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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147055/assistive-technologies-for-people-with-dementia-ethical-considerations
#1
Belinda Bennett, Fiona McDonald, Elizabeth Beattie, Terry Carney, Ian Freckelton, Ben White, Lindy Willmott
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 include a new target for global health: SDG 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages." Dementia care of good quality is particularly important given the projected increase in the number of people living with the condition. A range of assistive technologies have been proposed to support dementia care. However, the World Health Organization estimated in 2017 that only one in 10 of the 1 billion or more people globally who could benefit from these technologies in some way actually has access to them...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143269/defining-information-security
#2
Björn Lundgren, Niklas Möller
This article proposes a new definition of information security, the 'Appropriate Access' definition. Apart from providing the basic criteria for a definition-correct demarcation and meaning concerning the state of security-it also aims at being a definition suitable for any information security perspective. As such, it bridges the conceptual divide between so-called 'soft issues' of information security (those including, e.g., humans, organizations, culture, ethics, policies, and law) and more technical issues...
November 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138205/long-term-prognosis-of-young-breast-cancer-patients-%C3%A2-40-years-who-did-not-receive-adjuvant-systemic-treatment-protocol-for-the-paradigm-initiative-cohort-study
#3
Gwen Mhe Dackus, Natalie D Ter Hoeve, Mark Opdam, Willem Vreuls, Zsuzsanna Varga, Esther Koop, Stefan M Willems, Carolien Hm Van Deurzen, Emilie J Groen, Alicia Cordoba, Jos Bart, Antien L Mooyaart, Jan G van den Tweel, Vicky Zolota, Jelle Wesseling, Anna Sapino, Ewa Chmielik, Ales Ryska, Frederic Amant, Annegien Broeks, Ron Kerkhoven, Nikolas Stathonikos, Mitko Veta, Adri Voogd, Katarzyna Jozwiak, Michael Hauptmann, Marlous Hoogstraat, Marjanka K Schmidt, Gabe Sonke, Elsken van der Wall, Sabine Siesling, Paul J van Diest, Sabine C Linn
INTRODUCTION: Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are considered prognostically unfavourable, many treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant systemic treatment for all young patients. Patients cured by locoregional treatment alone are, therefore, overtreated. Lack of prognosticators for young breast cancer patients represents an unmet medical need and has led to the initiation of the PAtients with bReAst cancer DIaGnosed preMenopausally (PARADIGM) initiative...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129020/ethical-aspects-of-medical-age-assessment-in-the-asylum-process-a-swedish-perspective
#4
Erik Malmqvist, Elisabeth Furberg, Lars Sandman
According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122313/has-the-question-of-e-waste-opened-a-pandora-s-box-an-overview-of-unpredictable-issues-and-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Bouchra Bakhiyi, Sabrina Gravel, Diana Ceballos, Michael A Flynn, Joseph Zayed
Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121943/managing-intra-eu-mobility-do-who-principles-of-ethical-recruitment-have-relevance
#6
Réka Kovács, Edmond Girasek, Eszter Kovács, Zoltán Aszalós, Edit Eke, Károly Ragány, Zoltán Cserháti, Miklós Szócska
BACKGROUND: The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel provides for guidance in health workforce management and cooperation in the international context. This article aims to examine whether the principles of the voluntary WHO Global Code of Practice can be applied to trigger health policy decisions within the EU zone of free movement of persons. METHODS: In the framework of the Joint Action on European Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting project (Grant Agreement: JA EUHWF 20122201 (see healthworkforce...
November 9, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102558/analysis-of-academic-medical-center-graduate-medical-education-websites-for-policies-regarding-restrictive-covenants-in-non-acgme-fellowships
#7
Jeremy S Juern, David M Stahl, John A Weigelt
BACKGROUND: The topic of restrictive covenants in fellowships that are not approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of institutional polices at academic medical centers regarding restrictive covenants in non-ACGME fellowships. METHODS: The graduate medical education (GME) office website of 132 academic medical centers was evaluated and searched for the following as of June 1, 2017: presence of any ACGME residency or fellowship, presence of any non-ACGME fellowship, presence of GME policies and procedures, presence of a restrictive covenant policy, and if that policy applies to non-ACGME fellowships...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094422/health-democracy-in-europe-cancer-patient-organization-participation-in-health-policy
#8
Kyriakos Souliotis, Lily E Peppou, Eirini Agapidaki, Chara Tzavara, Dominique Debiais, Stanimir Hasurdjiev, Francois Sarkozy
BACKGROUND: Patient organization participation in health policy decision making is an understudied area of inquiry. A handful of qualitative studies have suggested that the growing number of patient organizations in Europe and their increasing involvement in policy issues do not result in high political effectiveness. However, existing research is largely country-specific. OBJECTIVE: To examine the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in health policy decision making in EU-28 and to identify their correlates...
November 1, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082350/gene-editing-interpretation-of-current-law-and-legal-policy
#9
Na-Kyoung Kim
With the development of the third-generation gene scissors, CRISPR-Cas9, concerns are being raised about ethical and social repercussions of the new gene-editing technology. In this situation, this article explores the legislation and interpretation of the positive laws in South Korea. The BioAct does not specify and regulate 'gene editing' itself. However, assuming that genetic editing is used in the process of research and treatment, we can look to the specific details of the regulations for research on humans as well as gene therapy research in order to see how genetic editing is regulated under the BioAct...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080001/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-i-the-hippocratic-oath-from-antiquity-to-modern-times
#10
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antoniοs N Vgontzas
The present paper discusses the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to contemporary medical ethical and moral values. It attempts to answer the questions about some controversial issues related to the Oath. The text is divided in two parts. Part I discusses the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath, while Part II presents a detailed analysis of each passage of the Oath with regard to perennial ethical principles and moral values. Part I starts with the contribution of Hippocrates and his School of Cos to medicine...
October 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076039/effect-of-trelagliptin-on-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-study-protocol
#11
Hitoshi Ishii, Yuki Suzaki, Yuko Miyata
INTRODUCTION: Long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes is critical to prevent or delay the onset of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Medication adherence is an integral component of type 2 diabetes management. Minimizing the dosing frequency of antidiabetic drugs may reduce treatment burden for patients and improve medication adherence. This study has been proposed to assess the reduction in treatment burden during 12 weeks' administration of trelagliptin, a weekly dosing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, compared with a daily dosing DPP-4 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes...
December 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071571/perceptions-of-ethical-climate-and-research-pressures-in-different-faculties-of-a-university-cross-sectional-study-at-the-university-of-split-croatia
#12
Mario Malički, Vedran Katavić, Domagoj Marković, Matko Marušić, Ana Marušić
We determined the prevailing ethical climate at three different schools of a single university, in order to explore possible differences in the ethical climate related to different research fields: the School of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Naval Architecture; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine. We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire to survey the staff (teachers and administration) at the three schools, and used the research integrity and organizational climate (RIOC) survey for early-stage researchers at the three schools...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060968/-the-use-and-pitfalls-of-large-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
J L Tang, Z Y Yang, C Mao
Modern epidemiology is the art and science of investigating quantitatively regularities or general laws regarding applied healthcare issues. The validity of epidemiological studies is primarily determined by the study design and the precision by the sample size. Large randomized controlled trial (RCT) is thus the most rigorous and most precise epidemiological study design. Due to ethical concerns, RCTs can however be used only to evaluate medical interventions. Rigorousness of study design and sample size required for a study are inversely related to the anticipated size of effect to be evaluated: the smaller the effect, the more rigorous the study design and larger the sample size are required...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052107/aspects-of-morality-and-law-enforcement-in-today-s-science-in-post-soviet-countries
#14
Jana Kliestikova, Tomas Kliestik, Maria Misankova, Tatiana Corejova, Anna Krizanova
Many reports independently confirm that even more than a quarter of a century after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the results of research and development in those countries that were under its influence are insufficient in comparison to the rest of the world. Given that human intelligence is not distributed unevenly and that science is a powerful driving force for the future of an economy, there is a hidden problem, which, if it can be resolved, may release great economic potential. The first generation of researchers from Armenia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Slovakia and Ukraine, who successfully completed their education after the political revolution, were surveyed...
October 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051158/family-veto-in-organ-donation-in-canada-framing-within-english-language-newspaper-articles
#15
Samantha J Anthony, Maeghan Toews, Timothy Caulfield, Linda Wright
BACKGROUND: Because organ transplantation relies on public support for donation, an analysis of public discourse around organ donation is essential. We investigated the portrayal of family veto - when a family overrides the deceased person's prior legally executed wishes to donate - in Canadian news media. METHODS: Using the Canadian Newsstream database, we identified articles published in English-language newspapers addressing family veto between 2000 and 2016...
October 17, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049046/determination-of-death-in-donation-after-circulatory-death-an-ethical-propriety
#16
Andrew McGee, Dale Gardiner, Paul Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recently developed donation after circulatory death (DCD) heart transplant technique, pioneered by Papworth Hospital in the UK, involves the use of extracorporeal perfusion technologies to restart the donor heart in situ and thereby restore the donor's own circulation, after first isolating the donor's cerebral circulation. By restoring the circulation in the deceased donor, even if the cerebral circulation is excluded, the Papworth technique challenges the acceptability of death determination in DCD...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042005/analysis-of-italian-regulations-on-pathways-of-care-for-patients-in-a-vegetative-or-minimally-conscious-state
#17
D Sattin, L De Torres, G Dolce, Francesco Arcuri, Anna Estraneo, V Cardinale, R Piperno, E Zavatta, Rita Formisano, Mariagrazia D'Ippolito, C Vassallo, B Dessi, G Lamberti, E Antoniono, C Lanzillotti, J Navarro, P Bramanti, Silvia Marino, M Zampolini, F Scarponi, R Avesani, L Salvi, S Ferro, L Mazza, P Fogar, S Feller, F De Nigris, A Martinuzzi, M Buffoni, A Pessina, P Corsico, M Leonardi
Different rehabilitation models for persons diagnosed with disorders of consciousness have been proposed in Europe during the last decade. In Italy, the Ministry of Health has defined a national healthcare model, although, to date, there is a lack of information on how this has been implemented at regional level. The INCARICO project collected information on different regional regulations, analysing ethical aspects and mapping care facilities (numbers of beds and medical units) in eleven regional territories...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030994/transplant-tourism-following-the-declaration-of-istanbul-poor-outcomes-and-nephrologist-dilemma
#18
Meteb M AlBugami, Fahad E AlOtaibe, Abdulnaser M AlAbadi, Khaled Hamawi, Khalid Bel'eed-Akkari
BACKGROUND: Transplant tourism (TT) violates many international laws and documents. Despite all efforts, TT seems to be increasing. The aim of this study is to review outcomes of recipients of commercially transplanted kidneys since the Declaration of Istanbul. METHODS: All recipients of kidney transplantation done abroad and then returned to our center, from September 2008 to December 2015, were included (tourists). Demographics and outcomes were collected from patients' charts...
October 14, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027681/the-drivers-of-sea-lice-management-policies-and-how-best-to-integrate-them-into-a-risk-management-strategy-an-ecosystem-approach-to-sea-lice-management
#19
D Jackson, O Moberg, E M Stenevik Djupevåg, F Kane, H Hareide
The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025442/the-evolution-of-research-participant-protections-in-south-africa
#20
Amaboo Dhai
South Africa (SA) has played a leading role in health research internationally. Ethical guidelines for the protection of research participants have been published by the Medical Research Council (MRC) as early as 1979. Ironically, the guidelines gave substantial prominence to the oppressive laws of the time. In its 4th edition of the guidelines, the MRC placed emphasis on SA needs, and incorporated the principles of the Bill of Rights of the SA Constitution 1996 into its guidelines. The most significant milestone in the history of participant protections in SA was the inclusion of research and experimentation in the Bill of Rights of the Constitution and the statutory legislation of protections in the National Health Act No...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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