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Hyperlipidemia treatment

Kisantini Murugesu, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Amirin Sadikun
BACKGROUND: Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves has been previously shown to pos-sess antihyperlipidemic effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanol-ic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials. RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reduc-tions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0...
March 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hayden B Bosworth, Barbara Ngouyombo, Jan Liska, Leah L Zullig, Caroline Atlani, Anne C Beal
Lipid-lowering medications have been shown to be efficacious, but adherence is suboptimal. This is a narrative, perspective review of recently published literature in the field of medication adherence research for lipid-lowering medications. We provide an overview of the impact of suboptimal adherence and use a World Health Organization framework (patient, condition, therapy, socioeconomic, and health system-related systems) to discuss factors that influence hyperlipidemia treatment adherence. Further, the review involves an evaluation of intervention strategies to increase hyperlipidemia treatment adherence with a special focus on mHealth interventions, patient reminders on packaging labels, nurse- and pharmacist-led interventions, and health teams...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Ralph Ziegler, Andreas Neu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is steadily rising and now stands at 22.9 new cases per year per 100 000 persons up to age 15. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective literature search, with special attention to the current German S3 guideline on diabetes in childhood and adolescence. RESULTS: Polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss are the characteristic presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus...
March 2, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eric Wallace, Zachary Stewart, David Theriot, William Shaffer, Shane Guillory, Michael Hanemann, Raman Danrad, Bradley Spieler
Background: Plasmacytomas are monoclonal proliferations of plasma cells that typically affect the intramedullary axial skeleton. Imaging findings of an extramedullary plasmacytoma on radiograph and computed tomography can be nonspecific and can resemble other entities such as lymphoma, metastases, chondrosarcomas, or giant cell tumors. Case Report: A 60-year-old female with a medical history of partial complex seizures, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, and hyperlipidemia presented with complaints of superficial abdominal pain associated with erythema and swelling for 3 weeks...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Ravi Gupta, Thomas J Bollyky, Matthew Cohen, Joseph S Ross, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether off-patent prescription drugs at risk of sudden price increases or shortages in the United States are available from independent manufacturers approved in other well regulated settings around the world. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Off-patent drugs in the USA and approved by the Food and Drug Administration, up to 10 April 2017. STUDY COHORT: Novel tablet or capsule prescription drugs approved by the FDA since 1939 that were no longer protected by patents or other market exclusivity and had up to three generic versions...
March 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Meng Xin, Yang Sun, Haijiao Chen, Quancai Li, Yunlou Dun, Huashi Guan, Jiejie Hao, Chunxia Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for CVD. Maintaining lipid homeostasis is an effective way to prevent CVD. We prepared propylene glycol guluronate sulfate (PGGS), a sulfated polysaccharide, and investigated its effect on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased in the cells after PGGS treatment. We have also shown that the AMPK signaling is activated after PGGS treatment as evidenced by changes in the expression of many AMPK downstream targets including SREBP-1c, SIRT-1, CPT1, PPARα, and FAS...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
February 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Caixia Guo, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Tian Chen, Yang Li, Yang Yu, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a marker of hyperlipidemia, plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis through the induction of macrophage-derived foam cell formation and thereafter apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that silica nanoparticle (SiNPs) may exert a proatherogenic role, which could induce endothelial dysfunction, and monocytes infiltration. However, little is known about SiNPs' effects on macrophage-derived foam cell formation and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Elisa Covolo, Claudio Bilato
Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies include both lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy. Statins are among the most effective agents to achieve optimal LDL-cholesterol levels, but, not infrequently, patients suffer from myalgia or other side effects. The proven or perceived intolerance to statins requires, therefore, alternative lipid-lowering strategies. In recent years, nutraceuticals have become extensively accepted, and a growing number of molecules with hypothetical cholesterol-lowering activity have been proposed, sometimes with no scientific evidence and/or no methodological accuracy, based only on the belief that these agents are "natural" and do not show side effects...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Te-Mao Li, Chi-Fung Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu, Chih-Ho Lai, Tsung-Jung Ho, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Ju-Pi Li, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Due to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS is now regarded as a treatable chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that has been widely applied in the healthcare system in Taiwan. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of use and patterns of prescription for the CHM-based treatment of HIV-infected patients and to assess the long-term effects of CHM on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease events in these patients...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Hemangi Rawal, Bhoomika M Patel
The World Health Organization suggests that the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of mortality and account for two-thirds of the deaths all over the world. These diseases kill about 17 million people every year and 3 in every 10 deaths are due to these diseases. The past decade has seen considerable improvements in diagnosis as well as treatment of various heart diseases. Various new therapeutic targets are being identified through in-depth knowledge of the disease mechanisms which has favored the testing of new strategies leading to newer treatment options...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zhaojun Shen, Saisai Li, Bo Sheng, Qi Shen, Lu-Zhe Sun, Haiyan Zhu, Xueqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Medical therapeutic options remain quite limited for uterine fibroids treatment. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have anti-tumoral effects on multiple cancer types, however, little is known about their effects on uterine fibroids. METHODS: Initially, we conducted a retrospective study of 120 patients with uterine fibroids and hyperlipidemia from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Annas Al-Sharea, Andrew J Murphy, L A Huggins, Y Hu, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leukocytosis, particularly monocytosis, has been shown to promote atherosclerosis in both diabetic and non-diabetic mouse models. We previously showed that hyperglycemia independently promotes monocytosis and impairs the resolution of atherosclerosis. Since patients with chronic diabetes often develop dyslipidemia and also have increased risk for atherosclerosis, we sought to examine how controlling blood glucose affects atherosclerosis development in the presence of severe hyperlipidemia...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Bihao Liu, Yu He, Ruirui Lu, Jie Zhou, Lixia Bai, Peichun Zhang, Shufang Ye, Junbiao Wu, Chungling Liang, Yuan Zhou, Jiuyao Zhou
Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT) has been widely applied in chronic kidney diseases. However, the mechanism of ZWT remains unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPARγ) is known as a protective factor for podocyte and kidney function. This study is aimed to investigate the protective effects of ZWT on IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in rats against podocyte injury and the underlying mechanism related to PPARγ. IgAN model rats were induced by administering bovine serum albumin, lipopolysaccharide, and carbon tetrachloride...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chang Liu, Yan-Jun Shen, Qing-Bo Tu, Yan-Ran Zhao, Hao Guo, Juan Wang, Li Zhang, Hua-Wei Shi, Yun Sun
Pedunculoside (PE) is a novel triterpene saponin extracted from the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. The present study aims to explore lipid-lowering effects of PE on hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. The rats were fed with the high-fat diet and subjected to intragastric administration of PE at doses of 30, 15, or 5 mg/kg daily for 7 weeks. The results demonstrated that treatment with PE for 7-week dramatically decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced liver TC in hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nada Abdulaziz, Anjali R Shah, William J McCune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimalarial drugs including chloroquine, its less toxic quinolone-derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and quinacrine have become cornerstones in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and Sjogren syndrome; cutaneous disorders, antiphospholipid syndrome, and have recently been employed at higher dioses in oncology. Benefits include anti-inflammatory effects, protection against thrombosis, and improved control of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
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