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determinants of occlusal morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921018/comparison-of-the-protective-effects-of-erythropoietin-and-melatonin-on-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Shokofeh Banaei, Nasser Ahmadiasl, Alireza Alihemmati
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). Oxygen free radicals are considered to be the principal components involved in the pathophysiological tissue alterations observed during renal IR. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared the effects of melatonin (MEL) and erythropoietin (EPO), both known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, on IR-induced renal injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and then subjected to 45 minutes of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion...
July 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882110/intermittent-fasting-is-neuroprotective-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-minimizing-autophagic-flux-disturbance-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#2
Ji Heun Jeong, Kwang Sik Yu, Dong Ho Bak, Je Hun Lee, Nam Seob Lee, Young Gil Jeong, Dong Kwan Kim, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seung-Yun Han
Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy induced by caloric restriction (CR) is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. However, it has not been determined whether intermittent fasting (IF), a variation of CR, can exert autophagy-related neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of IF was evaluated over the course of two weeks in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). Specifically, the role of autophagy modulation as a potential underlying mechanism for this phenomenon was investigated...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871219/relationship-between-endothelial-function-of-micro-and-macrocirculation-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#3
Pavel Poredoš, Hana Bešič, Luka Jeraj
BACKGROUND: In the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD), different risk factors of atherosclerosis are involved which stimulate the development of the functional and morphological deterioration of vessel walls in macro- and microcirculation. The endothelial dysfunction (ED) of macrovessels has been proven, however, data on ED in microcirculation are sparse. Therefore, we have studied the relationship between micro- and macrocirculation in PAD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 85 participants: 30 patients had PAD without diabetes mellitus, 30 patients had PAD and diabetes mellitus type 2, and 25 were healthy controls...
November 24, 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836669/genetic-deletion-of-galectin-3-enhances-neuroinflammation-affects-microglial-activation-and-contributes-to-sub-chronic-injury-in-experimental-neonatal-focal-stroke
#4
Sophorn Chip, David Fernández-López, Fan Li, Joel Faustino, Nikita Derugin, Zinaida S Vexler
The pathophysiology of neonatal stroke and adult stroke are distinct in many aspects, including the inflammatory response. We previously showed endogenously protective functions of microglial cells in acute neonatal stroke. We asked if galectin-3 (Gal3), a pleotropic molecule that mediates interactions between microglia/macrophages and the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a role in early injury after transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) in postnatal day 10 mice. Compared to wild type (WT) pups, in Gal3 knockout pups injury was worse and cytokine/chemokine production altered, including further increase of MIP1α and MIP1β levels and reduced IL6 levels 72 hours after tMCAO...
November 8, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760384/chronic-intermittent-hybobaric-hypoxia-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-modulation-of-mitokatp
#5
Shixiao Zhang, Zan Guo, Shijie Yang, Huijuan Ma, Congrui Fu, Sheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Yixian Liu, Jie Hu
OBJECTIVE: Providing adequate protection against cerebral ischemia remains an unrealized goal. The present study was aimed at testing whether chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) would have protective effects against cerebral ischemia and investigating the potential role of mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) in this effect. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries for 8min on day 2 after bilateral vertebral arteries were permanently electrocauterized and CIHH was simulated in a hypoxic chamber...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731484/characterization-of-third-molar-morphometric-variables
#6
Pablo W Trinks, María Belén Grifo, Fernando Pari, Mariano Ar Amer, Gabriel A Sánchez
The third molar is a tooth of anatomical, surgical, prosthetic and forensic dental interest. However, there is currently a lack of updated data regarding its morphology. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric features of third molars and their predictive capability as regards dental arch and side. Two calibrated operators (ƙ = 0.83) determined the cervicalocclusalvestibular (COV), cervicalocclusalpalatal (COP) and occlusalapical (OA) distances, mesiodistal (MD), and vestibularpalatal (VP) diameters, number of roots (R) and number of cusps (C) of 961 cadaveric third molars, both upper (n = 462) and lower (n = 499), using a CONCOR 050 thin mandible caliper (resolution 0...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717807/sex-differences-in-astrocyte-and-microglia-responses-immediately-following-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-adult-mice
#7
Helena W Morrison, Jessica A Filosa
Epidemiological studies report that infarct size is decreased and stroke outcomes are improved in young females when compared to males. However, mechanistic insight is lacking. We posit that sex-specific differences in glial cell functions occurring immediately after ischemic stroke are a source of dichotomous outcomes. In this study we assessed astrocyte Ca(2+) dynamics, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) polarity, S100β expression pattern, as well as, microglia morphology and phagocytic marker CD11b in male and female mice following 60min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641102/morphologic-assessment-of-the-left-atrial-appendage-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-by-gray-values-inverted-volume-rendered-imaging-of-three-dimensional-transesophageal-echocardiography-a-comparative-study-with-computed-tomography
#8
Hongning Song, Qing Zhou, Qing Deng, Jinling Chen, Lan Zhang, Tuantuan Tan, Ruiqiang Guo
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of left atrial appendage (LAA) morphology is crucial in determining an LAA occlusion strategy. The aim of this study was to develop a novel echocardiographic volume-rendered imaging technique to visualize LAA morphology. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Forty patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) before catheter ablation were enrolled...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637387/infiltration-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-occur-and-accelerate-brain-infarction-in-permanent-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#9
Zhen-Kui Wang, Li Xue, Tao Wang, Xiu-Jie Wang, Zhi-Qiang Su
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of T cells that have been implicated in inflammation, atopy, autoimmunity, infections, and cancer. Although iNKT cells have been extensively studied over the past decade, its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury is still largely unknown. In our study, we determined whether iNKT cells infiltration occur in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice were treated with either alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or vehicle control before undergoing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO)...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636398/iliac-and-femoro-popliteal-arteries-morphological-cta-features-as-determinants-of-outcome-after-standard-evar-procedures
#10
Pasqualino Sirignano, Francesco Speziale, Laura Capoccia, Danilo Menna, Wassim Mansour, Nunzio Montelione, Francesco Setacci, Giuseppe Galzerano, Carlo Setacci
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of iliac artery's diameters, tortuosity, and peripheral vascular patency on outcome of elective endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in 2 high volume vascular centers' experience. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on a prospectively collected database between 2010 and 2012. Anatomical features at pre-operative computed tomography (CTA) considered as potentially influencing outcomes were: iliac diameters, tortuosity (expressed as a ratio), and calcifications, bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) patency, and presence of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Societies Consensus (TASC) II C/D femoro-popliteal occlusive disease (PAD)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613274/morphological-assessment-of-the-retina-in-uveitis
#11
Michael M Altaweel, Sapna S Gangaputra, Jennifer E Thorne, James P Dunn, Susan G Elner, Glenn J Jaffe, Rosa Y Kim, P Kumar Rao, Susan B Reed, John H Kempen
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe a system for color photograph evaluation in uveitis and report baseline morphologic findings for the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial. Four-hundred seventy-nine eyes of 255 subjects with intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis had stereoscopic color fundus photographs obtained by certified photographers and evaluated by certified graders using standardized procedures to evaluate morphologic characteristics of uveitis...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609578/-activation-of-autophagy-pathway-in-hippocampus-and-deterioration-of-learning-and-memory-ability-by-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Xiangfei Guo, Yaning Zhao, Jianmin Li, Wenqian Liu, Changxiang Chen
Objective To investigate the effects of different duration of intermittent hypoxia on the autophagy pathway in the hippocampus and the learning and memory ability after cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods 100 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation (SO) group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 7 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH7-I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 14 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH14-I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 21 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH21-I/R) group, n =20 in each group...
September 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609258/predictors-for-successful-endovascular-intervention-in-chronic-carotid-artery-total-occlusion
#13
Ying-Hsien Chen, Weng-San Leong, Mao-Shin Lin, Ching-Chang Huang, Chi-Sheng Hung, Hung-Yuan Li, Kok-Kheng Chan, Chih-Fan Yeh, Ming-Jang Chiu, Hsien-Li Kao
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine predictors for successful endovascular treatment in patients with chronic carotid artery occlusion (CAO). BACKGROUND: Endovascular recanalization in patients with chronic CAO has been reported to be feasible, but technically challenging. METHODS: Endovascular attempts in 138 consecutive chronic CAO patients with impaired ipsilateral hemisphere perfusion were reviewed. We analyzed potential variables including epidemiology, symptomatology, angiographic morphology, and interventional techniques in relation to the technical success...
September 12, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558851/on-the-evolutionary-advantage-of-multi-cusped-teeth
#14
Paul J Constantino, Mark B Bush, Amir Barani, Brian R Lawn
A hallmark of mammalian evolution is a progressive complexity in postcanine tooth morphology. However, the driving force for this complexity remains unclear: whether to expand the versatility in diet source, or to bolster tooth structural integrity. In this study, we take a quantitative approach to this question by examining the roles of number, position and height of multiple cusps in determining sustainable bite forces. Our approach is to use an extended finite-element methodology with due provision for step-by-step growth of an embedded crack to determine how fracture progresses with increasing occlusal load...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555551/inhalation-of-water-electrolysis-derived-hydrogen-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-a-possible-new-hydrogen-resource-for-clinical-use
#15
Jin Cui, Xiao Chen, Xiao Zhai, Dongchen Shi, Rongjia Zhang, Xin Zhi, Xiaoqun Li, Zhengrong Gu, Liehu Cao, Weizong Weng, Jun Zhang, Liping Wang, Xuejun Sun, Fang Ji, Jiong Hou, Jiacan Su
Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497375/dual-energy-computed-tomographic-imaging-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Anne-Lise Hachulla, Frédéric Lador, Paola M Soccal, Xavier Montet, Maurice Beghetti
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography of the chest provides a combined morphological and functional analysis of the lung, usually obtained in a single acquisition without extra radiation or injection of extra intravenous iodine contrast. The parenchymal iodine maps generated by DECT are well correlated with scintigraphy, and are becoming an essential tool for evaluating patients with pulmonary vascular diseases. With a single DECT acquisition, complete imaging of pulmonary hypertension is now available, displaying vascular anatomy, parenchymal morphology and functional assessment...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488244/activation-of-%C3%AF-1-and-%C3%AF-2-receptors-by-afobazole-increases-glial-cell-survival-and-prevents-glial-cell-activation-and-nitrosative-stress-after-ischemic-stroke
#17
C Katnik, A Garcia, A A Behensky, I E Yasny, A M Shuster, S B Seredenin, A V Petrov, J Cuevas
Activation of sigma receptors at delayed time points has been shown to decrease injury following ischemic stroke. The mixed σ1/σ2 receptor agonist, afobazole, provides superior long-term outcomes compared to other σ ligands in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Experiments using the MCAO model were carried out to determine the molecular mechanism involved in the beneficial effects of afobazole. Administration of afobazole (3 mg/kg) at delayed time points post-stroke significantly increased the number of microglia and astrocytes detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 96 hrs post-surgery...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449604/inadequate-food-and-water-intake-determine-mortality-following-stroke-in-mice
#18
Athanasios Lourbopoulos, Uta Mamrak, Stefan Roth, Matilde Balbi, Joshua Shrouder, Arthur Liesz, Farida Hellal, Nikolaus Plesnila
Experimental stroke models producing clinically relevant functional deficits are often associated with high mortality. Because the mechanisms that underlie post-stroke mortality are largely unknown, results obtained using these models are often difficult to interpret, thereby limiting their translational potential. Given that specific forms of post-stroke care reduce mortality in patients, we hypothesized that inadequate food and water intake may underlie mortality following experimental stroke. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 1 h of intraluminal filament middle cerebral artery occlusion...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443195/determination-of-oxygen-extraction-fraction-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-canine-models-with-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion
#19
Fei-Yan Chang, Jiang-Xi Xiao, Sheng Xie, Lei Yu, Zhen-Xia Zhang, Wu Wang, Jie Luo, Zhong-Ping Zhang, Hua Guo
Perfusion of the penumbra tissue below the flow threshold for functional disturbance but above that for the maintenance of morphological integrity is the target for therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The measurement of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) may provide a direct assessment of tissue viability, so that irreversible tissue damage and penumbra can be reliably identified. By using an asymmetric spin echo single-shot echo planar imaging (ASE-SSEPI) sequence, the quantitative OEF was obtained in the ischaemic brain tissues of canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440005/high-resolution-mapping-of-postinfarction-reentrant-ventricular-tachycardia-electrophysiological-characterization-of-the-circuit
#20
Elad Anter, Cory M Tschabrunn, Alfred E Buxton, Mark E Josephson
BACKGROUND: In vivo description of ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits is limited by insufficient spatiotemporal resolution. We used a novel high-resolution mapping technology to characterize the electrophysiological properties of the postinfarction reentrant VT circuit. METHODS: In 15 swine, myocardial infarction was induced by left anterior descending artery balloon occlusion. Animals were studied 6 to 8 weeks after myocardial infarction. Activation mapping of VTs was performed by using the Rhythmia mapping system...
July 26, 2016: Circulation
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