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Fatty liver disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346237/current-and-future-pharmacologic-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Bubu A Banini, Arun J Sanyal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in 5-15% of patients and is rapidly becoming the leading cause for end-stage liver disease. Dietary caloric restriction and exercise, currently the cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD, can be difficult to achieve and maintain, underscoring the dire need for pharmacotherapy. This review presents the agents currently used in managing NAFLD and their pharmacologic targets...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345499/synbiotic-supplementation-in-lean-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-pilot-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
Fatemeh Mofidi, Hossein Poustchi, Zahra Yari, Babak Nourinayyer, Shahin Merat, Maryam Sharafkhah, Reza Malekzadeh, Azita Hekmatdoost
Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading aetiology of liver disorders in the world, there is no proven treatment for NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of synbiotics supplementation in NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, fifty patients with NAFLD were assigned to take either a synbiotic supplement or a placebo capsule for 28 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow a healthy lifestyle...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344991/antibody-directed-glucocorticoid-targeting-to-cd163-in-m2-type-macrophages-attenuates-fructose-induced-liver-inflammatory-changes
#3
Pia Svendsen, Jonas H Graversen, Anders Etzerodt, Henrik Hager, Rasmus Røge, Henning Grønbæk, Erik I Christensen, Holger J Møller, Hendrik Vilstrup, Søren K Moestrup
Increased consumption of high-caloric carbohydrates contributes substantially to endemic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans, covering a histological spectrum from fatty liver to steatohepatitis. Hypercaloric intake and lipogenetic effects of fructose and endotoxin-driven activation of liver macrophages are suggested to be essential to disease progression. In the present study, we show that a low dose of an anti-CD163-IgG-dexamethasone conjugate targeting the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in Kupffer cells and other M2-type macrophages has a profound effect on liver inflammatory changes in rats on a high-fructose diet...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344322/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-free-fatty-acid-induced-er-stress-and-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes-via-ampk-activation
#4
Bing Zhou, Dan-Li Zhou, Xiao-Hong Wei, Rong-Yu Zhong, Jie Xu, Liao Sun
Although the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not completely understood, the increased influx of free fatty acids (FFAs) into the liver and the FFA-induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are two crucial pathogenic processes in the initiation and development of NAFLD. In this study we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a bioactive compound purified from Astragali Radix, on FFA-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and elucidated the underlying mechanisms...
March 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338115/resveratrol-supplementation-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Ahmed Elgebaly, Ibrahim A I Radwan, Mohamed M AboElnas, Hamza H Ibrahim, Moutaz F M Eltoomy, Ahmed A Atta, Hend A Mesalam, Alaa A Sayed, Amr A Othman
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a potential treatment option for management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties, and calorie restriction-like effects. We aimed to synthesise evidence from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of resveratrol in the management of NAFLD. METHODS: A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central was conducted using relevant keywords...
March 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335383/a-biomedical-investigation-of-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-radix-salviae-miltiorrhizae-and-network-pharmacology-based-prediction-of-the-active-compounds-and-molecular-targets
#6
Ming Hong, Sha Li, Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Fan Cheung, Yibin Feng
Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333768/management-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-academic-hepatologists-in-canada-a-nationwide-survey
#7
Marialena Mouzaki, Simon C Ling, Richard A Schreiber, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND: The literature on the optimal clinical management of pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited. The objective of this study was to identify discrepancies in the care provided to patients with NAFLD by hepatologists practicing in academic centers across Canada. METHODS: A nationwide survey was distributed electronically to all pediatric hepatologists practicing in university-affiliated hospitals using the infrastructure of the Canadian Pediatric Hepatology Research Group...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#8
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333073/effects-of-melatonin-on-liver-injuries-and-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Yue Zhou, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332301/a-randomized-trial-comparing-gliclazide-liraglutide-and-metformin-effects-on-diabetes-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Wenhuan Feng, Caixia Gao, Yan Bi, Min Wu, Ping Li, Shanmei Shen, Wei Chen, Tingting Yin, Dalong Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of gliclazide, liraglutide, and metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Eighty-seven subjects were randomized to receive liraglutide, metformin, or gliclazide for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, and liver function. RESULTS: HbA1c levels and IHF content reduced after treatment in the three groups...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327662/regulation-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-the-zinc-finger-protein-zbtb20
#11
Gan Liu, Luting Zhou, Hai Zhang, Rong Chen, Ye Zhang, Ling Li, Jun-Yu Lu, Hui Jiang, Dong Liu, Shasha Qi, Ying-Ming Jiang, Kai Yin, Zhifang Xie, Yuguang Shi, Yong Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yu-Xia Chen, Dajin Zou, Weiping J Zhang
Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) converts carbohydrates into triglycerides and is known to influence systemic lipid homoeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 is required for DNL. Mice lacking Zbtb20 in the liver exhibit hypolipidemia and reduced levels of liver triglycerides, along with impaired hepatic lipogenesis. The expression of genes involved in glycolysis and DNL, including that of two ChREBP isoforms, is decreased in livers of knockout mice. Zbtb20 binds to and enhances the activity of the ChREBP-α promoter, suggesting that altered metabolic gene expression is mainly driven by ChREBP...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327588/pharmacological-inhibition-of-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-corrects-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#12
Martina Schweiger, Matthias Romauch, Renate Schreiber, Gernot F Grabner, Sabrina Hütter, Petra Kotzbeck, Pia Benedikt, Thomas O Eichmann, Sohsuke Yamada, Oskar Knittelfelder, Clemens Diwoky, Carina Doler, Nicole Mayer, Werner De Cecco, Rolf Breinbauer, Robert Zimmermann, Rudolf Zechner
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to the development of obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hence, reducing adipose tissue lipolysis to diminish the mobilization of FAs and lower their respective plasma concentrations represents a potential treatment strategy to counteract obesity-associated disorders. Here we show that specific inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) with the chemical inhibitor, Atglistatin, effectively reduces adipose tissue lipolysis, weight gain, IR and NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325476/erectile-dysfunction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Reem Ezzat Mahdy, Ali Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Mahran, Ahmed Serag Mahmoud Safwat, Asmaa Omar Mohamed, Sherif Mohamed Abdel-Aal
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There is a lack of studies on erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ED in patients with NAFLD and to determine the independent predictors of ED in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based study of 192 consecutive male patients with NAFLD. All patients underwent clinical evaluation; abdominal ultrasonography; test for viral hepatitis markers; and estimation of liver chemistry panel, complete blood count, prothrombin time, serum lipids panel, serum testosterone, and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide...
March 16, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325277/reverse-expression-of-aging-associated-molecules-through-transfection-of-mirnas-to-aged-mice
#14
Jung-Hee Kim, Bo-Ram Lee, Eun-Sook Choi, Kyeong-Min Lee, Seong-Kyoon Choi, Jung Hoon Cho, Won Bae Jeon, Eunjoo Kim
Molecular changes during aging have been studied to understand the mechanism of aging progress. Herein, changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in the whole blood of mice were studied to systemically reverse aging and propose them as non-invasive biomarkers. Through next-generation sequencing analysis, we selected 27 differentially expressed miRNAs during aging. The most recognized function involved was liver steatosis, a type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among 27 miRNAs, six were predicted to be involved in NAFLD, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-21a-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-103-3p, and miR-130a-3p; alterations in their blood and liver levels were confirmed by real-time qPCR...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324110/effects-of-metreleptin-in-pediatric-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#15
Rebecca J Brown, Cristina Adelia Meehan, Elaine Cochran, Kristina I Rother, David E Kleiner, Mary Walter, Phillip Gorden
Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of leptin-deficient children and adults with lipodystrophy. Objective: Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in leptin-deficient pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323986/chronic-intranasal-insulin-does-not-affect-hepatic-lipids-but-lowers-circulating-bcaas-in-healthy-male-subjects
#16
Thomas Scherer, Peter Wolf, Sabina Smajis, Melania Gaggini, Martina Hackl, Amalia Gastaldelli, Peter Klimek, Elisa Einwallner, Rodrig Marculescu, Anton Luger, Clemens Fürnsinn, Siegfried Trattnig, Christoph Buettner, Martin Krššák, Michael Krebs
Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and elevated circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, brain insulin signaling controls both hepatic triglyceride secretion and BCAA catabolism. Whether brain insulin signaling controls similar metabolic pathways in humans is unknown. Objective: Here we assessed if intranasal insulin, a method to preferentially deliver insulin to the central nervous system, is able to modulate hepatic lipid content and plasma BCAAs in humans...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323964/dysregulated-autophagy-in-hepatocytes-promotes-bisphenol-a-bpa-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-male-mice
#17
Shumin Yang, Ting Li, Aipin Zhang, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Lulu Liu, Qingfeng Cheng, Mei Mei, Ying Song, Xiaojiao Xiang, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Qifu Li
Context: Accumulating evidence suggests that bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Disruption of autophagy causes lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Whether and how BPA regulates autophagy remains to be explored. Objective: We investigated the effect of BPA on autophagy in hepatocytes and examined the influence of BPA-regulated autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. Design: Male CD1 mice were treated with BPA for eight weeks, followed by histological and biochemical evaluation of liver lipids and autophagy...
February 21, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322972/potential-role-of-cyp1b1-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-metabolic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Fei Li, Weifeng Zhu, Frank J Gonzalez
Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a member of CYP450s, is expressed in liver and extrahepatic tissues carries out the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, including the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surprisingly, CYP1B1 was also shown to be important in regulating endogenous metabolic pathways, including the metabolism of steroid hormones, fatty acids, melatonin, and vitamins. CYP1B1 and nuclear receptors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), estrogen receptor (ER), and retinoic acid receptors (RAR) contribute to the maintenance of the homeostasis of these endogenous compounds...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322576/the-effects-of-exercise-on-abdominal-fat-and-liver-enzymes-in-pediatric-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Katherine González-Ruiz, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mark D Peterson, Antonio García-Hermoso
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerized search was made using three databases...
March 21, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321274/risk-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhosis-due-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-multicenter-case-control-study
#20
Kathleen E Corey, Samer Gawrieh, Andrew S deLemos, Hui Zheng, Andrew E Scanga, Jennifer W Haglund, Jorge Sanchez, Christopher J Danford, Megan Comerford, Krista Bossi, Samina Munir, Naga Chalasani, Julia Wattacheril
AIM: To identify risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), describe tumor characteristics and treatments pursed for a cohort of individuals with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of a well-characterized cohort of patients among five liver transplant centers with NASH cirrhosis with (cases) and without HCC (controls). RESULTS: Ninety-four cases and 150 controls were included...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
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