keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Liver X Receptor

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821440/apelin-protects-against-liver-x-receptor-mediated-steatosis-through-ampk-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-human-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#1
Jin Huang, Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818508/the-role-of-the-il-8-signaling-pathway-in-the-infiltration-of-granulocytes-into-the-livers-of-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#3
S W French, A S Mendoza, N Afifiyan, B Tillman, E Vitocruz, B A French
BACKGROUND AND AIM: IL-8 (C-X-L motif chemokine ligase 8) and CXCR2 (C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 2) are up regulated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) liver biopsies. One of the consequences is the attraction and chemotactic neutrophilic infiltrate seen at the AH stage of alcoholic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies from patients who have AH were studied by (2.1) RNA sequencing, (2.2) PCR and (2.3) semi quantitation of specific proteins in biopsy sections using immunohistochemical measurements of antibody fluorescent intensity with morphometric technology...
August 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816564/cytotoxicity-screening-and-cytokine-profiling-of-nineteen-nanomaterials-enables-hazard-ranking-and-grouping-based-on-inflammogenic-potential
#4
Kunal Bhattacharya, Gözde Kiliç, Pedro M Costa, Bengt Fadeel
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being produced for an increasing number of applications. Therefore, it is important to assess and categorize ENMs on the basis of their hazard potential. The immune system is the foremost defence against foreign bodies. Here we performed cytokine profiling of a panel of nineteen representative ENMs procured from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and commercial sources. Physicochemical characterization was performed using dynamic light scattering. The ENMs were all shown to be endotoxin content free...
August 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812343/xanthohumol-suppresses-mylip-idol-gene-expression-and-modulates-ldlr-abundance-and-activity-in-hepg2-cells
#5
Shih-Fen Chen, Pei-Yi Chen, Hao-Jen Hsu, Ming-Jiuan Wu, Jui-Hung Yen
Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-atherosclerosis and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects and molecular mechanisms of xanthohumol in hepatic cells. We found that xanthohumol (10 and 20 μM) increased the amount of cell-surface low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) from 100.0 ± 2.1% to 115.0±1.3% and 135.2±2.7%, and enhanced the LDL uptake activity from 100...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810520/studies-on-the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-and-the-mechanism-of-the-aqueous-and-ethanol-extracts-of-usnea
#6
Jiali Zhu, Xuemei Zhang, Xiu Chen, Yong Sun, Yaolan Dai, Chang Chen, Tiane Zhang, Zhiyong Yan
OBJECTIVES: Usnea is a lichen of Usnea diffracta Vain and Usnea longissima Ach, which belongs to the genus Usnea Adans of Usneaceae. Usnea exerts numerous pharmacological activities, while its lipid regulatory activities remain unreported. This study aims to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea on the regulation of lipid metabolism and to explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding with high-fat diet for 45days...
August 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802063/hepatitis-b-virus-pregenomic-rna-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-nosological-and-prognostic-determinant
#7
Boris Halgand, Christophe Desterke, Lise Rivière, Guillaume Fallot, Mylène Sebagh, Julien Calderaro, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Christine Neuveut, Marie-Annick Buendia, Didier Samuel, Cyrille Féray
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, very little is known about the replication of HBV in HCC tissues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed viral and cellular parameters in HCC (T) and non-tumor liver (NT) samples from 99 HBsAg-positive, virologically suppressed patients treated by tumour resection or liver transplantation. We examined total HBV DNA and RNA as well as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which are considered as markers of active HBV replication...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801370/impact-of-tlr-2-tlr-4-activation-on-the-expression-of-abca1-and-abcg1-in-raw-cells
#8
Kana Suzuki, Yasushi Kawakami, Kazuyoshi Yamauchi
Toll-like receptors (TLR) activation is thought to modulate the macrophage cholesterol efflux and contribute to the atherosclerosis progression; however, the precise pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TLR2- and TLR4-activation on the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in a mouse macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7. Both TLR2- and TLR4-activation upregulated the expression of ABCA1 mRNA but downregulated that of ABCG1 mRNA. These alterations may be mainly regulated by the following 3 cascades: (1) the TLR/myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88/Liver X receptor pathway, which upregulated the ABCA1 mRNA; (2) NF-κB pathway, which downregulated the ABCG1 mRNA, and (3) the p38 pathway, which upregulated and stabilized ABCA1 mRNA...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798155/ifn-%C3%AE-aggravates-neointimal-hyperplasia-by-inducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-in-macrophages-by-promoting-ubiquitin-dependent-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-degradation
#9
Qiang Zhao, Dong Zhou, Hongjun You, Bowen Lou, Yan Zhang, Yuling Tian, Ning Guo, Xiaoli Chen, Yan Liu, Yue Wu, Zuyi Yuan, Juan Zhou
Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Both IFN-γ and macrophages play nonredundant roles in the pathogenesis of vascular intimal hyperplasia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive and must be further investigated. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, IFN-γ significantly accelerated degradation and up-regulated polyubiquitination of liver X receptor (LXR)-α. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) inhibitor, fludarabine, and PIAS1 knockdown reduced ubiquitination and increased the expression of LXR-α in IFN-γ-treated macrophages...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796154/the-ability-of-exercise-associated-oxidative-stress-to-trigger-redox-sensitive-signalling-responses
#10
REVIEW
Richard Webb, Michael G Hughes, Andrew W Thomas, Keith Morris
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794002/klf4-regulation-of-ch25h-and-lxr-mitigates-atherosclerosis-susceptibility
#11
Zhao Li, Marcy Martin, Jin Zhang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Liang Bai, Jiao Zhang, Jian Kang, Ming He, Jie Li, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Guangjin Zhou, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Yong-Jiang Xu, Ting Lei, Hsien-Da Huang, Mohit Jain, Mukesh K Jain, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy
Background -Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory disease involving cells in the vascular wall [e.g., endothelial cells (ECs)] as well as circulating and resident immunogenic cells (e.g., monocytes/macrophages). Acting as a ligand for liver X receptor (LXR), but an inhibitor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and its catalyzing enzyme cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) are important in regulating cellular inflammatory status and cholesterol biosynthesis in both ECs and monocytes/macrophages...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792854/phytosterols-synergize-with-endotoxin-to-augment-inflammation-in-kupffer-cells-but-alone-have-limited-direct-effect-on-hepatocytes
#12
Gregory Guthrie, Bryan Tackett, Barbara Stoll, Camilia Martin, Oluyinka Olutoye, Douglas G Burrin
INTRODUCTION: Phytosterols are implicated in the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. A newly proposed mechanism for phytosterol-mediated parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease is through phytosterol-facilitated hepatic proinflammatory cytokine release following exposure to intestinally derived bacteria. Whether the proinflammatory effects are liver cell specific is not known. AIM: To determine if phytosterols cause inflammation in hepatocytes or Kupffer cells independently or require costimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790455/the-transcription-factor-mafb-promotes-anti-inflammatory-m2-polarization-and-cholesterol-efflux-in-macrophages
#13
Hwijin Kim
Macrophages play pivotal roles in the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that macrophage polarization into an anti-inflammatory M2 state is a key characteristic of atherosclerotic plaques undergoing regression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potential association of the M2 polarization with atherosclerosis regression remain poorly understood. Further, human genetic factors that facilitate these anti-atherogenic processes remain largely unknown. We report that the transcription factor MafB plays pivotal roles in promoting macrophage M2 polarization...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790326/intestinal-toxicity-of-the-type-b-trichothecene-mycotoxin-fusarenon-x-whole-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-new-signaling-pathways
#14
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Juliana Rubira Gerez, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Manon Neves, Joëlle Laffitte, Claire Naylies, Yannick Lippi, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Ana Paula L Bracarense, Philippe Pinton, Isabelle P Oswald
The few data available on fusarenon-X (FX) do not support the derivation of health-based guidance values, although preliminary results suggest higher toxicity than other regulated trichothecenes. Using histo-morphological analysis and whole transcriptome profiling, this study was designed to obtain a global view of the intestinal alterations induced by FX. Deoxynivalenol (DON) served as a benchmark. FX induced more severe histological alterations than DON. Inflammation was the hallmark of the molecular toxicity of both mycotoxins...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774887/suppressed-hepatic-bile-acid-signalling-despite-elevated-production-of-primary-and-secondary-bile-acids-in-nafld
#15
Na Jiao, Susan S Baker, Adrian Chapa-Rodriguez, Wensheng Liu, Colleen A Nugent, Maria Tsompana, Lucy Mastrandrea, Michael J Buck, Robert D Baker, Robert J Genco, Ruixin Zhu, Lixin Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD...
August 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774737/the-mechanism-of-diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-unifying-key-lipid-regulators-sirtuin-1-and-liver-x-receptor
#16
Sandra S Hammer, Eleni Beli, Nermin Kady, Qi Wang, Kiana Wood, Todd A Lydic, Goldis Malek, Daniel R Saban, Xiaoxin X Wang, Sugata Hazra, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication secondary to diabetes and is the number one cause of blindness among working age individuals worldwide. Despite recent therapeutic breakthroughs using pharmacotherapy, a cure for DR has yet to be realized. Several clinical trials have highlighted the vital role dyslipidemia plays in the progression of DR. Additionally, it has recently been shown that activation of Liver X receptor (LXRα/LXRβ) prevents DR in diabetic animal models. LXRs are nuclear receptors that play key roles in regulating cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and inflammation...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768576/the-xenobiotic-sensor-pxr-in-a-marine-flatfish-species-solea-senegalensis-gene-expression-patterns-and-its-regulation-under-different-physiological-conditions
#17
Carlos Marques, Vânia P Roberto, Luís Granadeiro, Marlene Trindade, Paulo J Gavaia, Vincent Laizé, M Leonor Cancela, Ignacio Fernández
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR1I sub-family and a known master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. New roles have been recently proposed in mammals through its activation by vitamin K (VK) such as regulation of glucose metabolism, bone homeostasis, reproduction, neuronal development and cognitive capacities. In marine fish species little is known about PXR and its potential roles. Here, expression patterns of pxr transcripts and conservation of protein domains were determined in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a marine flatfish model species in aquatic ecotoxicology...
July 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767424/induction-of-socs3-by-liver-x-receptor-suppresses-the-proliferation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#18
Haojun Xiong, Yan Zhang, Shan Chen, Zhenhong Ni, Jintao He, Xinzhe Li, Bo Li, Kai Zhao, Fan Yang, Yijun Zeng, Bingbo Chen, Fengtian He
Liver X receptor (LXR), a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is involved in the regulation of glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, it has been reported that LXR suppress different kinds of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the corresponding mechanism is still not well elucidated. In the present study, we found that activation of LXR downregulated cyclin D1 while upregulated p21 and p27 by elevating the level of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), leading to the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and growth inhibition of HCC cells...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766509/high-density-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport-strategies-for-raising-hdl-cholesterol
#20
Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Sonja Topuzovska
A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge...
August 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
keyword
keyword
64194
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"