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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898287/international-association-for-hospice-and-palliative-care-position-statement-euthanasia-and-physician-assisted-suicide
#1
Liliana De Lima, Roger Woodruff, Katherine Pettus, Julia Downing, Rosa Buitrago, Esther Munyoro, Chitra Venkateswaran, Sushma Bhatnagar, Lukas Radbruch
BACKGROUND: Reports about regulations and laws on Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) are becoming increasingly common in the media. Many groups have expressed opposition to euthanasia and PAS while those in favor argue that severely chronically ill and debilitated patients have a right to control the timing and manner of their death. Others argue that both PAS and euthanasia are ethically legitimate in rare and exceptional cases. Given that these discussions as well as the new and proposed laws and regulations may have a powerful impact on patients, caregivers, and health care providers, the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) has prepared this statement...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896607/obsolete-laws-economic-and-moral-aspects-case-study-composting-standards
#2
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
From the early days of philosophy, ethics and justice, there is wide consensus that the constancy of the laws establishes the legal system. On the other hand, the rate at which we accumulate knowledge is gaining speed like never before. Due to the recently increased attention of academics to climate change and other environmental issues, a lot of new knowledge has been obtained about carbon management, its role in nature and mechanisms regarding the formation and degradation of organic matter. A multidisciplinary techno-economic assessment of current composting standards and laws that took into account the current state of knowledge about carbon management was carried out as a case study...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875644/skepticism-in-the-genomic-era
#3
Rachel L Zacharias
I joined The Hastings Center this past summer, after graduating from Duke University, where I researched advancements in neuroscience and genomics and their import for law, ethics, and policy. This research required, to an extent, faith in the idea that researchers can identify pathways by which genes combine with epigenetic and environmental factors to affect neuronal activity and influence behaviors. Throughout my first months here, I have puzzled over broad critiques of "genomic hype" in recent literature, which clash with the optimistic rhetoric found in the Human Genome Project and the Precision Medicine Initiative...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866685/garrett-hardin-s-tragic-sense-of-life
#4
Jason Oakes
I discuss biologist Garrett Hardin's view of human nature, with examples from the background to his seminal 1968 essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" and his testimony before the US House of Representatives in the 1970s. Hardin saw the human species as being governed by deterministic laws of the same kind that controlled all other forms of life. Humans, as much as cattle and microbes, were in inevitable competition for space and resources. Equal parts Malthusian political economy and Cold War systems science, his view was the survival of the human race depended on obeying these iron laws...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857116/law-and-ethics-worrying-attitudinal-issue
#5
S Thackeray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855949/-general-and-ethical-considerations-for-the-informed-consent-process-guidelines-from-the-francophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#6
Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Alice Polomeni, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Informed consent is not restricted to clinical research and must be applied to high-risk care such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If standardized informed consent might improve inequalities in medical practices between different transplantation centers, it is strongly recommended that it be adapted with an honest dialogue between physicians and patients and physicians and donors. In an attempt to harmonize clinical practices among French hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) held its sixth annual workshop series in September 2015 in Lille...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853684/cloning-a-review-on-bioethics-legal-jurisprudence-and-regenerative-issues-in-iran
#7
REVIEW
Seyedeh Leila Nabavizadeh, Davood Mehrabani, Zabihallah Vahedi, Farzad Manafi
In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful...
September 2016: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852683/potential-of-human-twin-embryos-generated-by-embryo-splitting-in-assisted-reproduction-and-research
#8
REVIEW
Laila Noli, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
BACKGROUND: Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845485/physician-assisted-suicide-and-clinical-vulnerability-a-slippery-slope
#9
F Monacelli, M Martini, P Odetti, R Ciliberti
AIMS: The Belgian case of a 24 years' woman affected by resistant depression, who obtained the legal right to assisted suicide rehearsed ethical issues. From the famous Chabot case of the Dutch court in 1994, accumulating legal evidence indicates that the unbearable psychiatric suffering may be equate to the physical struggle of end of life patients. The Belgian law has addressed assisted suicide as an option in case of unbearable psychic suffering with no future prospective. DESIGN: It is unlikely that the practice of euthanasia may be mechanistically reduced to the provision of a suicide as alleviating the burden of suffering in depression is a long life commitment; moreover, the principle of patient's self determination and autonomy is highly debatable: the closure to the future, the hopelessness and the suicidal ideation represent per se core features of depression...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842861/-information-and-consent-forms-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-donors-and-recipients-guidelines-from-the-franchophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#10
Bénédicte Bruno, Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Nelly Bancillon, Anna Desbos, Abir Fawaz, Isabelle Fournier, Carole Genty, Dominique Issarni, Sandrine Leveille, Christelle Premel, Alice Polomeni, Myriam Renault, Sylvie Tarillon, Anne Wallart, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Within the context of the SFGM-TC's 6th workshop series on the harmonization of clinical practices, our workshop proposes a standardization of the informed consent process for hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients leading up to an autologous or allogenic transplantation. All informed consent was for bone marrow or peripheral stem cell donors, and mononuclear/lymphocyte donors according to usual procedures. The informed consent for autologous and allogenic related or unrelated adults and pediatric transplantation patients have been included...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829809/bridging-theory-and-practice-mixed-methods-approach-to-instruction-of-law-and-ethics-within-the-pharmaceutical-sciences
#11
Kyle John Wilby, Ziad Ghantous Nasr
Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820871/consent-refusal-and-waivers-in-patient-centered-dysphagia-care-using-law-ethics-and-evidence-to-guide-clinical-practice
#12
Jennifer Horner, Maria Modayil, Laura Roche Chapman, An Dinh
Purpose: When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Method: The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815437/special-competencies-for-psychological-assessment-of-torture-survivors
#13
Kirby Huminuik
In spite of the absolute prohibition against torture in international law, this grave human rights abuse is still practiced systematically and with impunity in the majority of countries around the world. Mental health professionals can play a positive role in the fight against torture and impunity, by developing competencies to assess the psychological sequelae of torture. High-quality psychological evidence can help to substantiate allegations of torture, thereby increasing the likelihood of success in civil, administrative, and criminal proceedings...
November 4, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811589/compelled-disclosure-of-confidential-information-in-patient-safety-research
#14
Li Du, Blake Murdoch, Carina Chiu, Timothy Caulfield
The protection of confidential research data is of key importance to clinical patient safety research. A review of selected Canadian and American case law indicates that although the relationship between researcher and participant has not been recognized as privileged, court-ordered disclosure of confidential research information seems to be a rare occurrence. In this review, we examine how confidentiality issues are presented in informed consent form templates and in relevant research ethics policies. We find an agreement among research policy documents that all information gathered should be treated as confidential, unless otherwise required by law...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803203/exploring-faculty-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-copyright-at-u-s-dental-schools-a-pilot-study
#15
Alison F Doubleday, Abigail Goben
The aims of this pilot study were to investigate current copyright training and support provided to faculty at North American dental schools and to examine faculty members' knowledge and attitudes related to specific copyright issues. In 2015, a survey with questions about faculty members' comfort about their own and their colleagues' knowledge and application of various copyright issues was designed and distributed. True/false questions were asked to determine the extent of knowledge about copyright. Participants were given eight scenarios depicting examples of behavior related to copyright issues and asked to indicate whether the behavior in the scenario was ethical or unethical and compliant with or infringing upon copyright...
November 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793239/ethical-and-legal-duty-of-anesthesiologists-regarding-jehovah-s-witness-patient-care-protocol
#16
Augusto Key Karazawa Takaschima, Thiago Mamôru Sakae, Alexandre Karazawa Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro Takaschima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra de Lima, Roberto Henrique Benedetti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. CONTENT: The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine, opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790468/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-kap-relating-to-dietary-supplements-among-health-sciences-and-non-health-sciences-students-in-one-of-the-universities-of-united-arab-emirates-uae
#17
Farah Kais Alhomoud, Mohammed Basil, Andrey Bondarev
INTRODUCTION: The use of Dietary Supplements (DS) has increased substantially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in recent years, despite the fact that the efficacy and safety of these supplements are not proven yet. In addition, the practices of supplement users in the UAE remain undocumented. AIM: To determine the usage of DS in health sciences and non-health sciences students; and to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding these supplements...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788767/practice-paper-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-social-media-and-the-dietetics-practitioner-opportunities-challenges-and-best-practices
#18
Janet Helm, Regan Miller Jones
Social media tools, including blogs, social networks, and media-sharing sites, help nutrition and dietetics practitioners reach broader audiences and connect directly with the public. In many ways, social media has transformed the practice of dietetics and has opened up new avenues for communicating food and nutrition information. Social media has been an effective tool for virtual nutrition counseling, patient education, peer-to-peer support, and public health campaigns. Increasingly, nutrition and dietetics practitioners are using social media to network and collaborate with colleagues, conduct a job search, stay current with new research, champion a cause, promote products or services, and build a business...
November 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774217/a-pragmatic-analysis-of-the-regulation-of%C3%A2-consumer-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-devices-in-the-united-states
#19
Anna Wexler
Several recent articles have called for the regulation of consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices, which provide low levels of electrical current to the brain. However, most of the discussion to-date has focused on ethical or normative considerations; there has been a notable absence of scholarship regarding the actual legal framework in the United States. This article aims to fill that gap by providing a pragmatic analysis of the consumer tDCS market and relevant laws and regulations...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#20
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
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