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Law and ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077830/-path-analysis-of-the-influence-of-hospital-ethical-climate-perceived-by-nurses-on-supervisor-trust-and-organizational-effectiveness
#1
Yoon Goo Noh, Myun Sook Jung
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the paths of influence that a hospital's ethical climate exerts on nurses' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, with supervisor trust as the mediating factor, and verify compatibility of the models in hospital nurses. METHODS: The sample consisted of 374 nurses recruited from four hospitals in 3 cities in Korea. The measurements included the Ethical Climate Questionnaire, Supervisor Trust Questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057710/-this-man-with-dementia-1-othering-the-person-with-dementia-in-the-court-of-protection
#2
Laura Pritchard-Jones
In recent years, dementia has been subjected to an increasing ethical, legal, and political gaze. This article analyses how the Court of Protection considers the perspective of the person with dementia when making best interests decisions on their behalf under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. The article draws upon feminist and disability literature to highlight how the Court has, on occasions, 'othered' the person with dementia during the process of making best interests decisions. This is despite law and policy increasingly emphasising that the views of the person who lacks capacity should be central to any best interests decision, as well as emphasising the importance of de-stigmatisation of cognitive impairments, such as dementia...
January 5, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047960/tu-b-206-02-on-the-algorithmic-approach-to-ethical-conduct
#3
G Sherouse
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047387/tu-b-206-00-do-the-right-thing
#4
Jeffrey Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046722/tu-b-206-01-navigating-the-black-white-and-gray
#5
J Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041869/-palliative-care-after-neonatal-intensive-care-contributions-of-leonetti-law-and-remaining-challenges
#6
P Kuhn, L Dillenseger, N Cojean, B Escande, C Zores, D Astruc
The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040228/the-compulsory-psychiatric-regime-in-hong-kong-constitutional-and-ethical-perspectives
#7
Daisy Cheung
This article examines the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong. Under section 36 of the Mental Health Ordinance, which authorises long-term detention of psychiatric patients, a District Judge is required to countersign the form filled out by the registered medical practitioners in order for the detention to be valid. Case law, however, has shown that the role of the District Judge is merely administrative. This article suggests that, as it currently stands, the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong is unconstitutional because it fails the proportionality test...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#8
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035125/crimes-against-public-health-in-croatia-and-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#9
Maja Buhovac
The criminal protection of human health, public health is based on the punishment procedures doctor, pharmacist, ordinary citizen, manufacturers and merchants. It is justified to singleout these crimes in a special group of criminal offenses within the particular part, which is particularly true for those offenses where the focus is not on false threats to the health of a particular individual, but when it may lead to more people lose their lives or get to poor health of more people. This paper will point out the fundamental characteristics of these criminal offenses, their justification to identify a separate chapter in the criminal law, the importance of respect ethical standards in scientific activity, the criminal liability of doctors as fundamental carriers of health activities with regard to the offenses for which the perpetrators appear primary doctor...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033072/historic-leadership
#10
Ellen F Johnsen, Katherine J Pohlman
School nursing practice establishes itself in the midst of both education and nursing philosophies, ethics, standards, laws, and regulations. Treading these two worlds is difficult at times and requires that a school nurse possess a strong foundational knowledge base, seek professional collaboration, and navigate conflicting professional demands in order to promote student and public safety. This article is Part 1 of a four-part series that recounts the inspiring story of a school nurse, Ellen Johnsen, who did just that back in the 1980s in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma...
January 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029466/-accreditation-of-independent-ethics-committees
#11
Miguel A Ramiro Avilés
OBJECTIVE: According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. METHODS: National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed...
October 29, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#12
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029405/distributed-learning-developing-a-predictive-model-based-on-data-from-multiple-hospitals-without-data-leaving-the-hospital-a-real-life-proof-of-concept
#13
Arthur Jochems, Timo M Deist, Johan van Soest, Michael Eble, Paul Bulens, Philippe Coucke, Wim Dries, Philippe Lambin, Andre Dekker
PURPOSE: One of the major hurdles in enabling personalized medicine is obtaining sufficient patient data to feed into predictive models. Combining data originating from multiple hospitals is difficult because of ethical, legal, political, and administrative barriers associated with data sharing. In order to avoid these issues, a distributed learning approach can be used. Distributed learning is defined as learning from data without the data leaving the hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data from 287 lung cancer patients, treated with curative intent with chemoradiation (CRT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone were collected from and stored in 5 different medical institutes (123 patients at MAASTRO (Netherlands, Dutch), 24 at Jessa (Belgium, Dutch), 34 at Liege (Belgium, Dutch and French), 48 at Aachen (Germany, German) and 58 at Eindhoven (Netherlands, Dutch))...
October 28, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027674/ethical-decision-making-regarding-infant-viability
#14
Janet Kelly, Emma Welch
BACKGROUND: There are no universally agreed rules of healthcare ethics. Ethical decisions and standards tend to be linked to professional codes of practice when dealing with complex issues. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to explore the ethical complexities on who should decide to give infants born on the borderline of viability lifesaving treatment, parents or the healthcare professionals. METHOD: The paper is a discussion using the principles of ethics, professional codes of practice from the UK, Nursing Midwifery Council and UK legal case law and statute...
January 1, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027071/covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-can-my-patient-drive
#15
Jawaid Shaw, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem and hepatic encephalopathy is one of its main complications, which can be either overt meaning thereby evident and readily diagnosed, or covert/minimal (covert hepatic encephalopathy-CHE) needing psychometric testing for diagnosis. Patients with CHE hepatic encephalopathy have deficits in multiple domains including visuospatial assessment, attention, response inhibition, working memory, along with psychomotor speed to name a few areas. These patients have poor navigational skills, get fatigued easily, and demonstrate poor insight into their driving deficits...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007511/-neonatal-palliative-care-at-home-contribution-of-the-regional-pediatric-palliative-care-team
#16
N Cojean, C Strub, P Kuhn, L Calvel
The "patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has allowed implementation of palliative care in neonatology as an alternative to unreasonable therapeutic interventions. A palliative care project can be offered to newborns suffering from intractable diseases. It must be focused on the newborn's quality of life and comfort and on family support. Palliative care for newborns can be provided in the delivery room, in the neonatal unit, and also at home. Going home is possible but requires medical support...
December 19, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993902/views-on-mandatory-reporting-of-impaired-health-practitioners-by-their-treating-practitioners-a-qualitative-study-from-australia
#17
Marie M Bismark, Ben Mathews, Jennifer M Morris, Laura A Thomas, David M Studdert
OBJECTIVE: To explore the views and experiences of health sector professionals in Australia regarding a new national law requiring treating practitioners to report impaired health practitioners whose impairments came to their attention in the course of providing treatment. METHOD: We conducted a thematic analysis of in-depth, semistructured interviews with 18 health practitioners and 4 medicolegal advisors from Australia's 6 states, each of whom had experience with applying the new mandatory reporting law in practice...
December 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990299/sharing-health-related-data-a-privacy-test
#18
Stephanie Om Dyke, Edward S Dove, Bartha M Knoppers
Greater sharing of potentially sensitive data raises important ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), which risk hindering and even preventing useful data sharing if not properly addressed. One such important issue is respecting the privacy-related interests of individuals whose data are used in genomic research and clinical care. As part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH), we examined the ELSI status of health-related data that are typically considered 'sensitive' in international policy and data protection laws...
August 17, 2016: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968918/behaviours-in-avoiding-indoor-exposure-to-second-hand-smoke-among-pregnant-women-in-five-geographical-areas-of-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Xianglong Xu, Yunshuang Rao, Manoj Sharma, Jeff J Guo, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke is a major indoor pollutant that causes serious health problems, especially for pregnant women. The 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China reported that 65·1% of non-smoking women of childbearing age were exposed to second-hand smoke at home and 52·6% were exposed in the workplace. This study aimed to probe behaviours in avoiding indoor second-hand smoke exposure induced by different intimate relationships among pregnant women in China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older surveyed in person by investigators from June 1, to Aug 31, 2015, from 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China (Chongqing, Chengdu, Zunyi, Liaocheng, and Tianjin)...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968917/current-smoking-in-pregnant-women-in-five-geographical-areas-of-china-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Xianglong Xu, Yunshuang Rao, Sha Deng, Sheng Liu, Jeff J Guo, Manoj Sharma, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is related to many adverse outcomes on infants. Smoking during pregnancy can cause abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, increased sudden infant death risk, and low birthweight. The aim of this study was to probe the differences in smoking among pregnant women with diverse characteristics. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed in person by investigators from June 1, to Aug 31, 2015, from 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China (Chongqing, Chengdu, Zunyi, Liaocheng, and Tianjin)...
October 2016: Lancet
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