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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275468/targeting-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-cancer
#1
Waseem Anani, Michael R Shurin
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent only a minor fraction of circulating blood cells but play an important role in tumor formation and progression. They are a heterogeneous group of cells that influence the tumor microenvironment by depletion of amino acids, oxidative stress, decreased trafficking of antitumor effector cells, and increased regulatory T and regulatory dendritic cell responses. Investigational treatment strategies targeting MDSCs have attempted to inhibit MDSC development and expansion (stem cell factor blockade, modulate of cell signaling, and target MDSC migration and recruitment), inhibit MDSC function (nitric oxide inhibition and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibition), differentiate MDSCs into more mature cells (Vitamins A and D, all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-2, toll-like receptor 9 inhibitors, taxanes, beta-glucan particles, tumor-derived exosome inhibition, and very small size proteoliposomes), and destroy MDSCs (cytotoxic agents, ephrin A2 degradation, anti-interleukin 13, and histamine blockers)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247595/method-for-hull-less-barley-transformation-and-manipulation-of-grain-mixed-linkage-beta-glucan
#2
Wai Li Lim, Helen M Collins, Rohan R Singh, Natalie Aj Kibble, Kuok Yap, Jillian Taylor, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited use of these varieties. To overcome this, we have sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fibre component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily found in starchy endosperm cell walls...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244718/prebiotic-dietary-fiber-and-gut-health-comparing-the-in-vitro-fermentations-of-beta-glucan-inulin-and-xylooligosaccharide
#3
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226760/the-diagnostic-performance-of-the-beta-glucan-assay-in-the-detection-of-intra-amniotic-infection-with-candida-species
#4
Percy Pacora, Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Adi L Tarca, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Sonia S Hassan
INTRODUCTION: A bioassay based on the detection of beta-glucan, a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, has been successfully used to diagnose fungal infections in a variety of biological fluids but not yet in the amniotic fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of a beta-glucan bioassay in the detection of Candida species in the amniotic fluid. METHODS: The study population comprised women who had a singleton pregnancy without congenital or chromosomal abnormalities, who experienced preterm labor or preterm prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes, and who underwent transabdominal amniocentesis for clinical indications...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174675/designing-an-immunocyte-targeting-delivery-system-by-use-of-beta-glucan
#5
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Kazuo Sakurai
A β-1,3-d-glucan called Schizophyllan (SPG) can form a novel complex with homo oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) via the combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Dectin-1 is a major receptor involved in the recognition of β-1,3-d-glucans and expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and a subset of T cells. Therefore, the SPG/ODN complex can be used as APCs cell-specific delivery of functional ODNs including unmethylated CpG sequences (CpG-ODNs)...
November 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165477/barley-beta-glucans-varying-in-molecular-mass-and-oligomer-structure-affect-cecal-fermentation-and-microbial-composition-but-not-blood-lipid-profiles-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#6
Mette S Mikkelsen, Morten G Jensen, Tina S Nielsen
There is an unmet need for appealing and functional barley β-glucan (BG) food matrices that can provide sufficient and active BG doses to consumers. We investigated how molecular mass and oligomer structure important for BG food and health properties affected plasma lipids and gut parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Following 3 weeks on a high-cholestrol diet, rats were given a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either cellulose (control) or purified barley BGs with low (100 or 150 kDa; glucagel or lowBG, respectively) or medium (530 kDa; mediumBG) molecular masses varying in cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl oligomer ratio for 4 weeks...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141231/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#7
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104540/oral-supplementation-with-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-is-associated-with-altered-monocytes-t-cells-and-cytokines-following-a-bout-of-strenuous-exercise
#8
Brian K McFarlin, Adam S Venable, Katie C Carpenter, Andrea L Henning, Stephan Ogenstad
Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Baker's yeast beta glucan (BYBG) has been previously demonstrated to be an effective countermeasure in athletes, but its effectiveness in individuals of average fitness under similar physical stress is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10 days of oral supplementation with BYBG could modify previously observed suppression of monocytes, T cells, circulating and whole blood LPS-stimulated cytokines due to strenuous exercise...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077905/influence-of-different-yeast-cell-wall-preparations-and-their-components-on-performance-and-immune-and-metabolic-pathways-in-clostridium-perfringens-challenged-broiler-chicks
#9
Mohammed M Hashim, Ryan J Arsenault, James A Byrd, Michael H Kogut, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Christopher A Bailey
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 (day old) chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; 8 replicates/treatment). A basal starter diet was divided into 5 batches to create 6 dietary treatments; non-challenge (NCh-C) and challenge (Ch-C) controls, semi-purified YCW containing cytosol contents (SPYCW; 250 mg/kg), purified YCW (PYCW; 250 mg/kg), 50% purified beta-glucan (BG; 130 mg/kg), and 99...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058322/influence-of-different-functional-ingredients-on-physical-properties-rheology-tribology-and-oral-perceptions-of-no-fat-stirred-yoghurt
#10
Sophia Bao Xian Ng, Phuong T M Nguyen, Bhesh Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash
Effects of adding four functional ingredients: inulin, pectin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and beta glucan on physical, rheology, tribology and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt were studied. Three levels of each ingredient were chosen: inulin (7%, 8% and 9%), pectin (0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%), GOS (9.1%, 11.3% and 13.6%), and beta glucan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). Among the investigated ingredients, inulin and GOS appeared to be preferable choices due to their ability to both reduce syneresis and slightly increase sample lubrication while maintaining texture, rheology and sensory characteristics of skim yoghurt...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administered-baker-s-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-obesity-and-diabetes-model-mice
#11
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be an anti-diabetic agent. In the work described herein, further study on the effect of orally administered BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022634/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-is-partly-due-to-its-linoleic-acid-content
#12
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020628/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#13
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
Microbial utilization of complex polysaccharides is a major driving force in shaping the composition of the human gut microbiota. There is a growing appreciation that finely tuned polysaccharide utilization loci enable ubiquitous gut Bacteroidetes to thrive on the plethora of complex polysaccharides that constitute "dietary fiber." Mixed-linkage β(1,3)/β(1,4)-glucans (MLGs) are a key family of plant cell wall polysaccharides with recognized health benefits but whose mechanism of utilization has remained unclear...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964548/beta-glucans-and-cancer-the-influence-of-inflammation-and-gut-peptide
#14
REVIEW
Sara Baldassano, Giulia Accardi, Sonya Vasto
Dietary β-glucans are soluble fibers with potentially health-promoting effects. Gut peptides are important signals in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928505/technological-and-sensorial-role-of-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-in-meat-batter-reformulations
#15
Paul Mihai Apostu, Tamara Elena Mihociu, Anca Ioana Nicolau
This study shows that apart from acting as nutritional value improver, yeast β-glucan can be successfully used to reformulate meat products. When added to meat batters, yeast derived ingredients containing β-glucans (GOLDCELL(®) IY B and GOLDCELL(®) BETA GLUCAN) improved the emulsifying capacity (up to 5 increments), the water holding capacity (up to 8 increments) as well as the emulsion stability. A decrease in total fluid release up to 4.30% and 3.99%, respectively with GOLDCELL(®) IY B and GOLDCELL(®) BETA GLUCAN respectively, at 1...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926153/comparative-and-population-genomic-landscape-of-phellinus-noxius-a-hypervariable-fungus-causing-root-rot-in-trees
#16
Chia-Lin Chung, Tracy J Lee, Mitsuteru Akiba, Hsin-Han Lee, Tzu-Hao Kuo, Dang Liu, Huei-Mien Ke, Toshiro Yokoi, Marylette B Roa, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Ya-Yun Chang, Pao-Jen Ann, Jyh-Nong Tsai, Chien-Yu Chen, Shean-Shong Tzean, Yuko Ota, Tsutomu Hattori, Norio Sahashi, Ruey-Fen Liou, Taisei Kikuchi, Isheng J Tsai
The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomic analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870313/long-wavelength-near-infrared-transmission-spectroscopy-of-barley-seeds-using-a-supercontinuum-laser-prediction-of-mixed-linkage-beta-glucan-content
#17
Tine Ringsted, Jacob Ramsay, Birthe M Jespersen, Søren R Keiding, Søren B Engelsen
A supercontinuum laser was used to perform the first transmission measurements on intact seeds with long wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy. A total of 105 barley seeds from five different barley genotypes (Bomi, lys5.f, lys5.g, lys16 and lys95) were measured from 2275 to 2375 nm. The mixed-linkage (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucan (BG) and protein content was measured with wet chemical analysis for each single seed. A partial least squares model correlated the BG % (w/w) with the spectral measurements with a R(2)CV and R(2)PRED of 0...
September 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756506/high-and-low-molecular-weight-oat-beta-glucan-reveals-antitumor-activity-in-human-epithelial-lung-cancer
#18
Anna Choromanska, Julita Kulbacka, Joanna Harasym, Remigiusz Oledzki, Anna Szewczyk, Jolanta Saczko
Beta-glucans are widely used in treatment, cosmetics, and the food industry. Glucans play a significant role in activation of the immune and antioxidant system and inhibiting tumor proliferation. In the current study the antitumor activities of new high and low molecular weight beta-glucan derived from oats were investigated in two human lung cancer cell line (A549, H69AR) and normal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The effect of high and low molecular weight beta-glucan from oat was evaluated by cellular viability assessment, lipid peroxidation and manganese superoxide dismutase evaluation and cytoskeleton visualisation...
July 29, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724171/beta-glucan-inositol-and-digestive-enzymes-improve-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
R Spagnuolo, C Cosco, R M Mancina, G Ruggiero, P Garieri, V Cosco, P Doldo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes in improving gastrointestinal symptoms in patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the IBD Unit of the University of Catanzaro. Forty-three IBD patients with IBS symptoms were included in the study. IBD diagnosis was performed by clinical, endoscopic, histological and radiological criteria...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675291/efficacy-of-carboxymethyl-beta-glucan-in-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#20
Patrizia Stentella, Alberto Biamonti, Carlo Carraro, Paolo Inghirami, Pasquale Mancino, Daniela Pietrangeli, Sergio Votano, Paola Lazzari, Caterina DE Medici
BACKGROUND: Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection constitutes the principal risk factor for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. For this reason, new drugs have been studied to support the host immune system against the HPV infection. The aim of this retrospective, case-control study was to detect the efficacy and safety of carboxymethyl β-glucan (Colpofix®) gel as adjuvant therapy in HPV infection. METHODS: The medical records of patients attending the Colposcopy Service of four hospitals in Rome from 2011 to 2013 were collected...
October 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
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