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Law and ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770559/ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-forensic-molecular-phenotyping-in-south-africa
#1
Nandi Slabbert, Laura Jane Heathfield
Conventional forensic DNA analysis involves a matching principle, which compares DNA profiles from evidential samples to those from reference samples of known origin. In casework, however, the accessibility to a reference sample is not guaranteed which limits the use of DNA as an investigative tool. This has led to the development of phenotype prediction, which uses SNP analysis to estimate the physical appearance of the sample donor. Physical traits, such as eye, hair and skin colour, have been associated with certain alleles within specific genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways...
May 17, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766728/-euthanasia-legal-comparison-in-selected-european-countries
#2
Adam Doležal
This article deals with the subject of euthanasia (all its forms) and other end-of-life decisions, such as assisted suicide, withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatments. Among other things, the article will also deal with the issue of the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request. Based on an empirical historical method, the article compares the various selected legal orders. From this analysis, it draws some conclusions that have an impact on ethical discourse. First of all, the terminology is defined in the article, which is very important in this area...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766727/-human-life-as-goodness-why-euthanasia-is-morally-unacceptable
#3
David Černý
The current discussion of the moral admissibility or inadmissibility of euthanasia should, in my opinion, consider the greatest possible number of the shared premises of the two opinion camps. That is why I followed a thesis in this paper that the question of the good life is the focus of ethical interest, as this is what connects the advocates and the opponents to euthanasia. In the first part of the paper I critically discuss the two main theories of the good life widely embraced among the advocates of euthanasia: hedonism and desire-fulfilment theory...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745972/the-philippines-rolls-back-advancements-in-the-postabortion-care-policy
#4
Melissa Upreti, Jihan Jacob
On February 18, 2018, a new postabortion care policy was issued by the Department of Health in the Philippines, in the form of Administrative Order 2018-0003.1 This policy rescinds Administrative Order 2016-0041, dated November 25, 2016,2 which was developed by the Technical Working Group established by the Department of Health to implement the Philippines' landmark reproductive health law passed in 2012,1 (p.7) Unlike the 2016 policy, the 2018 policy was drafted without broadly soliciting the input of reproductive health advocates whose collective efforts had led to the passage of a more ethical and human rights-based postabortion care policy in 2016, as discussed in depth in an article in the May issue of the International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740194/opinions-of-israeli-neonatologists-about-life-and-death-decisions-in-neonates
#5
Moshe Y Kasirer, Francis B Mimouni, Alona Bin-Nun, Michael S Schimmel
BACKGROUND: In 2005, the Israeli parliament passed the "law of dying patients" legalizing life and death decisions (do not resuscitate) in patients with life expectancy less than 6 months. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ethnic and religious backgrounds (both religion and religiosity) influence neonatologists' attitudes in simulated clinical situations and opinions about the new law. DESIGN/METHODS: Prospective design, using standard questionnaire sent to all 155 board-certified practising Israeli Neonatologists...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734933/law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-2-nd-edition-law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-2-nd-edition-avery-graham-sage-publishing-london-2016-isbn-978-1-4129-6174-5-pb-392-pages-%C3%A2-24-29-kindle-%C3%A2-17-15
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734886/cancer-nurses-perceptions-of-ethical-climate-in-greece-and-cyprus
#7
Cloconi Constantina, Evridiki Papastavrou, Andreas Charalambous
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the interest in ethical climate has increased in the literature. However, there is limited understanding of the phenomenon within the cancer care context as well as between countries. AIM: To evaluate cancer nurses' perceptions of hospital ethical climate in Greece and Cyprus. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a quantitative descriptive-correlational comparative study with cancer nurses. Data were collected with the Greek version of the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey questionnaire in addition to demographic data...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732600/how-patient-participation-is-constructed-in-mental-health-care-a-grounded-theory-study
#8
Kim Jørgensen, Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, Mari Holen
AIM: The aim of the study was to explore how patient participation is constructed in social interaction processes between nurses, other health professionals and service users, and which structures provide a framework for the participation of service users in a psychiatric context? METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN: Ten tape-recorded interviews of nurses and observations of interactions between nurses, other health professionals and service users reflected differing constructed views of patient participation...
May 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731261/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-ethics-approval-for-a-research-study-2
#9
Pierre Mallia
Research Ethics Committees are composed of a minimum of five members which include a lay person, a member from a different institution and at least another three members which should be versed in ethics. Legal and expert advisors can be sought by the committee. The REC will require a detailed protocol from the researcher including the curriculum of the principal investigator and all other researchers under him/her. The protocol should include all details of the research to be undertaken including a detailed description, the reasons for the research, literature pertaining to the research, a clear description of the target population, the actual consent form including what information is to be given to the participants, a declaration where necessary that things prohibited by the law (such as use of embryonic stem cells if this is the case in the country [2] will not be researchers, and a declaration that the relevant directives and rules and procedures which the REC falls under will be followed...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724699/when-fiduciary-duty-clashes-with-duty-to-the-state
#10
Rakhi Ghoshal
In their case study Cash and Castro discuss a situation where a physician's duties to the laws of her land stand in conflict with her fiduciary duties to her patient. This present commentary is a response to the situation they describe, and it engages with the issue of conscientious objection in medicine, to argue that the ethical responsibility of the physician should be tilted in favour of the patient, especially when the laws of the land are regressive and harmful.
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724513/forensic-psychiatry-and-neurolaw-description-developments-and-debates
#11
Gerben Meynen
Neuroscience produces a wealth of data on the relationship between brain and behavior, including criminal behavior. The research field studying the possible and actual impact of neuroscience on the law and legal practices, is called neurolaw. It is a new and rapidly developing domain of interdisciplinary research. Since forensic psychiatryhas to do with both neuroscience and the law, neurolaw is of specific relevance for this psychiatric specialty. In this contribution, I will discuss three main research areas in neurolaw - revision, assessment, and intervention - and explore their relevance for forensic psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724118/perceptions-motivations-and-concerns-about-living-organ-donation-among-people-living-with-hiv
#12
Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Macey L Henderson, Juli Bollinger, Shanti Seaman, Diane Brown, Christine M Durand, Dorry L Segev, Jeremy Sugarman
Recent changes to United States law now permit people living with HIV (PLWH) to donate organs to HIV-infected (HIV+) recipients under research protocols. PLWH may have unique motivations for and concerns about living donation and understanding them is critical to ensuring the integrity of this novel approach to organ transplantation. We conducted in-depth interviews with PLWH from an urban HIV clinic who had previously indicated their willingness to be a living donor. Interviews elicited information on their motivations, perceived benefits, and concerns regarding living donation...
May 3, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716594/the-involvement-of-canadian-physicians-in-promoting-and-providing-unproven-and-unapproved-stem-cell-interventions
#13
Ubaka Ogbogu, Jenny Du, Yonida Koukio
BACKGROUND: Direct to consumer offerings of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) is a pressing scientific and policy issue. According to media reports, providers of SCIs have emerged in Canada. This study provides the first systematic scan of Canadian providers and associated trends and claims. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 15 websites retrieved from a Google™ keyword search. The websites were assessed by a rater using a peer-reviewed coding frame that queried treatment location, stem cell offerings, treatment claims, supporting evidence, and legal and regulatory compliance...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714995/issues-in-geriatric-care-medical-decision-making
#14
Jayesh Patel, Richard J Ackermann
Medical decision-making capacity (DMC), which is determined by clinicians, is the ability of patients to understand information about options for their care, express a choice among those options, appreciate the benefits and risks of those options, and explain the reasoning behind their particular choice. DMC differs from competence, which is a legal concept concerning the mental ability of individuals to be responsible for their decisions and actions. A variety of instruments can be used to assess DMC. If it is determined that a patient lacks DMC, clinicians have an ethical obligation to seek out a surrogate decision-maker...
May 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707216/cutting-edges-and-weaving-threads-in-the-gene-editing-%C3%B0-evolution-reconciling-scientific-progress-with-legal-ethical-and-social-concerns
#15
Ana Nordberg, Timo Minssen, Sune Holm, Maja Horst, Kell Mortensen, Birger Lindberg Møller
Gene-editing technology, such as CRISPR/Cas9, holds great promise for the advancement of science and many useful applications technology. This foundational technology enables modification of the genetic structure of any living organisms with unprecedented precision. Yet, in order to enhance its potential for societal benefit, it is necessary to adapt rules and produce adequate regulations. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in legal thinking. Any legislative initiative needs to consider both the benefits and the problematic aspects of gene editing, from a broader societal and value-based perspective...
May 2018: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699570/patenting-human-genes-chinese-academic-articles-portrayal-of-gene-patents
#16
Li Du
BACKGROUND: The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. METHODS: A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697399/-legal-regulation-of-transplantology-at-the-present-stage-ukrainian-issue-and-experience-of-foreign-states
#17
O Sovgyria
The objective of the research is to analyze the legal regulation in the transplantology field at the present stage in Ukraine. To address identified challenges, the author investigates the foreign countries experience and suggests ways of improving certain mechanism for legal regulation in the field of organ transplantation and anatomical materials. The empiric material of the study included a wide range of legal instruments regulating this sphere of legal relationships, information regarding the problems of their application, statistics, expert analysis of Ukrainian and foreign researchers...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693413/edible-insects-defining-knowledge-gaps-in-biological-and-ethical-considerations-of-entomophagy
#18
Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny, Susana Monsó
While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing...
April 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687472/conscience-claims-metaphysics-and-avoiding-an-lgbt-eugenic
#19
Abram Brummett
Novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are poised to present our society with strange new ethical questions, such as whether lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples should be allowed to produce children biologically related to both parents, or whether trans-women who want to experience childbirth should be allowed to receive uterine transplants. Clinicians opposed to offering such technologies to LGBT couples on moral grounds are likely to seek legal shelter through the conscience clauses enshrined in U...
April 23, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681079/abortion-law-reform-why-ethical-intractability-and-maternal-morbidity-are-grounds-for-decriminalisation
#20
Andrew McGee, Melanie Jansen, Sally Sheldon
In this paper, we present two grounds for arguing that abortion should be decriminalised. First, we consider the implications of the fact that the long-standing ethical debate concerning the morality of abortion has to date proven intractable. We maintain that because the philosophical literature has failed to demonstrate conclusively that views either for or against abortion's moral acceptability are false, the matter remains at a stalemate in terms of rational debate, contributing to the ongoing absence of political and popular consensus about the issue in our society...
April 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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