-Tae Woo, Takahiro Moriya, Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays critical roles in inducing and exacerbating allergic diseases. Chemical compounds that induce TSLP production can enhance sensitization to antigens and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Hence, identifying such chemicals will be important to prevent an increase in allergic diseases. In the present study, we found, for the first time, that a steroid alkaloid derivative, code no. 02F04, concentration and time dependently induced mRNA expression and production of TSLP in a mouse keratinocyte cell line, PAM212...
December 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217477/activation-of-hepatic-nogo-b-receptor-expression-a-new-anti-liver-steatosis-mechanism-of-statins
#2
Wenwen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yuanli Chen, Wenquan Hu, Lipei Liu, Xiaomeng Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Lei Sun, Ying Liu, Miao Yu, Xiaoju Li, Luyuan Li, Yan Zhu, Qing Robert Miao, Jihong Han, Yajun Duan
Deficiency of hepatic Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) expression activates liver X receptor α (LXRα) in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)-dependent manner, thereby inducing severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia. Statins have been demonstrated non-cholesterol lowering effects including anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we investigated if the anti-NAFLD function of statins depends on activation of NgBR expression. In vivo, atorvastatin protected apoE deficient or NgBR floxed, but not hepatic NgBR deficient mice, against Western diet (WD)-increased triglyceride levels in liver and serum...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216638/microrna-122-inhibits-lipid-droplet-formation-and-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-via-yin-yang-1
#3
Guo-Yi Wu, Chen Rui, Ji-Qiao Chen, Eiketsu Sho, Shan-Shan Zhan, Xian-Wen Yuan, Yi-Tao Ding
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An increase in intracellular lipid droplet formation and hepatic triglyceride (TG) content usually results in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatic TG homeostasis remain unclear. METHODS: Oil red O staining and TG measurement were performed to determine the lipid content. miRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR. A luciferase assay was performed to validate the regulation of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by microRNA (miR)-122...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#4
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211299/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-lox-1-cd15-polymorphonuclear-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Nan Jiang, Yan-Fang Xing, Bo Hu, Jian-Xin Tang, Hui-Min Dong, Yu-Mei He, Dan-Yun Ruan, Qing-Jian Ye, Jia-Rong Cai, Xiao-Kun Ma, Jie Chen, Xiu-Rong Cai, Ze-Xiao Lin, Xiang-Yuan Wu, Xing Li
AIM: A recent study indicated that Lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) was a distinct surface marker for human polymorphonuclears myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC). The present study was aimed to investigate the existence LOX-1 PMN-MDSC in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: 127 HCC patients, 10 patients with mild active chronic hepatits B, 10 liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, 10 liver dysplastic node with hepatitis B and 50 health control were included...
December 6, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209109/resveratrol-modifies-biliary-secretion-of-cholephilic-compounds-in-sham-operated-and-cholestatic-rats
#6
Eva Dolezelova, Alena Prasnicka, Jolana Cermanova, Alejandro Carazo, Lucie Hyrsova, Milos Hroch, Jaroslav Mokry, Michaela Adamcova, Alena Mrkvicova, Petr Pavek, Stanislav Micuda
AIM: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on biliary secretion of cholephilic compounds in healthy and bile duct-obstructed rats. METHODS: Resveratrol (RSV) or saline were administered to rats by daily oral gavage for 28 d after sham operation or reversible bile duct obstruction (BDO). Bile was collected 24 h after the last gavage during an intravenous bolus dose of the Mdr1/Mrp2 substrate azithromycin. Bile acids, glutathione and azithromycin were measured in bile to quantify their level of biliary secretion...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208033/evaluating-the-oxysterol-combination-of-22-s-hydroxycholesterol-and-20-s-hydroxycholesterol-in-periodontal-regeneration-using-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-and-alveolar-bone-healing-models
#7
Jin-Sun Lee, EunJi Kim, Seonggu Han, Kyung Lhi Kang, Jung Sun Heo
BACKGROUND: Oxysterols, oxygenated by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, play roles in various physiological and pathological systems. However, the effects of oxysterols on periodontal regeneration are unknown. This study investigated the effects of the specific oxysterol combination of 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) on the regeneration of periodontal tissues using in-vitro periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and in-vivo models of alveolar bone defect...
December 6, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207817/immunohistochemical-expression-of-cyclo-oxygenase-2-and-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-in-acne-vulgaris
#8
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Shawky Mahmoud El Farargy, Noha Nour El Din El Kady, Hend Farag Abu Dawy
Introduction: Acne Vulgaris (AV) is a common inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Liver X Receptor-α (LXR-α) is a ligand activated transcription factor. It controls transcription of genes involved in lipid and fatty acid synthesis. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) is a rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis. It plays important role in inflammation. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of LXR-α and COX2 in acne vulgaris skin biopsies to explore their possible pathogenic role in this disease...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207101/diosgenin-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-rat-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-the-ampk-and-lxr-signaling-pathways
#9
Silu Cheng, Shufang Liang, Qun Liu, Zhengting Deng, Yuanhui Zhang, Juan Du, Ya'ni Zhang, Shu Li, Binbin Cheng, Changquan Ling
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern worldwide. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of diosgenin on NAFLD and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Diosgenin treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Diosgenin significantly inhibited high glucose (HG)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation and sterol regulatory element‑binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA increase in HepG2 cells, which were partially abolished by the AMPK inhibitor compound C...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207025/anti-obesity-effects-of-pectinase-and-cellulase-enzyme%C3%A2-treated-ecklonia%C3%A2-cava-extract-in-high%C3%A2-fat-diet%C3%A2-fed-c57bl-6n-mice
#10
In-Hye Kim, Jung-Wook Choi, Min-Kyeong Lee, Chang-Ju Kwon, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the anti‑obesity effects of enzyme‑treated Ecklonia cava extract (EEc) in C57BL/6N mice with high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. The EEc was separated and purified with the digestive enzymes pectinase (Rapidase X‑Press L) and cellulase (Rohament CL) and its effects on the progression of HFD‑induced obesity were examined over 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 6 groups (n=10/group) as follows: Normal diet group, HFD group, mice fed a HFD with 25 mg/kg/day Garcinia cambogia extract and mice fed a HFD with 5, 25 or 150 mg/kg/day EEc (EHD groups)...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204052/pregnane-x-receptor-and-constitutive-androstane-receptor-modulate-differently-cyp3a-mediated-metabolism-in-early-and-late-stage-cholestasis
#11
Daniela Gabbia, Arianna Dalla Pozza, Laura Albertoni, Roberta Lazzari, Giorgia Zigiotto, Maria Carrara, Vincenzo Baldo, Tatjana Baldovin, Annarosa Floreani, Sara De Martin
AIM: To ascertain whether cholestasis affects the expression of two CYP3A isoforms (CYP3A1 and CYP3A2) and of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). METHODS: Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation in 16 male Wistar rats; whereas 8 sham-operated rats were used as controls. Severity of cholestasis was assessed on histological examination of liver sections, and serum concentrations of albumin, AST, ALT, GGT, ALPK and bilirubin...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201227/oridonin-enhances-in-vitro-anticancer-effects-of-lentinan-in-smmc-7721-human-hepatoma-cells-through-apoptotic-genes
#12
Tao Xu, Fa Jin, Keren Wu, Zhipeng Ye, Ning Li
The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of oridonin to enhance the anticancer activity of lentinan (LNT) in SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells in vitro by using various techniques, including MTT, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR and western blot assays. The results demonstrated that 20 µg/ml was a non-toxic concentration of oridonin for L02 normal liver cells and SMMC-7721 cells, while 0-200 µg/ml of LNT only had anti-proliferative effects on SMMC-7721 cells. LNT at 100 and 200 µg/ml inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells by 22...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199269/dendrogenin-a-drives-lxr-to-trigger-lethal-autophagy-in-cancers
#13
Gregory Segala, Marion David, Philippe de Medina, Mathias C Poirot, Nizar Serhan, François Vergez, Aurelie Mougel, Estelle Saland, Kevin Carayon, Julie Leignadier, Nicolas Caron, Maud Voisin, Julia Cherier, Laetitia Ligat, Frederic Lopez, Emmanuel Noguer, Arnaud Rives, Bruno Payré, Talal Al Saati, Antonin Lamaziere, Gaëtan Despres, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Silvere Baron, Cecile Demur, Fabienne de Toni, Clément Larrue, Helena Boutzen, Fabienne Thomas, Jean-Emmanuel Sarry, Marie Tosolini, Didier Picard, Michel Record, Christian Récher, Marc Poirot, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot
Dendrogenin A (DDA) is a newly discovered cholesterol metabolite with tumor suppressor properties. Here, we explored its efficacy and mechanism of cell death in melanoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that DDA induced lethal autophagy in vitro and in vivo, including primary AML patient samples, independently of melanoma Braf status or AML molecular and cytogenetic classifications. DDA is a partial agonist on liver-X-receptor (LXR) increasing Nur77, Nor1, and LC3 expression leading to autolysosome formation...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189433/transintestinal-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#14
Laurens F Reeskamp, Emma C E Meessen, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. RECENT FINDINGS: TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by the enterocyte into the intestinal lumen and is the balance between input and output fluxes through the enterocytes. These fluxes are: cholesterol excretion into the intestinal lumen mainly via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G5/8, cholesterol absorption from the intestine by Niemann-Pick C1 like protein 1, the uptake of plasma lipoproteins by enterocytes at the basolateral membrane, and the excretion of cholesterol in chylomicrons into the lymph...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188025/recent-advances-in-understanding-bile-acid-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
John Yl Chiang
Bile acids are derived from cholesterol to facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of cholesterol. Recent studies have identified bile acids as signaling molecules that activate nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, also known as TGR5) to maintain metabolic homeostasis and protect liver and other tissues and cells from bile acid toxicity. Bile acid homeostasis is regulated by a complex mechanism of feedback and feedforward regulation that is not completely understood...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185131/nimbolide-attenuate-the-lipid-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-in-primary-hepatocytes
#16
Ghedeir M Alshammari, Aristatile Balakrishnan, Thirunavukkarasu Chinnasamy
Nimbolide is a bioactive compound found in Azadirachta indica. This work was devised to investigate the potential effects of nimbolide on intracellular lipid deposition and its associated redox modulation in primary hepatocytes (Heps). Lipid accumulation was induced in Heps by supplementing 1 mM oleic acid for 24 h which was marked by significant accumulation of lipids. The results demonstrated that nimbolide can decrease intracellular cholesterol, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Nimbolide may also improve hepatocytes function through its antioxidant effects by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation by curtailing the reactive oxygen species levels...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184608/role-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-regulating-bacterial-translocation-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sundhar Mohandas, Balasubramaniyan Vairappan
Bacterial translocation (BT) has been impeccably implicated as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of chronic liver diseases (CLD). Scientific evidence accumulated over the last four decades has implied that the disease pathologies in CLD and BT are connected as a loop in the gut-liver axis and exacerbate each other. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and nuclear receptor that is expressed ubiquitously along the gut-liver-axis. PXR has been intricately associated with the regulation of various mechanisms attributed in causing BT...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184146/2-3-4-5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-exacerbates-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-inducing-hepatic-expression-of-cyp2e1-cyp3a4-and-cyp1a2
#18
Shangfu Xu, Jie Liu, Jingshan Shi, Zhengtao Wang, Lili Ji
Hepatotoxicity induced by medicinal herb Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. attracts wide attention in the world recently. 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a main active compound in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. This study aims to observe TSG-provided the aggravation on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by inducing hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. Serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) analysis and liver histological evaluation showed that TSG (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) exacerbated the hepatotoxicity induced by sub-toxic dose of APAP (200 mg/kg) in mice, but TSG alone had no hepatotoxicity...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181837/expression-of-liver-x-receptors-in-normal-and-refractory-carcinoma-tissues-of-the-human-lung-and-pancreas
#19
Korehito Kashiwagi, Mai Yanagida, Daiki Matsui, Mizuko Tanaka, Kotaro Sugimoto, Honglei Chen, Naoki Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Shigeru Marubashi, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideki Chiba
Liver X receptors (LXRs) participate not only in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis but also in controlling cellular growth in many types of normal and tumor cells. We previously reported that LXRα was aberrantly expressed in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) tissues and cell lines, and that LXR stimulation led to significant reduction of proliferation of HOSCC cells via accelerating cholesterol efflux. Since LXRs and downstream proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism could be also applied as therapeutic targets in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we herein analyzed the distribution of LXR proteins in these refractory cancers as well as in normal human lung and pancreatic tissues...
November 28, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177442/increased-27-hydroxycholesterol-production-during-luteolysis-may-mediate-the-progressive-decline-in-progesterone-secretion
#20
Yafei Xu, Scot M Hutchison, José J Hernández-Ledezma, Randy L Bogan
STUDY QUESTION: Does 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH) actively facilitate the progression of luteolysis? SUMMARY ANSWER: There is increased mRNA expression of the enzyme that produces 27OH during luteolysis in vivo in rhesus macaques and sheep, and 27OH reduces progesterone secretion from human luteinized granulosa cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is an increase in mRNA expression of liver x receptor (LXR) and a decrease in sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) target genes during spontaneous luteolysis in primates, which could result in reduced cholesterol availability for steroidogenesis...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
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