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Law and ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544750/unexpected-ethical-dilemmas-in-sex-assignment-in-46-xy-dsd-due-to-5-alpha-reductase-type-2-deficiency
#1
Heather M Byers, Lauren H Mohnach, Patricia Y Fechner, Ming Chen, Inas H Thomas, Linda A Ramsdell, Margarett Shnorhavorian, Elizabeth A McCauley, Anne-Marie E Amies Oelschlager, John M Park, David E Sandberg, Margaret P Adam, Catherine E Keegan
Sex assignment at birth remains one of the most clinically challenging and controversial topics in 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD). This is particularly challenging in deficiency of 5-alpha reductase type 2 given that external genitalia are typically undervirilized at birth but typically virilize at puberty to a variable degree. Historically, most individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency were raised females. However, reports that over half of patients who underwent a virilizing puberty adopted an adult male gender identity have challenged this practice...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534181/assessing-decision-making-capacity-for-do-not-resuscitate-requests-in-depressed-patients-how-to-apply-the-communication-and-appreciation-criteria
#2
Benjamin D Brody, Ellen C Meltzer, Diana Feldman, Julie B Penzner, Janna S Gordon-Elliot
The Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) of 1991 brought much needed attention to the importance of advance care planning and surrogate decision-making. The purpose of this law is to ensure that a patient's preferences for medical care are recognized and promoted, even if the patient loses decision-making capacity (DMC). In general, patients are presumed to have DMC. A patient's DMC may come under question when distortions in thinking and understanding due to illness, delirium, depression or other psychiatric symptoms are identified or suspected...
May 22, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534169/-capacity-to-consent-to-treatment-in-dementia-patients-interdisciplinary-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Julia Haberstroh, Tanja Müller
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no concrete, evidence-based default procedures to adequately assess the capacity to consent to medical treatment. This explains why different raters use individual heuristics, differing both within and between disciplines. The lack of a procedure that is standardized, validated, and equally accepted across disciplines to assess the capacity to consent to treatment has led to an uncertainty in legal and medical practice regarding appropriate action and decision making...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532859/humility-when-responding-to-the-abuse-of-adults-with-mental-disabilities
#4
Paul Skowron
Legal theorists often reduce the ethics of responding to the abuse of another person to a clash between the principles of autonomy and protection. This reduction is a problem. Responding to suspected abuse requires humility - the potential responder must be aware of and respect their own limits - but humility cannot be usefully reduced to protection and autonomy. Using examples from the Court of Protection of England and Wales, this article examines the different ways that someone responding to abuse should respect their own limits, and suggests that a failure to do so will disproportionately affect people with mental disabilities...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514883/bioethical-analysis-to-the-therapeutic-use-of-cannabis-integrative-review
#5
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes Moreira, Analine de Souza Bandeira Correia, Ana Luisa Antunes Gonçalves Guerra, Adrielle Rodrigues Dos Santos, Iracema da Silva Frazão
INTRODUCTION: Despite being considered as a contravention under some countries' legislation, the therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa has been growing in Brazil, due to the promising results observed in many pathologies. Such a scenario has fostered the need to deepen discussions on the subject and possibly revise legislation governing the substance use and access. OBJECTIVES: Identify the types of stigma related to the therapeutic use of Cannabis and describe the strategies people use to overcome stigma...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501992/personalized-medicine-ethical-aspects
#6
G Terry Sharrer
In our time of genome-based personalized medicine, clinical research and clinical medicine are accelerating at a quick pace. Faster and cheaper DNA sequencing and protein profiling, microfluidic devices for capturing blood biomarkers, nanoparticles for precise drug delivery and enhanced imaging, rapid computational analysis of massive data inputs, and other technological wonders coalesce to create a kind of Moore's Law for medicine. Needs are obvious, knowledge grows, capital becomes available, but these factors are not entirely sufficient to make health more achievable...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497722/moral-severity-is-represented-as-a-domain-general-magnitude
#7
Derek Powell, Zachary Horne
The severity of moral violations can vary by degree. For instance, although both are immoral, murder is a more severe violation than lying. Though this point is well established in Ethics and the law, relatively little research has been directed at examining how moral severity is represented psychologically. Most prominent moral psychological theories are aimed at explaining first-order moral judgments and are silent on second-order metaethical judgments, such as comparisons of severity. Here, the relative severity of 20 moral violations was established in a preliminary study...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496215/consent-an-update
#8
E Bright, L D'Cruz, E Milne
Following the judgement in Montgomery in March 2015 which brought the law of consent up to speed with what the GDC 's ethical and professional guidance expected registrants to do, this article looks at how other cases have interpreted Montgomery subsequently and the impact and implications for dentists. The importance of excellent communication is emphasised in order to provide sufficient and relevant information to the particular patient you have sitting in your dental chair.
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494673/law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-avery-graham-law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-392pp-%C3%A2-26-99-sage-9781412961745-1412961742-formula-see-text
#9
(no author information available yet)
The aim of this book, now in its second edition, is to set out the main concepts of law and ethics in healthcare. Its content is up to date, comprehensive and practical, and encourages readers to seek out further resources.
May 12, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492116/ethical-and-legal-perspectives-on-the-medical-practitioners-use-of-social-media
#10
Brenda Kubheka
Use of social media has increased exponentially throughout the world. Social media provides a platform for building social and professional relationships that can be used by all, including healthcare professionals. Alongside the benefits of creating networks and spreading information wider and faster than is possible with traditional communication channels, however, it presents ethical and legal challenges. For health professionals, it poses a threat to confidentiality and privacy owed to patients, colleagues and employers...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482854/medical-decision-making-in-children-and-adolescents-developmental-and-neuroscientific-aspects
#11
REVIEW
Petronella Grootens-Wiegers, Irma M Hein, Jos M van den Broek, Martine C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent...
May 8, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471614/jewish-medical-ethics
#12
Shimon M Glick
Jewish medical ethics is a term coined by the late Lord Rabbi Immanuel Jacobovits in the mid-20th century. Its principles and emphases differ in some significant ways from the currently accepted axioms in Western secular ethics. The emphasis is lesser on autonomy and more on the value of human life and on communitarianism. The Israel Patient's Rights Law reflects these differences from the Western norms.
October 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460515/life-sustaining-treatment-and-palliative-care-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-legal-ethical-and-practical-issues
#13
Dong Joon Kim, Moon Seok Choi
With the enactment of the 'Act on Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients in Hospice and Palliative Care or at the End of Life' (Act No. 14013) in Korea, there is growing concern about the practicality of this law. In this review, we discuss definitions, ethics, and practical issues related to this law.
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460118/legal-ethical-compliance-when-sharing-biospecimen
#14
Tomas Klingstrom, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Jane Reichel
When obtaining samples from biobanks, resolving ethical and legal concerns is a time-consuming task where researchers need to balance the needs of privacy, trust and scientific progress. The Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure-Large Prospective Cohorts project has resolved numerous such issues through intense communication between involved researchers and experts in its mission to unite large prospective study sets in Europe. To facilitate efficient communication, it is useful for nonexperts to have an at least basic understanding of the regulatory system for managing biological samples...
April 27, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456853/cultured-meat-in-islamic-perspective
#15
Mohammad Naqib Hamdan, Mark J Post, Mohd Anuar Ramli, Amin Rukaini Mustafa
Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453790/does-the-law-on-compensation-for-research-related-injury-in-the-uk-australia-and-new-zealand-meet-ethical-requirements
#16
Joanna M Manning
Despite a consensus that society owes an ethical obligation to compensate for research-related injury, and that no-fault is the best ethical response, an assessment of the compensation arrangements in place in the UK, Australia and New Zealand shows that in general compensation arrangements fall below this ethical expectation. Most subjects rely on ex gratia payment or an unenforceable assurance of payment in the event of injury. It is also likely that, given significant deficiencies in participant information about compensation arrangements in place for trials recommended by the supervisory ethics agencies in each jurisdiction, subjects only find out about their financial exposure in the event of injury...
April 26, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453700/a-need-to-simplify-informed-consent-documents-in-cancer-clinical-trials-a-position-paper-of-the-arcad-group
#17
H Bleiberg, G Decoster, A de Gramont, P Rougier, A Sobrero, A Benson, B Chibaudel, J Y Douillard, C Eng, C Fuchs, M Fujii, R Labianca, A K Larsen, E Mitchell, H J Schmoll, D Sprumont, J Zalcberg
Background: In respect of the principle of autonomy and the right of self-determination, obtaining an informed consent of potential participants before their inclusion in a study is a fundamental ethical obligation. The variations in national laws, regulations, and cultures contribute to complex informed consent documents for patients participating in clinical trials. Currently, only few ethics committees seem willing to address the complexity and the length of these documents and to request investigators and sponsors to revise them in a way to make them understandable for potential participants...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446090/law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-avery-graham-law-and-ethics-in-nursing-and-healthcare-an-introduction-392pp-%C3%A2-26-99-sage-9781412961745-1412961742-formula-see-text
#18
(no author information available yet)
The aim of this book, now in its second edition, is to deliver the main concepts of law and ethics in an easy-to-read style.
April 27, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443357/informed-consent-and-the-aftermath-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-ethical-considerations
#19
Pamela Bjorklund, Denise M Lund
BACKGROUND: Patients often are confronted with the choice to allow cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should cardiac arrest occur. Typically, informed consent for CPR does not also include detailed discussion about survival rates, possible consequences of survival, and/or potential impacts on functionality post-CPR. OBJECTIVE: A lack of communication about these issues between providers and patients/families complicates CPR decision-making and highlights the ethical imperative of practice changes that educate patients and families in those deeper and more detailed ways...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439962/balancing-task-focus-and-relationship-building-asking-sleepy-patients-about-traffic-risk-in-treatment-initiation-consultations
#20
Clara Iversen, Anders Broström, Martin Ulander
BACKGROUND: The use of traffic risk assessment questions is an understudied area in nursing research. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents. Therefore, traffic safety authorities demand adherent continuous positive airway pressure use. Nurses act as coaches to achieve treatment adherence, but they are also obliged to act as state agents by prohibiting obstructive sleep apnoea patients from drowsy driving. OBJECTIVE: To examine how nurses and obstructive sleep apnoea patients manage traffic risk assessment questions in the relation-building context of treatment initiation consultations...
April 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
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