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Fatty liver disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164049/polyphenols-treatment-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Ludovico Abenavoli, Natasa Milic, Francesco Luzza, Luigi Boccuto, Antonino De Lorenzo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25-30% of the general population worldwide and this high prevalence is linked with lifestyle and dietetic changes, not only in Western countries, but also in the urban areas of developing countries. Several pharmacological approaches were proposed in the treatment of NAFLD, but the reported results are inconclusive. International guidelines recommended the reduction of dietary fat and fructose, in association with some physical activity. In this context, it was reported that the protective effects of traditional Mediterranean diet, related to the high concentration of antioxidant compounds, particularly of polyphenols...
September 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163785/tm5441-a-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-inhibitor-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Seon Myeong Lee, Debra Dorotea, Inji Jung, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Toshio Miyata, Hunjoo Ha
Recent evidences showed that elevation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was responsible in mediating obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of TM5441, an oral PAI-1 inhibitor that lacks of bleeding risk, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice was daily treated with 20 mg/kg TM5441. To examine the preventive effect, 10-week-treatment was started along with initiation of HFD; alternatively, 4-week-treatment was started in mice with glucose intolerance in the interventional strategy...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160087/glyoxalase-1-modulation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#3
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing globally. There is also increasing associated complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vascular complications of diabetes. There is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD and no recent treatments for diabetic complications. New approaches are required, particularly addressing mechanism-based risk factors for health decline and disease progression. Recent advances: Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites such as methylglyoxal leading to cell and tissue dysfunction...
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159396/association-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-lower-brain-volume-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-in-the-framingham-study
#4
Galit Weinstein, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Charles DeCarli, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Claudia L Satizabal, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri
Importance: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition that is most often asymptomatic. It is associated with metabolic syndrome, incident diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, conditions that in turn are strongly linked with brain damage and cognitive impairment. However, it is not known whether NAFLD is associated with structural brain measures in humans. Objective: To assess the association between prevalent NAFLD and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159325/role-of-aramchol-in-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#5
Marta Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta Varela-Rey, David Fernández-Ramos, Ibon Martínez-Arranz, Teresa C Delgado, Jorge Simon, Virginia Gutiérrez-de Juan, Laura delaCruz-Villar, Mikel Azkargorta, José L Lavin, Rebeca Mayo, Sebastiaan M Van Liempd, Igor Aurrekoetxea, Xabier Buqué, Donatella Delle Cave, Arantza Peña, Juan Rodríguez-Cuesta, Ana M Aransay, Felix Elortza, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Patricia Aspichueta, Liat Hayardeny, Mazen Noureddin, Arun J Sanyal, Cristina Alonso, Juan Anguita, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH...
November 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156528/actein-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-by-regulation-of-insulin-and-leptin-resistant
#6
Hong-Jun Chen, Jin Liu
Insulin and leptin resistance are highly involved in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Presently, no approved treatment is available. Actein is isolated from the rthizomes of Cimicifuga foetida, a triterpene glycoside, exhibiting important biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant activity. However, its effects on metabolic syndrome are poorly understood. The aims of the study were mainly to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin and leptin resistance, and lipogenic action of actein in high fat diet-fed mice...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151428/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Gonzalo Labarca, Rodrigo Cruz, Jorge Jorquera
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and several extra-pulmonary issues, such as arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. In recent years, the associations between OSA, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been published; however, there is a gap between experimental and clinical studies regarding the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patient populations with these conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150490/gut-roundtable-meeting-paper-selected-recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Gerbes, Fabien Zoulim, Herbert Tilg, Jean-François Dufour, Jordi Bruix, Valérie Paradis, Riad Salem, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Peter R Galle, Tim F Greten, Jean-Charles Nault, Matias A Avila
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy...
November 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137068/carnitine-acylcarnitine-translocase-deficiency-with-c-199-10-t-g-and-novel-c-1a-g-mutation-two-case-reports-and-brief-literature-review
#9
Hui-Ming Yan, Hao Hu, Aisha Ahmed, Bing-Bing Feng, Jing Liu, Zheng-Jun Jia, Hua Wang
RATIONALE: Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocate deficiency (CACTD) is a rare and life-threatening, autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid β-oxidation characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, cardiomyopathy, liver dysfunction, and muscle weakness; culminating in early death. To date, CACTD cases screened from the Chinese mainland population, especially patient with compound heterozygote with c.199-10T>G and a novel c.1A>G mutation in the SLC25A20 gene has never been described...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136950/a-novel-sesquiterpene-glycoside-from-loquat-leaf-alleviates-oleic-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#10
Tunyu Jian, Yuexian Wu, Xiaoqin Ding, Han Lv, Li Ma, Yuanyuan Zuo, Bingru Ren, Lei Zhao, Bei Tong, Jian Chen, Weilin Li
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf has displayed beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome. In our previously study, total sesquiterpene glycosides (TSG) isolated from Loquat leaf exhibited therapeutic effect on Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo, but the accurate active compound remains unknown. Sesquiterpene glycoside 1 (SG1) is a novel compound, which is exclusively isolated from Loquat leaf, but its biological activity has been rarely reported. The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effect of SG1, the main component of TSG, in oleic acid (OA)-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD with its related mechanisms of action...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#11
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132522/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Patrick H Sweet, Teresa Khoo, Steven Nguyen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a condition of hepatic steatosis with or without hepatic injury. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence worldwide and presents a public health burden. Most patients are asymptomatic, although some present with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. NAFLD is discovered incidentally when patients have elevated liver enzymes or fatty liver is seen on imaging modalities. Imaging studies can confirm fatty deposits in the liver, but needle biopsy is needed to determine degree of inflammation...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128056/emerging-treatments-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
REVIEW
Samer Gawrieh, Naga Chalasani
This review discusses completed phase II randomized clinical trials with high-quality published results for compounds that demonstrate effects on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis histology (obeticholic acid, elafibranor, and liraglutide). The authors also review the available preliminary data on cenicriviroc and selonsertib, with or without simtuzumab's phase II studies. Finally, the authors briefly discuss compounds that have been tested but did not achieve the primary end point of histologic improvement and appeared in high-quality published articles (cysteamine bitartrate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids)...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128055/current-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
REVIEW
Chun Kit Hung, Henry C Bodenheimer
Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is focused on patients with NASH because they are at highest risk for progressive liver disease. Current first-line treatment consists of lifestyle modifications. Patients should lose at least 7% to 10% of body weight via a combination of physical exercise and calorie restriction dieting. Surgical or endoscopic surgery for weight loss can be considered in obese patients, depending on degree of excess body weight and comorbidities...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126901/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-human-hepatoma-cells-from-developing-steatosis-through-ffa4-gpr120
#15
Saeromi Kang, Jin Huang, Bo-Kyung Lee, Young-Suk Jung, Eunok Im, Jung-Min Koh, Dong-Soon Im
Protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been demonstrated. FFA4 (also known as GPR120; a G protein-coupled receptor) has been suggested to be a target of n-3 PUFA. FFA4 expression in hepatocytes has also been reported from liver biopsies in child fatty liver patients. In order to assess the functional role of FFA4 in hepatic steatosis, we used an in vitro model of liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated hepatocellular steatosis. FFA4 expression was confirmed in Hep3B and HepG2 human hepatoma cells...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122695/should-we-undertake-surveillance-for-hcc-in-patients-with-nafld
#16
REVIEW
Ramy Younes, Elisabetta Bugianesi
The pandemic of obesity and its related complications is rapidly changing the epidemiology of many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major cause of HCC, with a steadily rising trend compared to viral or alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis. The much greater prevalence of the underlying liver disease in the general population and the chance of HCC occurrence in non-cirrhotic liver are the most worrisome aspects of HCC in NAFLD. Effective screening programmes are currently hampered by limited knowledge of the pathways of carcinogenesis and a lack of tools able to stratify the risk of HCC in the NAFLD population...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122694/pharmacotherapy-for-nash-current-and-emerging
#17
REVIEW
Monica A Konerman, Jacob C Jones, Stephen A Harrison
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prominent forms of chronic liver disease worldwide, reflecting the epidemic of global obesity. Those with the progressive variant of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are at significantly increased risk of multisystem morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no approved pharmacologic therapies for NASH. Given the disease burden, there is an important unmet need for pharmacologic treatment options for this patient population...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120742/the-human-microbiome-and-obesity-moving-beyond-associations
#18
REVIEW
Padma Maruvada, Vanessa Leone, Lee M Kaplan, Eugene B Chang
Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiome responds to diet, antibiotics, and other external stimuli with speed and high precision and in ways that impact a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite a decade of research establishing a strong association between the gut microbiota and obesity in humans, a causal relationship and the underlying mechanism remain outstanding. Several technological and methodological limitations in obesity and microbiome research have made it difficult to establish causality in this complex relationship...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119336/bariatric-surgery-as-an-efficient-treatment-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-prospective-study-with-1-year-follow-up-bariscan-study
#19
Felix Nickel, Christian Tapking, Laura Benner, Janina Sollors, Adrian T Billeter, Hannes G Kenngott, Loay Bokhary, Mathias Schmid, Moritz von Frankenberg, Lars Fischer, Sebastian Mueller, Beat P Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery gains attention as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate improvement of NAFLD after the two most common bariatric procedures with validated non-invasive instruments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: N = 100 patients scheduled for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were included. NAFLD was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and laboratory-based fibrosis scores...
November 9, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118811/obese-children-with-metabolic-syndrome-have-3-times-higher-risk-to-have-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-compared-with-those-without-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Dimitrios Papandreou, Mirey Karavetian, Zacharoula Karabouta, Eleni Andreou
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. One hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 11-12 years old participated in the study. Methods: Anthropometric and biochemical indices were measured, including lipid and liver profile, blood glucose, serum insulin, and liver ultrasound. Results: Forty-four children (58.6%) were found to have MS...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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