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Law and ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801944/the-emergence-of-second-generation-lethal-injection-protocols-a-brief-history-and-review
#1
Daniel R Malcom, Frank Romanelli
The history of capital punishment in the United States is long and controversial. In many cases, lethal injection has brought medical personnel, ethically and professionally charged with preserving life, into the arena of assisting the state in taking life. Recent US Supreme Court decisions, including Baze v. Rees and Glossip v. Gross, have evaluated and condoned lethal injection protocols. Despite the judicial validation of some midazolam-containing protocols, controversy exists as to the level of unconsciousness provided due to the ceiling effects of the drug...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800808/legal-and-ethical-challenges-part-1-general-population
#2
REVIEW
Britta Ostermeyer, Anim N Shoaib, Swapna Deshpande
Several federal and state laws and regulations, as well as ethical medical principles, govern the emergency clinician's practice of care. Although some common legal-medical and ethical principles are shared with other medical specialties, emergency medicine and emergency psychiatry have unique legal and ethical challenges. This article presents and discusses these challenges, including the physician-patient relationship, malpractice, confidentiality and privilege, duty to report, decision-making capacity and vicarious decision-making, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, right to treatment, hospital admissions, involuntary commitment, forced medication administration, and child and elder abuse...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780928/comprehensive-assessment-of-complex-technologies-integrating-various-aspects-in-health-technology-assessment
#3
Kristin Bakke Lysdahl, Kati Mozygemba, Jacob Burns, Jan Benedikt Brönneke, James B Chilcott, Sue Ward, Bjørn Hofmann
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent development of health technology assessment (HTA) methods, there are still methodological gaps for the assessment of complex health technologies. The INTEGRATE-HTA guidance for effectiveness, economic, ethical, socio-cultural, and legal aspects, deals with challenges when assessing complex technologies, such as heterogeneous study designs, multiple stakeholder perspectives, and unpredictable outcomes. The objective of this article is to outline this guidance and describe the added value of integrating these assessment aspects...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776213/-standards-for-treatment-in-forensic-committment-according-to-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-63-and-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-64-of-the-german-criminal-code-interdisciplinary-task-force-of-the-dgppn
#4
REVIEW
J L Müller, N Saimeh, P Briken, S Eucker, K Hoffmann, M Koller, T Wolf, M Dudeck, C Hartl, A-K Jakovljevic, V Klein, G Knecht, R Müller-Isberner, J Muysers, K Schiltz, D Seifert, A Simon, H Steinböck, W Stuckmann, W Weissbeck, C Wiesemann, R Zeidler
People who have been convicted of a crime due to a severe mental disorder and continue to be dangerous as a result of this disorder may be placed in a forensic psychiatric facility for improvement and safeguarding according to § 63 and § 64 of the German Criminal Code (StGB). In Germany, approximately 9000 patients are treated in clinics for forensic psychiatry and psychotherapy on the basis of § 63 of the StGB and in withdrawal centers on the basis of § 64 StGB. The laws for treatment of patients in forensic commitment are passed by the individual States, with the result that even the basic conditions differ in the individual States...
August 3, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768541/key-populations-and-human-rights-in-the-context-of-hiv-services-rendition-in-ghana
#5
Amos Laar, Debra DeBruin
BACKGROUND: In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations...
August 2, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766395/dual-loyalties-everyday-ethical-problems-of-registered-nurses-and-physicians-in-combat-zones
#6
Kristina Lundberg, Sofia Kjellström, Lars Sandman
BACKGROUND: When healthcare personnel take part in military operations in combat zones, they experience ethical problems related to dual loyalties, that is, when they find themselves torn between expectations of doing caring and military tasks, respectively. AIM: This article aims to describe how Swedish healthcare personnel reason concerning everyday ethical problems related to dual loyalties between care and military tasks when undertaking healthcare in combat zones...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756735/ethical-issues-in-the-use-of-animal-models-for-tissue-engineering-reflections-on-legal-aspects-moral-theory-3rs-strategies-and-harm-benefit-analysis
#7
Gabriel Romero Liguori, Bertus Filippus Jeronimus, Tácia Tavares de Aquinas Liguori, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Martin C Harmsen
Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remains a difficult and sensitive matter. The present paper presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Firstly, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Secondly, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments...
July 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748590/conscientious-objection-as-a-barrier-for-implementing-voluntary-termination-of-pregnancy-in-uruguay-gynecologists-attitudes-and-behavior
#8
Francisco Coppola, Leonel Briozzo, Fernanda Nozar, Verónica Fiol, Diego Greif
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitudes and behavior of gynecologists in Uruguay with respect to the right to conscientious objection that is included in the law concerning voluntary termination of pregnancy. METHODS: The relevant laws and decrees, academic articles, legal or administrative claims, and the positions published by the institutions representing physicians or by groups of gynecologists were analyzed. RESULTS: In general, the institutions positioned themselves in favor of correct application of conscientious objection and the immense majority of gynecologists followed this conduct...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740618/ethical-issues-associated-with-medical-tourism-in-africa
#9
REVIEW
John J O Mogaka, Lucia Mupara, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni
Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social-cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736421/pathological-disabled-transgender-the-ethics-history-laws-and-contradictions-in-models-that-best-serve-transgender-rights
#10
Lance Wahlert, Sabrina Gill
This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735297/regulating-the-advertising-of-genetic-tests-in-europe-a-balancing-act
#11
REVIEW
Louiza Kalokairinou, Pascal Borry, Heidi Carmen Howard
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests (GT) have provoked criticism over their potential adverse impact on public health. The European Parliament called for a ban on DTC advertising of GT during the debate for the adoption of a European Regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. This proposal, however, was not ultimately retained in the final text. Instead, the regulation includes an article prohibiting misleading claims for this kind of advertising. These two different approaches raise questions about the optimal degree of regulation...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730264/is-the-human-embryo-legally-defined-and-protected-causes-and-consequences
#12
Maria Aluaş, Claudia Diana Gherman, Cristiana Iulia Dumitrescu
"Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law", states the article 2 of the European Convention of Human Rights (1950). This article guarantees the protection of life of all persons. The human embryo, however, does not seem to be under the protection of this article, or, at least not always. The human embryo does not have a nature clearly defined and it is not considered always as person. The law protects only two categories by its ordinary regulations: things and persons. Our main objective is to find out if the human embryo is or not protected, according to the legal framework in Romania...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727531/minimum-age-of-sale-for-tobacco-products-and-electronic-cigarettes-ethical-acceptability-of-us-tobacco-21-laws
#13
Stephanie Rubino Morain, Janet Malek
Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727501/validation-of-the-dominant-sequence-paradigm-and-role-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-imaging-in-pi-rads-version-2
#14
Matthew D Greer, Joanna H Shih, Nathan Lay, Tristan Barrett, Leonardo Kayat Bittencourt, Samuel Borofsky, Ismail M Kabakus, Yan Mee Law, Jamie Marko, Haytham Shebel, Francesca V Mertan, Maria J Merino, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto, Ronald M Summers, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
Purpose To validate the dominant pulse sequence paradigm and limited role of dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 for prostate multiparametric MR imaging by using data from a multireader study. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data was approved by the local ethics committee. Patients were treatment-naïve with endorectal coil 3-T multiparametric MR imaging...
July 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723997/access-to-health-care-as-a-human-right-in-international-policy-critical-reflections-and-contemporary-challenges
#15
Camilo Hernán Manchola Castillo, Volnei Garrafa, Thiago Cunha, Fernando Hellmann
Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715514/i-swot-as-instrument-to-individually-optimize-therapy-of%C3%A2-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms-effective-norm-compliant-and-meeting-the-needs
#16
A Sachweh, Y von Kodolitsch, T Kölbel, A Larena-Avellaneda, S Wipper, A M Bernhardt, E Girdauskas, C Detter, H Reichenspurner, C R Blankart, E S Debus
BACKGROUND: Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715054/sustainability-of-prevention-practices-at-the-workplace-safety-simplification-productivity-and-effectiveness
#17
A Messineo, M S Cattaruzza, C Prestigiacomo, F Giordano, L T Marsella
Traditional full-time employment has evolved into various types of occupational situations, and, nowadays, new work organization strategies have been developed. Previously overlooked risk factors have emerged, such as traffic accidents while commuting or during work hours, poor work organization, and detrimental lifestyles (like alcohol and substance abuse, although recent statistics seem to show a declining trend for the latter). The global scenario shows greater attention to occupational risks, but also, to the reduced degree of protection...
September 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713096/the-directions-of-development-of-legal-regulation-of-patenting-the-methods-of-treatment-in-ukraine-considering-the-european-and-world-experience
#18
Vitalii Pashkov, Yevhen Hrekov, Maryna Hrekova
INTRODUCTION: the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world is analyzed, the directions for the further development are determined. The author defines "non-industrial medical" and socio-ethical theories in the field of medical treatment patent protection. The existence of exclusively formal "monopoly" of the patent owner is noted, as well as the inapplicability of the majority of the patented achievements in this field in Ukraine. AIM: the purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world, to analyze the limitation of patent protection basic conception in the medical field and to determine the tendencies and perspectives of the legal protection mechanism of further development in this field in Ukraine, considering the European and world regulation experience...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713090/-the-teaching-of-medical-ethics-in-medical-school
#19
Mateusz Wilk, Tomasz Kirmes, Karolina Sypel, Izabela Paluch, Małgorzata Chowaniec, Czesław Chowaniec
Medical ethics constitutes some kind of core, which enables the physicians to decide in complicated clinical situations. This subject is taught during medical studies through only one semester. Number of teaching hours designed for this crucial in later physician's practice subject is insufficient. Additional problem in teaching process is inconsistence between the Law and the Code of Medical Ethics. As a result it causes alarmingly weak preparation of students to take practical decisions according to ethical and moral values of the Code of Medical Ethics...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710220/let-s-talk-about-children-evaluation-ltce-study-in-northern-finland-a-multiple-group-ecological-study-of-children-s-health-promotion-activities-with-a-municipal-and-time-trend-design
#20
Veikko Kujala, Jaana Jokinen, Hanna Ebeling, Anneli Pohjola
INTRODUCTION: Making change towards child and family-based and coordinated services is critical to improve quality, outcomes and value. The Let's Talk about Children (LTC) approach, which consists of brief psychoeducational discussions with parents of kindergarten-aged and school-aged children, has been launched as a municipality-specific programme in the Council of Oulu Region. The aim of this paper is to present a protocol of an ecological study evaluating the group-specific effects of an intervention about LTC activities in a geographically defined population...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
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