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L Thijs, P Messiaen, J van der Hilst, V Madoe, C Melis, P Van Eyken, I Vanmoerkerke, F Janssens
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma species. Intestinal and hepatic schistosomiases are the most common forms of chronic disease. We describe a case of a 26-year old patient from Eritrea who was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was made by liver biopsy and the patient was treated with praziquantel. Hepatic schistosomiasis is characterised by deposition of schistosomal eggs in the liver which results in a host cell immune response and leads to granuloma formation and neoangiogenesis...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Sara J Czaja, Chin Chin Lee, Dolores Perdomo, David Loewenstein, Marina Bravo, Jerad H Moxley PhD, Richard Schulz
Background and Objectives: Family caregivers (CGs) are critical to the provision of long-term services and support for older adults. Numerous intervention programs to alleviate CG distress have been developed and evaluated yet few have been implemented in community settings. This paper describes and presents outcomes from Community REACH, a community implementation of the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II program. Research Design and Methods: Community REACH involved a partnership between REACH II investigators and United HomeCare Services (UHCS), a nonprofit home health organization that provides home health, personal care, companion, and respite services...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Simon Pini, Emma Ingleson, Molly Megson, Linda Clare, Penny Wright, Jan R Oyebode
Background and Objectives: Approximately half the care for people with dementia is provided by families. It is therefore imperative that research informs ways of maintaining such care. In this study, we propose that a needs-led approach can provide a useful, novel means of conceptualizing the impact of caring on the lives of family carers. Our aim was to develop and present a needs-led framework for understanding how providing care impacts on carers' fulfilment of needs. Design and Methods: In this qualitative study, we conducted 42 semistructured interviews with a purposively diverse sample of family carers to generate nuanced contextualized accounts of how caring impacted on carers' lives...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Paola Mosconi, Cinzia Colombo, Anna Roberto, Giulia Candiani, Maria Teresa Greco, Roberto Satolli, Carlo Castellani
Background: Health technology assessment and ethical issues have to be dealt with in deciding on national carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF)-the most frequent severe autosomal recessive disease in Caucasian populations and several stakeholders need to be involved. A citizens' jury is one way to ask citizens to deliberate on controversial topics in the interests of a society. The aims of this project were to gather opinions about CF carrier screening through citizens' jury deliberations and to match them with the findings of a large online consultation survey open to the general population, people with CF and families and health professionals...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Gregory S Calip, Katie J Suda, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Background: Prior studies evaluating the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFI) and infection were conducted in adults and had conflicting findings. We sought to examine the risk of serious infection associated with TNFIs compared with nonbiologic immunomodulators in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to compare the risk among individual TNFIs. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database of patients age <30 years with a diagnosis of IBD who initiated treatment with a TNFI or immunomodulator (thiopurines or methotrexate) between 2009 and 2013...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Max D Wellenstein, Karin E de Visser
Owing to their tremendous diversity and plasticity, immune cells exert multifaceted functions in tumor-bearing hosts, ranging from anti-tumor to pro-tumor activities. Tumor immune landscapes differ greatly between and within cancer types. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic aberrations in cancer cells dictate the immune contexture of tumors. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms whereby common drivers of tumorigenesis modulate the tumor immune milieu. We discuss these findings in the context of clinical observations and examine how cancer-cell-intrinsic properties can be exploited to maximize the benefit of immunomodulatory therapies...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Noura S Abul-Husn, Xiping Cheng, Alexander H Li, Yurong Xin, Claudia Schurmann, Panayiotis Stevis, Yashu Liu, Julia Kozlitina, Stefan Stender, G Craig Wood, Ann N Stepanchick, Matthew D Still, Shane McCarthy, Colm O'Dushlaine, Jonathan S Packer, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Nehal Gosalia, David Esopi, Sun Y Kim, Semanti Mukherjee, Alexander E Lopez, Erin D Fuller, John Penn, Xin Chu, Jonathan Z Luo, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Michael D Feldman, Aeron Small, Scott M Damrauer, Daniel J Rader, Brian Zambrowicz, William Olson, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, George D Yancopoulos, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen, Omri Gottesman, Tanya M Teslovich, Aris Baras, Tooraj Mirshahi, Jesper Gromada, Frederick E Dewey
BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Henry L Nguyen, George F Bonadurer, Megha M Tollefson
Importance: Patients with vascular malformations (VAMs) and vascular overgrowth syndromes have lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributable to social stigmatization, poor mental health, severity, and pain. However, the factors that contribute to this decreased HRQoL are not clear. Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used validated HRQoL instruments to compare the HRQoL of persons with VAMs with the US general population...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Óscar M Lozano, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Antonio J Rojas, Angelina Pilatti, Fermín Fernández-Calderón
The UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (with five dimensions of impulsive behaviour) is being widely used. One of the handicaps of this instrument is its relatively long administration time. This has led to the development of a short version: SUPPS-P. There are no studies comparing the relationship between the SUPPS-P scores and the original UPPS-P scores. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to analyse the psychometric properties, concordance of person measures, and efficiency of the SUPPS-P compared to those on UPPS-P, applying an Item Response Theory Model...
2018: PloS One
Rupert W Major, Mark R I Cheng, Robert A Grant, Saran Shantikumar, Gang Xu, Issaam Oozeerally, Nigel J Brunskill, Laura J Gray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population using prognostic models based on routinely collected risk factors is embedded in clinical practice. In CKD, prognostic models may misrepresent risk due to the interplay of traditional atherosclerotic and non-traditional risk factors. This systematic review's aim was to identify routinely collected risk factors for inclusion in a CKD-specific cardiovascular prognostic model...
2018: PloS One
Delphine Grynberg, Belén López-Pérez
Previous research has linked the use of certain emotion regulation strategies to the vicarious experience of personal distress (PD) and empathic concern (EC). However, it has not yet been tested whether (1) vicarious PD is positively associated with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, (2) vicarious EC is positively associated with adaptive emotion regulation strategies or whether (3) PD and EC mediate the link between emotion regulation and reports of approach/avoidance in response to a person in distress...
2018: PloS One
Claudia Cooper, Louise Marston, Julie Barber, Deborah Livingston, Penny Rapaport, Paul Higgs, Gill Livingston
BACKGROUND: There are widespread concerns about abuse of care home residents. We report, in the largest care home survey, prevalence of staff anonymously-reported, perpetrated/witnessed abusive behaviours towards care home residents over 3 months. We also report positive care behaviours. METHODS: 1544 staff in 92 English care home units completed the revised Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. OUTCOMES: Most staff reported positive care behaviours, but specific person-centred activities were sometimes infrequent...
2018: PloS One
Peter F M Teunis, Eric G Evers, Paul D Hengeveld, Cindy M Dierikx, Cornelia C C H Wielders, Engeline van Duijkeren
A subset of the study population from a cross-sectional study of carriership of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli (ESBL-E) in the general population was followed up by five successive samples over an approximate half year period, leading to six samples in 333 persons. Fecal samples were cultured and analyzed for the presence of E. coli types as characterized by MLST, and ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The study included 255 persons who had a negative first sample, to allow observations of acquiring carriership of ESBL-E...
2018: PloS One
Beatrice Xuan Ho, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Boon-Seng Soh
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Beyza Aksu Dunya, Clark McKown, Everett V Smith
Social perspective-taking (SPT), which involves the ability infer others' intentions, is a consequential social cognitive process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a web-based social perspective-taking (SELweb SPT) assessment designed for children in kindergarten through third grade. Data were collected from two separate samples of children. The first sample included 3224 children and the second sample included 4419 children. Data were calibrated using Rasch dichotomous model (Rasch, 1960)...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Karolina Popławska-Domaszewicz, Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
Paraneoplastic movement disorders are rare, autoimmune-mediated, nonmetastatic complications of malignant neoplasms. Common paraneoplastic movement disorders include paraneoplastic chorea, dystonia, cerebellar degeneration, different types of encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, stiff person syndrome, and neuromyotonia. Syndromes usually develop before tumor diagnosis, have subacute onset, and are associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Two types of antibodies can be distinguished: antibodies against nuclear and cytoplasmic neuronal antigens (anti-Hu, anti-Ri, anti-Yo, anti-Ma, anti-CV2/CRMP5, anti-Gephrin, and anti-GABATRAP) and antibodies recently identified against cell surface and synaptic proteins (anti-NMDAR, anti-LGI1, and anti-Caspr2)...
March 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Michelle Schoenleber
In reviewing four prominent theories, Gunderson et al. (2018) incidentally highlight for the reader the need for new collaborative research efforts that draw together scholars representing these various theories o borderline personality pathology. Many avenues for such research exist that have the potential to improve o r overall understanding of the development, maintenance and possible treatment of borderline personality pathology in ways that research grounded in just one theory does not. Herein, the similarities and differences among these theories in their assumptions with regard to emotional baselines and sequences of emotion (i...
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
John F Clarkin
Models of personality pathology have been used to guide treatment development for patients with borderline personality disorder. The existing treatments are effective, but mechanisms of change related to the model have not been adequately explored.
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger, Gillian A McCabe
Gunderson, Fruzzetti, Unruh, and Choi-Kahn (2018) review four competing theories of borderline personality border (BPD). Regrettably, they did not acknowledge the theory that BPD is a maladaptive variant of Five-Factor Model general personality structure. This commentary indicates how the FFM of BPD addresses well, and does so empirically, the points of comparison, made by Gunderson et al.
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
John G Gunderson, Alan Fruzzetti, Brandon Unruh, Lois Choi-Kain
The authors review four theories that propose different conceptualizations of borderline personality disorder's (BPD) core psychopathology: excess aggression, emotional dysregulation, failed mentalization, and interpersonal hypersensitivity. The theories are compared in their ability to explain BPD's coaggregation of four usually distinct sectors of psychopathology, their high overlap with other disorders, their ability to distinguish BPD from other disorders, their integration of heritability, and their clinical applicability...
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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