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improved vo2

Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Erick Chan, Francesco Giallauria, Carlo Vigorito, Neil A Smart
Exercise training induces physical adaptations for heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction but less is known about those patients with preserved ejection fraction. This study's aims were to establish if exercise training produces changes in peak VO2 and related measures, quality of life, general health and diastolic function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to September 1, 2015), for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms 'exercise training, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with  normal ejection fraction, peak VO2 and diastolic heart dysfunction'...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Serge Ayissi, Krisztián Palotás, Hanna Qin, Lijuan Yang, Paul A Charpentier
Rutile-monoclinic phase transitions of vanadium oxide (VO2) nanocrystals adsorbed on graphene-based substrates are of current scientific interest, although their adsorption and growth mechanisms have not been investigated theoretically. In this study, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations for determining the binding energies and predicting the corresponding directions of growth of VO2 nanostructures (rutile and M1-monoclinic) interacting with both pure graphene and functionalized graphene nanoribbons...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Erik Skobel, Christian Knackstedt, Alvaro Martinez-Romero, Dario Salvi, Cecilia Vera-Munoz, Andreas Napp, Jean Luprano, Ramon Bover, Sigrid Glöggler, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens, Nikolaus Marx, Alan Rigby, John Cleland
Low adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be improved by remote monitoring systems that can be used to motivate and supervise patients and tailor CR safely and effectively to their needs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-guided training system (GEX) and whether it could improve exercise capacity compared to CR delivered by conventional methods for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective, randomized, international, multi-center study comparing CR delivered by conventional means (CG) or by remote monitoring (IG) using a new training steering/feedback tool (GEx System)...
October 11, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Martin Fiala, Veronika Bulková, Libor Škňouřil, Renáta Nevřalová, Ondřej Toman, Jaroslav Januška, Jindřich Špinar, Dan Wichterle
AIMS: Identifying patients who benefit from restored sinus rhythm (SR) would optimize the selection of candidates for ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF). This prospective study sought to identify the hitherto unknown factors associated with global functional improvement after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of LSPAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 171 LSPAF patients (84% of the total consecutive 203 patients) who were examined in SR 12 months after ablation, the individual per cent change from baseline value in maximum oxygen consumption at exercise test (VO2 max), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and five-dimensional descriptive system (EQ-5D) of quality-of-life questionnaire were classified in quartiles by 0 (worse) to 3 (best) grades...
October 5, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Benoit Capostagno, Michael I Lambert, Robert P Lamberts
Finding the optimal balance between high training loads and recovery is a constant challenge for cyclists and their coaches. Monitoring improvements in performance and levels of fatigue is recommended to correctly adjust training to ensure optimal adaptation. However, many performance tests require a maximal or exhaustive effort, which reduces their real-world application. The purpose of this review was to investigate the development and use of submaximal cycling tests that can be used to predict and monitor cycling performance and training status...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Mark J Haykowsky, Kathryn M Daniel, Paul S Bhella, Satyam Sarma, Dalane W Kitzman
The primary chronic symptom in patients with clinically stable heart failure (HF) is reduced exercise tolerance, measured as decreased peak aerobic power (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2]), and is associated with reduced quality of life and survival. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) is a safe and effective intervention to improve peak Vo2, muscle strength, physical functional performance, and quality of life and is associated with a reduction in overall and HF-specific hospitalization in clinically stable patients with HF...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Clayton J Dahlman, Gabriel LeBlanc, Amy Bergerud, Corey Staller, Jacob Adair, Delia J Milliron
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes significant optical, electronic, and structural changes as it transforms between the low-temperature monoclinic and high-temperature rutile phases. Recently, alternative stimuli have been utilized to trigger insulator-to-metal transformations in VO2, including electrochemical gating. Here, we prepare and electrochemically reduce mesoporous films of VO2 nanocrystals, prepared from colloidally synthesized V2O3 nanocrystals that have been oxidatively annealed, in a three-electrode electrochemical cell...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Maxime Valet, Gaëtan Stoquart, Yumiko Glibert, Jean-Claude Hakizimana, Thierry Lejeune
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is the most common and disabling symptom among patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). From the initial stages of the disease, a physical deconditioning is also observed among these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the cardiorespiratory endurance (i.e. exercise tolerance functions) and self-reported fatigue, as well as their associations, among patients suffering from MS with mild disability (expanded disability status scale≤4). MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: 21 patients with MS (15 women; age: 26-64 years, median 46 years; duration of disease: 0...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Samuel Helfer, Joseph Quackenbush, Michael Fletcher, David R Pendergast
BACKGROUND: Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan Senden, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate prior to exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25±4 y, V̇O2peak 65±4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 411±35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Thais S Nobre, Ligia M Antunes-Correa, Raphaela V Groehs, Maria-Janieire N N Alves, Adriana O Sarmento, Aline Villa Nova Bacurau, Ursula Urias, Guilherme Barreto Alves, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Patricia C Brum, Martino Martinelli, Holly R Middlekauff, Carlos E Negrao
Heart failure(HF) is characterized by decreased exercise capacity, attributable to neurocirculatory and skeletal muscle factors. Cardiac resynchronization therapy(CRT) and exercise training have each been shown to decrease muscle sympathetic nerve activity(MSNA) and increase exercise capacity in patients with HF. We hypothesized that exercise training in the setting of CRT would further reduce MSNA and vasoconstriction and would increase Ca(2+) handling gene expression in skeletal muscle in chronic systolic HF patients...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Cecilia Ostman, Daniel Jewiss, Neil A Smart
OBJECTIVES: To establish if exercise training intensity produces different effect sizes for quality of life in heart failure. BACKGROUND: Exercise intensity is the primary stimulus for physical and mental adaptation. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to February 2016) for exercise-based rehabilitation trials in heart failure using the search terms 'exercise training', 'left ventricular dysfunction', 'peak VO2', 'cardiomyopathy', and 'systolic heart dysfunction'...
August 27, 2016: Cardiology
Kishan S Parikh, Adrian Coles, Phillip J Schulte, William E Kraus, Jerome L Fleg, Steven J Keteyian, Ileana L Piña, Mona Fiuzat, David J Whellan, Christopher M O'Connor, Robert J Mentz
Angina pectoris (AP) is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF). We investigated the association of AP with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity, and clinical outcomes and its interaction with exercise training in an HF population. We grouped 2,331 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction in the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) trial of usual care ± exercise training according to whether they had self-reported AP by Canadian classification score...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Roberto Badagliacca, Silvia Papa, Gabriele Valli, Beatrice Pezzuto, Roberto Poscia, Giovanna Manzi, Elisa Giannetta, Susanna Sciomer, Paolo Palange, Robert Naeije, Francesco Fedele, Carmine Dario Vizza
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) function is a major determinant of exercise intolerance and outcome in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The aim of the study was to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of echocardiography of the RV and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on long-term prognosis in these patients. METHODS: One hundred-thirty treatment-naïve IPAH patients were enrolled and prospectively followed. Clinical worsening (CW) was defined by a reduction in 6-minute walk distance plus an increase in functional class, or non elective hospitalization for PAH, or death...
August 20, 2016: Chest
Magda M Maia, Bruno Gualano, Ana L Sá-Pinto, Adriana M E Sallum, Rosa M R Pereira, Claudio A Len, Maria T A Terreri, Cassia M Barbosa, Hamilton Roschel, Clovis A Silva
OBJECTIVE: To assess aerobic capacity and cardiac autonomic modulation in juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM) patients at diagnosis in response to graded exercise text. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study included 25 JFM patients and 25 healthy controls. Both groups participated only in physical education classes at school. A treadmill graded cardiorespiratory test was performed and the heart-rate (HR) response during exercise was evaluated by the chronotropic reserve (CR)...
July 16, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Samuele Baldasseroni, Alessandra Pratesi, Sara Francini, Rachele Pallante, Riccardo Barucci, Francesco Orso, Costanza Burgisser, Niccolò Marchionni, Francesco Fattirolli
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and identify predictors of changes in functional capacity with CR in a consecutive series of older adults with a recent cardiac event. DESIGN: Observational. SETTING: In-hospital CR unit. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 75 and older referred to an outpatient CR Unit after an acute coronary event (unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction) or cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve replacement or repair) (N = 160, mean age 80 ± 4)...
August 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Joshua H Guy, David B Pyne, Glen B Deakin, Catherine M Miller, Andrew M Edwards
PURPOSE: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. METHODS: Moderately-actively males (n = 24) were allocated randomly to either HOT (n = 8, 35°C, and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n = 8, 20°C, and 45% RH); or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n = 8)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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