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Fatty liver disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914133/lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-improves-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-type-2-diabetes-its-efficacy-and-predictive-factors-related-to-responsiveness
#1
Yong Ho Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, So Ra Kim, Heung Yong Jin, Eun Jung Rhee, Young Min Cho, Byung Wan Lee
Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), few treatment modalities are currently available. We investigated the hepatic effects of the novel thiazolidinedione (TZDs), lobeglitazone (Duvie) in T2D patients with NAFLD. We recruited drug-naïve or metformin-treated T2D patients with NAFLD to conduct a multicenter, prospective, open-label, exploratory clinical trial. Transient liver elastography (Fibroscan®; Echosens, Paris, France) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) was used to non-invasively quantify hepatic fat contents...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#2
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910784/hepatoprotective-effect-of-tricholoma-giganteum-agaricomycetes-in-a-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rat-model
#3
Ramar Govindaraj, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Erenius Toppo, Perumal Pandikumar, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdhullah Al-Dhabi
Different concentrations of standardized ethanolic extract from the basidiocarps of Tricholoma giganteum Massee (TgEtOH) were screened for hepatoprotective effects in an animal model of rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fed a high-fat and high-fructose diet. After 4 weeks of treatment with TgEtOH, the relative liver weights, serum lipid concentrations, and biochemical profiles were found to be normal in treated animals compared with those given a standard drug. The macroscopic and histopathological studies clearly indicated that 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract was effective in ameliorating the abnormalities of NAFLD...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909717/restorative-effects-of-hydroxysafflor-yellow%C3%A2-a-on-hepatic-function-in-an-experimental-regression-model-of-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride
#5
Yanuo Li, Yan Shi, Yan Sun, Luying Liu, Xianyong Bai, Dong Wang, Hongxing Li
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906803/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#7
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD (ECON) reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905898/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-can-modulate-the-effect-of-the-pnpla3-variant-on-childhood-nafld-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#8
Shuo Wang, Jieyun Song, Xiaorui Shang, Nitesh Chawla, Yide Yang, Xiangrui Meng, Haijun Wang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: The patatin like phospholipase containing domain 3 gene (PNPLA3) rs738409 C > G polymorphism, one of the most important gene polymorphisms involved in hepatic steatosis, has been reported to interact with different nutrients and dietary patterns on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but no studies have focused on its interaction with physical activity or sedentary behavior. Therefore, this study aims at determining whether physical activity or sedentary behavior could modulate the effect of the PNPLA3 variant on childhood NAFLD...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904805/hypothesis-on-serenoa-repens-bartram-small-extract-inhibition-of-prostatic-5%C3%AE-reductase-through-an-in-silico-approach-on-5%C3%AE-reductase-x-ray-structure
#9
Paolo Governa, Daniela Giachetti, Marco Biagi, Fabrizio Manetti, Luca De Vico
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in men aged over 50 years old, with an incidence increasing to more than 80% over the age of 70, that is increasingly going to attract pharmaceutical interest. Within conventional therapies, such as α-adrenoreceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitor, there is a large requirement for treatments with less adverse events on, e.g., blood pressure and sexual function: phytotherapy may be the right way to fill this need. Serenoa repens standardized extract has been widely studied and its ability to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia is comprehensively described in literature...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904677/an-engineered-fgf21-variant-ly2405319-can-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-enhancing-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#10
Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Ki Cheol Park, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent obesity-related disease that affects large populations throughout the world due to excessive calorie intake and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is a starvation-induced pleiotropic hormone with various beneficial metabolic effects, and pharmacological treatment in rodents has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease simple fatty liver disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903831/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-hepatic-steatosis-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-male-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Shun-Ichiro Asahara, Yoshiaki Kido, Michihiro Matsumoto, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Shuichi Kaneko, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. METHODS: In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901086/glycycoumarin-inhibits-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis-through-activation-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-er-stress-gsk-3-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#12
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xinhua Song, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Herbal medicine as an alternative approach in the treatment of disease has drawn growing attention. Identification of the active ingredient is needed for effective utilization of the herbal medicine. Licorice is a popular herbal plant that is widely used to treat various diseases including liver diseases. Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of courmarin compounds isolated from licorice. In the present study, the protective effect of GCM on hepatocyte lipoapoptosis has been evaluated using both cell culture model of palmitate-induced lipoapoptosis and animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899914/how-useful-are-monogenic-rodent-models-for-the-study-of-human-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jake P Mann, Robert K Semple, Matthew J Armstrong
Improving understanding of the genetic basis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has the potential to facilitate risk stratification of affected patients, permit personalized treatment, and inform development of new therapeutic strategies. Animal models have been widely used to interrogate the pathophysiology of, and genetic predisposition to, NAFLD. Nevertheless, considerable interspecies differences in intermediary metabolism potentially limit the extent to which results can be extrapolated to humans...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895822/linagliptin-alleviates-fatty-liver-disease-in-diabetic-db-db-mice
#14
Svetlana V Michurina, Irina Ju Ishenko, Vadim V Klimontov, Sergey A Archipov, Natalia E Myakina, Marina A Cherepanova, Eugenii L Zavjalov, Galina V Koncevaya, Vladimir I Konenkov
AIM: To study the effects of linagliptin on the structural signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in db/db mice. METHODS: Male diabetic db/db mice (BKS.Cg-Dock7(m+)/(+)Lepr(db)/J) aged 10 wk received the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or saline as a placebo once per day by gavage for 8 wk. Intact db/db mice served as controls. Structural changes in the liver were analyzed from light and electron microscopic images of sections from intact, placebo-treated and linagliptin-treated animals...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895393/emerging-role-of-obeticholic-acid-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
EDITORIAL
Evangelia Makri, Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and its prevalence is increasing driven by the pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer. Diet and exercise are limited by suboptimal long-term adherence in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, current pharmacological treatment of NAFLD has limited efficacy and unfavorable safety profile. In this context, obeticholic acid (OCA), a selective agonist of the farnesoid X receptors, might represent a useful option in these patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891208/endogenous-n-3-fatty-acids-alleviate-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-fat-1-transgenic-mice
#16
Ruibing Feng, Meng Wang, Chunyan Yan, Peng Li, Meiwan Chen, Chengwei He, Jian-Bo Wan
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for numerous models of liver diseases. The probable protective effects of n-3 PUFA against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury were evaluated in a fat-1 transgenic mouse that synthesizes endogenous n-3 from n-6 PUFA. Fat-1 mice and their WT littermates were fed a modified AIN93 diet containing 10% corn oil and were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 or vehicle. CCl4 challenge caused severe liver injury in WT mice, as indicated by serum parameters and histopathological changes, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#17
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889809/reversal-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-who-adhere-to-a-very-low-energy-diet-a-pilot-study
#18
Megan L Gow, Louise A Baur, Nathan A Johnson, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. METHODS: Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged 7-16 years, non-medicated (n = 1) or treated with metformin (n = 7) and in some cases insulin (n = 3), followed a VLED (<3360 kJ/day) for 8 weeks, then transitioned to a hypocaloric diet (∼6300 kJ/day) that they followed to 34 weeks...
November 26, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#19
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881164/administration-of-anti-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-rankl-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis-was-associated-with-amelioration-of-hepatitis-in-a-female-patient-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-a-case-report
#20
Ayumu Takeno, Masahiro Yamamoto, Masakazu Notsu, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A recent animal study showed that hepatocyte-specific receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) knockout mice had significantly lower liver fat content compared with control mice concomitant with a decrease in production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from hepatocytes and kupffer cells. The role of anti-RANK ligand (RANKL) antibody for osteoporosis on hepatitis in patients with aGHD is still unknown...
November 24, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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