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Obesity, nutrition, diabetes,

Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
K J Coppell, J C Miller, A R Gray, M Schultz, J I Mann, W R Parnell
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity-related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high-risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Liang Chen, Jian Kuang, Jian-Hao Pei, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhong Chen, Zhong-Wen Li, Hua-Zhang Yang, Xiao-Ying Fu, Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Chen, Shui-Qing Lai, Shu-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting cardiorespiratory fitness in males and females with different body mass index. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 data were used for this retrospective study. Estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is surrogate for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to explore whether study variables were associated with estimated VO2max stratified by gender and BMI categories...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Andrew J Beamish, Torsten Olbers, Aaron S Kelly, Thomas H Inge
Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Gisele Farias, Rubia D Thieme, Laila M Teixeira, Maria Emilia V D Heyde, Solange C Bettini, Rosana B Radominski
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is one of the main treatments for severity obesity, but weight regain after surgery is an important issue. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical and nutritional profiles of good and poor weight loss responders in the late postoperative period after bariatric surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a University Hospital. Patients were divided into good weight loss responders (GWLR) and poor weight loss responders (PWLR) defined as ≥ 50% or < 50% excess weight loss (EWL), respectively, at least 2 years post-surgery...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Betine Pinto Moehlecke Iser, Álvaro Vigo, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle income countries, posing a great challenge to health systems. Brazil is currently ranked 4th in the world in terms of the absolute number of persons with diabetes. Our aim was to analyze the trend in self-reported diabetes prevalence between 2006 and 2014 in Brazilian adults. METHODS: We used data from the national telephone survey-VIGITEL. Over 40,000 individuals from probabilistic sample of subjects ≥18 years old residing in 26 state capitals and the Federal District were interviewed per year in each location...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander Diniz, Alline Maria Rezende Beleigoli, Antônio Luiz P Ribeiro, Pedro Guatimosim Vidigal, Isabela M Bensenor, Paulo A Lotufo, Bruce B Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt, Sandhi Maria Barreto
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hiroshi Itoh
Many hypertension guidelines have been published mainly from Western countries to standardize the management of hypertension all over the world, however, the significance of hypertension, along with other cardio-metabolic risks, such as obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia should differ among different races. This paper compares the relevance of hypertension, one of the most important cardio-metabolic risk factors, in Asian and Western societies.1) Low target level of blood pressure control for diabetic hypertensives in JapanIn the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of Hypertension (JSH2014), the target of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients with diabetes was set as < 130/80 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Carolina Frade Magalhaes Girardin Pimentel, Michelle Lai
The progressively increasing rates of obesity have led to a worldwide epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is currently the most common cause of liver disease worldwide and projected to be the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States by 2020. NAFLD is associated with both liver-related and overall mortality. Undoubtedly, nutrition interventions are key in the treatment of NAFLD, to reverse the disease, and prevent disease progression, complications, and associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Cheryl A M Anderson, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Dena E Rifkin
Dietary modification is recommended in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD often have multiple comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, for which dietary modification is also recommended. As CKD progresses, nutrition plays an important role in mitigating risk for cardiovascular disease and decline in kidney function. The objectives of nutrition interventions in CKD include management of risk factors, ensuring optimal nutritional status throughout all stages of CKD, preventing buildup of toxic metabolic products, and avoiding complications of CKD...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
L Dioni, S Sucato, V Motta, S Iodice, L Angelici, C Favero, T Cavalleri, L Vigna, B Albetti, S Fustinoni, P Bertazzi, A Pesatori, V Bollati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kajio, Takehiro Sugiyama
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether obese diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) have a lower risk for cardiovascular or cardiac mortalities than do nonobese diabetic patients with CHD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 and followed up the study participants from the survey participation date until December 31, 2011. For primary analyses, we built Cox proportional hazard models restricted to diabetic patients with CHD; unadjusted and adjusted hazard rates of cardiovascular mortality were compared between obese and nonobese participants...
October 8, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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