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Fatty liver disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786646/metabolic-reprogramming-by-3-iodothyronamine-t1am-a-new-perspective-to-reverse-obesity-through-co-regulation-of-sirtuin-4-and-6-expression
#1
Fariba M Assadi-Porter, Hannah Reiland, Martina Sabatini, Leonardo Lorenzini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Micheal Rogowski, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Marco Tonelli, Sandra Ghelardoni, Alessandro Saba, Riccardo Zucchi, Grazia Chiellini
Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of subchronic T1AM treatment at two pharmacological daily doses (10 and 25 mg/kg) on targeted metabolic pathways. Multi-analytical results indicated that T1AM at 25 mg/kg can act as a novel master regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism in mice through sirtuin-mediated pathways...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785077/mediterranean-diet-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Caterina Anania, Francesco Massimo Perla, Francesca Olivero, Lucia Pacifico, Claudio Chiesa
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the major risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Currently, there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781841/carbohydrates-and-diet-patterns-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779170/histological-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-a-prebiotic-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#4
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778532/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-from-sphingolipidomics
#5
David J Montefusco, Jeremy C Allegood, Sarah Spiegel, L Ashley Cowart
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major clinical concern and its treatment consumes abundant resources. While accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes initiates the disease, this in itself is not necessarily harmful; rather, initiation of inflammation and subsequent fibrosis and cirrhosis are critical steps in NAFLD pathology. Mechanisms linking lipid overload to downstream disease progression are not fully understood; however, bioactive lipid metabolism may underlie instigation of proinflammatory signaling...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773783/cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-fatal-outcome-without-causal-therapy-in-a-female-patient-with-the-preventable-sequelae-of-progressive-liver-disease-after-many-years-of-mild-symptoms
#6
Ali Canbay, Meike N Müller, Stathis Philippou, Guido Gerken, Andreas Tromm
BACKGROUND Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), also known as lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D), is a rare autosomal-recessive inheritable lysosomal storage disease. Since 2015, a causal treatment with sebelipase alfa, which replaces the missing LAL enzyme, has been approved. We report a fatal course of LAL-D in a female patient. CASE REPORT In 1979, CESD was first diagnosed in a 13-year-old female with marked hepatomegaly. At that time, no specific treatment for CESD was available and the spontaneous course of the disease had to be awaited...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#7
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772372/palmitate-induces-nitric-oxide-production-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-zebrafish
#8
Seon-Heui Cha, Yongha Hwang, Kil-Nam Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
Inflammation markers in zebrafish embryos reflect a toxic response that is common to other animal models and humans. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to cause damage in various tissues by inducing inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a FFA (palmitate) induces inflammation in zebrafish embryos. Nitrous oxide (NO) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were increased in palmitate-treated zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), were also increased...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766824/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-on-preclinical-evidence
#9
Fatima Saleh, Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Marwan El Ghoch
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasing global health problem, but its treatment is not yet optimal, especially in the long term. For this reason, preclinical studies have been conducted relating to a new therapeutic strategy for obesity based on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). The aim of our systematic review is to summarize these findings deriving from the animal model in order to establish whether there is sufficient evidence to justify going forward to clinical studies...
May 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765460/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nafld-starting-points-for-intervention
#10
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Paolo Gallo, Antonio Picardi
In recent years, close links between intestinal microbiota and host metabolism have been recognized. Intestinal bacteria can participate in the extraction of calories from food, and circulation of bacterial products, in particular lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is responsible for the "metabolic endotoxemia", which contributes to insulin resistance and its complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, qualitative and quantitative intestinal dysbiotic changes have been clearly documented in NAFLD patients, and several mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota can directly promote liver fat deposition, inflammation and fibrosis have also been described...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765322/therapeutic-potential-of-ginsenosides-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760542/mouse-models-for-investigating-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-derived-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Kazuki Takakura, Tsunekazu Oikawa, Yoichi Tomita, Yusuke Mizuno, Masanori Nakano, Chisato Saeki, Yuichi Torisu, Masayuki Saruta
As the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by infection with the hepatotropic viruses hepatitis B and hepatitis C decreases, greater attention has become focused on HCC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which has shown increasing prevalence in correspondence with the overall increase in metabolic syndrome over the recent decades. Several clinical population studies have shown a positive relationship between NASH and HCC, while also providing initial insights into the underlying mechanisms of HCC development from NASH...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759071/metformin-attenuates-triglyceride-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-through-decreasing-stearyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-1-expression
#13
Xiaopeng Zhu, Hongmei Yan, Mingfeng Xia, Xinxia Chang, Xi Xu, Liu Wang, Xiaoyang Sun, Yan Lu, Hua Bian, Xiaoying Li, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased worldwide. Metformin decreases triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockout mice also show decreased liver TG accumulation; however, whether SCD1 plays a role in the effect of metformin on TG accumulation is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether SCD1 mediated the effect of metformin on TG accumulation...
May 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755356/anti-parkinson-potential-of-silymarin-mechanistic-insight-and-therapeutic-standing
#14
REVIEW
Hammad Ullah, Haroon Khan
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves aggregation of α-synuclein and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Pathogenesis of PD may also be related to one's genetic background. PD is most common among geriatric population and approximately 1-2% of population suffers over age 65 years. Currently no successful therapies are in practice for the management of PD and available therapies tend to decrease the symptoms of PD only. Furthermore, these are associated with diverse range of adverse effects profile. The neuroprotective effects of polyphenols are widely studied and documented...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752170/treating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-the-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#15
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann C Halbower, Jelena Klawitter, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea/nocturnal hypoxia on pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity and oxidative stress. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsy proven participants (n = 9) with NAFLD and obstructive sleep apnea/hypoxia were studied before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for sleep disordered breathing, including laboratory testing and markers of oxidative stress, urine F(2)-isoprostanes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749323/effects-of-delta-tocotrienol-supplementation-on-liver-enzymes-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Muhammad Amjad Pervez, Dishad Ahmet Khan, Aamir Ijaz, Shamrez Khan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743929/neonatal-overfeeding-induced-glucocorticoid-overexposure-accelerates-hepatic-lipogenesis-in-male-rats
#17
Fan Yang, Yanyan Dai, Cuiting Min, Xiaonan Li
Background: Postnatal overfeeding activates tissue glucocorticoid (GC) activity by up-regulating 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) and increasing sensitivity to high-fat (HF) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding on GC regulation and lipogenesis in the liver and to observe the impact of GC on hepatocyte lipid metabolism. Methods: In vivo , Male Sprague-Dawley rat pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of three (small litter, SL) or ten (normal litter, NL) on postnatal day 3 and then given standard chow from postnatal week 3 (W3) to W13...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743925/-gynostemma-pentaphyllum-attenuates-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-a-biomedical-investigation-integrated-with-in-silico-assay
#18
Ming Hong, Zhe Cai, Lei Song, Yongqiang Liu, Qi Wang, Xiangfei Feng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of liver disease in developed countries. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of NAFLD. Modern pharmacological study and clinical trials have demonstrated the remarkable antioxidant activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) in chronic liver disease. One aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects and mechanisms of action of GP extract on NAFLD. The in vivo results showed that GP extract could alleviate fatty degeneration and haptic fibrosis in NAFLD mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743883/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-a-combination-of-ketogenic-diet-and-aerobic-exercise-via-modulations-of-ppars-gene-programs
#19
Qiang Zhang, Lingyan Xu, Jie Xia, Dongmei Wang, Min Qian, Shuzhe Ding
Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis...
2018: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743560/caspases-in-metabolic-disease-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#20
Claire H Wilson, Sharad Kumar
Caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases, are central to the maintenance of cellular and organismal homoeostasis by functioning as key mediators of the inflammatory response and/or apoptosis. Both metabolic inflammation and apoptosis play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease such as obesity and the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatisis (NASH) to more severe liver disease. Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading global health challenges associated with the development of numerous comorbidities including insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and early mortality...
May 9, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
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