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Fatty liver disease treatment

Saeideh Ghaffarifar, Manouchehr Khoshbaten, Fattaneh Dordaei, Maryam Zareh Nahandi, Reza Javad-Rashid, Tahereh Shahnazi
Aim: This study was intended to explore the effect of various drugs used to treat fatty liver on intimal-media thickness in patients with NAFLD. Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an indicator of a broad spectrum of pathologic disorders, which is characterized with macro vesicular steatosis in the absent of alcohol use. It has a wide range of laboratory, clinical and pathological presentations such as simple steatosis to the diseases like non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Jian Li, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Wei Wang, Lifeng Han, Qian Chen, Jingya Ruan, Shaoshi Wen, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
Objective: Mangiferin (MGF) is a natural xanthone, with regulation effect on lipid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We purposed after oral administration, MGF is converted to its active metabolite(s), which contributes to the effects on lipid metabolism. Methods: KK-Ay mice were used to validate the effects of MGF on lipid metabolic disorders. Liver biochemical indices and gene expressions were determined. MGF metabolites were isolated from MGF administrated rat urine. Mechanism studies were carried out using HepG2 cells treated by MGF and its metabolite with or without inhibitors or small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
José A Del Campo, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Paloma Gallego, Lourdes Grande
Genetics and epigenetics play a key role in the development of several diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Family studies demonstrate that first degree relatives of patients with NAFLD are at a much higher risk of the disease than the general population. The development of the Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) technology has allowed the identification of numerous genetic polymorphisms involved in the evolution of diseases (e.g., PNPLA3 , MBOAT7 ). On the other hand, epigenetic changes interact with inherited risk factors to determine an individual's susceptibility to NAFLD...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shuying He, Weihong Guo, Feihong Deng, Kequan Chen, Yonghong Jiang, Minyu Dong, Liang Peng, Xueqing Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide, and precision therapeutic will be a benefit for the NAFLD regression. In this study, we observed low microRNA 146 b (miR-146 b) expression in NAFLD mice model induced by methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) compared with control group. Furthermore, miR-146b-/- mice induced MCD exhibited severe liver steatosis and hepatitis. A bio-distribution study showed that novel Lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles effectively targeted hepatocytes Lac-PDMAEMA...
March 21, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
U Vespasiani-Gentilucci, F Vorini, S Carotti, A De Vincentis, G Galati, P Gallo, N Scopinaro, A Picardi
BACKGROUND: Even if the jejunoileal bypass has been definitely abandoned due to the high rate of hepatic complications, cases of liver injury after the new bariatric procedures are still reported. We aimed to review the available literature concerning liver damage associated with the older and newer types of bariatric surgeries. METHODS: An extensive literature search of MEDLINE was performed using different combinations of the following terms: "bariatric surgery OR biliopancreatic diversion OR jejunoileal bypass OR roux-en-y gastric bypass OR vertical banded gastroplasty OR laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding" AND "hepatic/liver damage OR hepatic/liver impairment OR hepatic/liver failure"...
October 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Xavier Palomer, Emma Barroso, Javier Pizarro-Delgado, Lucía Peña, Gaia Botteri, Mohammad Zarei, David Aguilar, Marta Montori-Grau, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
Research in recent years on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ indicates that it plays a key role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, both at the cellular level and within the organism as a whole. PPARβ/δ activation might help prevent the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review highlights research findings on the PPARβ/δ regulation of energy metabolism and the development of diseases related to altered cellular and body metabolism...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carine Beysen, Marcie Ruddy, Aubrey Stoch, Lori A Mixson, Kim Rosko, Tim Riiff, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, Elizabeth J Murphy
Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. During each assessment, [1-13 C1 ]-acetate was infused to measure DNL in the fasting state and during fructose feeding...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mariana Verdelho Machado, Anna Mae Diehl
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of obesity-associated liver diseases and it has become the major cause of cirrhosis in the Western world. The high prevalence of NAFLD-associated advanced liver disease reflects both the high prevalence of obesity-related fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) and the lack of specific treatments to prevent hepatic steatosis from progressing to more serious forms of liver damage, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Galyna Mykhalchyshyn, Liudmyla Kononenko, Luigi Boccuto, Dmytro Kyriienko, Oleg Dynnyk
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have a beneficial effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in NAFLD are still lacking in humans despite a large number of data from animal research. AIM: We performed a double-blind single center RCT of live multi-strain probiotic vs. placebo in type 2 diabetes patients with NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 58 patients met the criteria for inclusion. They were randomly assigned to receive the multi-probiotic "Symbiter" (concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Propionibacterium) or placebo for 8-weeks administered as a sachet formulation in double-blind treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Jun Wang, JinXin Lu, XiaoWei Xie, Jia Xiong, Ningning Huang, Hongkui Wei, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. The blend of organic acids (OAs) and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) has been shown to have synergistic bactericidal effect. In this study, we demonstrated that two blends of OAs and MCFAs (OM1 and OM2) could prevent the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier dysfunction in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice. Treatments of OM1 and OM2 significantly reduced the body weight loss and production of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by EHEC...
March 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Taewon Yuk, Younghwa Kim, Jinwoo Yang, Jeehye Sung, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
We aimed to investigate the effects of nobiletin on hepatic lipogenesis in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid with six methoxy groups, is present abundantly in the peels of citrus fruits. HepG2 cells were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing high glucose (25 mM) and subsequently treated with nobiletin at different concentrations (5, 25, and 50  μ M). Results showed that nobiletin markedly inhibited high glucose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Hyo Young Lee, Dae Won Jun, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyunwoo Oh, Waqar Khalid Saeed, Hyeongsik Ahn, Ramsey C Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
Background/Aims: A number of clinical trials reported varying effects of cholesterol lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We, therefore, assessed the changes in hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score (NAS) after treatment with cholesterol lowering agents in NAFLD patients by metaanalysis. Methods: The Cochrane Library, the MEDLINE, and the Embase databases were searched until May 2015, without any language restrictions, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs)...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaoqin Zou, Qiuyan Huang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. METHODS: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF), a high-fat group (HF), a spontaneous recovery group (SR), a Kudingcha group (KDC), a blank nanoparticle group (B-N), and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Dongxia Fu, Haibin Cui, Yunna Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is involved in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jian Bi, Kang Sun, Hao Wu, Xiuli Chen, Haiying Tang, Jingwei Mao
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) participates in the process of insulin resistance (IR), a crucial pathophysiology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Meanwhile, suppressor of cytokine signaling3 (SOCS3) also regulates IR in NAFLD. Both PPARγ and SOCS3 play a role in NAFLD through regulating IR, while it is unclear whether these two proteins interact to regulate hepatic steatosis. PPARγ, SOCS3 and its associated JAK2/STAT3 pathway were analyzed using Kuppfer cells (KCs) treatment with LPS and BRL-3A cells treatment with palmitic acid, KC-conditioned medium (KCCM), PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (ROZ) or JAK2 inhibitor AG490 to demonstrate the role of PPARγ and SOCS3 in hepatocytes steatosis...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marco Fiore, Sebastiano Leone, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Emilio Berti, Giovanni Damiani
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Systemic treatments, including methotrexate and cyclosporin, are associated with potential hepatotoxicity, due to either direct liver damage or immunosuppression or both immunomediated and a direct liver injury; therefore, treatment of patients with psoriasis poses a therapeutic challenge. The aim of this minireview is to help clinicians in the management of psoriatic patients who develop signs of liver dysfunction...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shi Cheng, Yan Yang, Yong Zhou, Wei Xiang, Hua Yao, Ling Ma
The development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by the steatosis of hepatocytes, which induces oxidative stress (OS). Thus, OS has an important role in the development of NAFLD. In the present study, the L-02 hepatocyte cell line was used to develop a steatosis cell model. The best model was determined using an MTT assay and the triglyceride levels. Model cells were treated with high concentrations of uric acid (UA; 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/dl) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Indicators of oxidation were then measured, which included total superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and the transcriptional and translational levels of SOD1 and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCLC) were also determined...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Qian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Yi Zhang, Feng Qiu, Tao Wang
Scutellaria baicalensis has been reported to improve the lipid metabolism of high-fat diet-induced liver dysfunction, but direct evidence is rare. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of S. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention. METHODS: We investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
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