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Wenjing Wan, Baojun Xu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a beverage using beta-glucan and whey protein isolate (WPI). Furthermore, we evaluated the sensory attributes and changes of the physiochemical properties (pH value, total acidity, total soluble solids, sugar-acid ratio, color, viscosity, turbidity, and browning index) of the beverage during 48-hour storage by comparison with the commercial product and blank sample. RESULTS: The developed beverage had similar sweetness, smoothness, and overall acceptance as those of the commercial and blank samples...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Regla M Medina-Gali, María Del Mar Ortega-Villaizán, Luis Mercado, Beatriz Novoa, Julio Coll, Luis Perez
The antiviral effects of beta-glucan, an immunostimulatory agent were studied in zebrafish both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish ZF4 cells as well as whole fish primed with yeast β-glucan zymosan exhibited increased cytokine expression and elevated response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. In vitro, previous treatment of β-glucan enhanced ZF4 cell viability against SVCV infection which is associated to the activation of interferon signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines gene expression...
March 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Walburga Engel-Riedel, Jamie Lowe, Paulette Mattson, J Richard Trout, Richard D Huhn, Michele Gargano, Myra L Patchen, Richard Walsh, My My Trinh, Mariève Dupuis, Folker Schneller
BACKGROUND: BTH1677, a beta-glucan pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule, drives an anti-cancer immune response in combination with oncology antibody therapies. This phase II study explored the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of BTH1677 combined with bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients were randomized to the BTH1677 arm (N = 61; intravenous [IV] BTH1677, 4 mg/kg, weekly; IV bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg, once each 3-week cycle [Q3W]; IV carboplatin, 6 mg/mL/min Calvert formula area-under-the-curve, Q3W; and IV paclitaxel, 200 mg/m2 , Q3W) or Control arm (N = 31; bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel as above)...
February 27, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Jiansong Chen, Lili Hu, Longhua Sun, Borong Lin, Kun Huang, Kan Zhuo, Jinling Liao
Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we reported a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which was exclusively expressed within the dorsal esophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third/fourth stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 had an increased susceptibility to M...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Mohamed A Attia, Cassandra E Nelson, Wendy A Offen, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Jeffrey G Gardner, Harry Brumer
Background: Xyloglucan (XyG) is a ubiquitous and fundamental polysaccharide of plant cell walls. Due to its structural complexity, XyG requires a combination of backbone-cleaving and sidechain-debranching enzymes for complete deconstruction into its component monosaccharides. The soil saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus has emerged as a genetically tractable model system to study biomass saccharification, in part due to its innate capacity to utilize a wide range of plant polysaccharides for growth...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
F Koc, Z Erısgın, Y Tekelıoglu, S Takır
We investigated the histopathological effects of methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, and beta glucan (BG), an antioxidant, on rat testis. We used four groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats: MTX, MTX + BG, BG, and control. The MTX group was exposed to a single dose of MTX on the first day of experiment. The MTX + BG group was exposed to a single dose of MTX and BG on the first day of experiment followed by BG for 4 additional days. The BG group was exposed to BG for 5 days. The control group was given saline for 5 days...
January 24, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Zahra Mohebbi, Aziz Homayouni, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Sayyed Javad Hosseini
White wheat flour is a poor source of dietary fiber. Therefore a demand exists for enrichment of bread with non-digestible prebiotic ingredients that exert health-promoting effects. In this study, the effects of beta-glucan (BG) and resistant starch (RS) on the dough properties and bread-making characteristics were investigated. The water absorption of doughs increased with increasing BG and RS levels. Also, development time and farinograph quality number of BG-enriched doughs remained similar to that of the control while the doughs stability decreased, and all of these values decreased when the RS was added...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yinjuan Wang, Céline Viennet, Adeline Jeudy, Ferial Fanian, Li He, Philippe Humbert
BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin is frequently complaint in dermatology consultation with cutaneous manifestations such as stinging, redness, dryness, and burning sensation that affect the quality of life. Its pathogenesis is mainly related to dysfunction of neurosensory, skin barrier, and also immune activity. The treatment is generally based on continuous and topical therapy by nonirritating complex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antisensitive function of a new complex cream composed by Yunnan Portulaca oleracea extract, Prinsepia utilis oil, beta-glucan, and sodium hyaluronate extracted from mushroom...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Waseem Anani, Michael R Shurin
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent only a minor fraction of circulating blood cells but play an important role in tumor formation and progression. They are a heterogeneous group of cells that influence the tumor microenvironment by depletion of amino acids, oxidative stress, decreased trafficking of antitumor effector cells, and increased regulatory T and regulatory dendritic cell responses. Investigational treatment strategies targeting MDSCs have attempted to inhibit MDSC development and expansion (stem cell factor blockade, modulate of cell signaling, and target MDSC migration and recruitment), inhibit MDSC function (nitric oxide inhibition and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibition), differentiate MDSCs into more mature cells (Vitamins A and D, all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-2, toll-like receptor 9 inhibitors, taxanes, beta-glucan particles, tumor-derived exosome inhibition, and very small size proteoliposomes), and destroy MDSCs (cytotoxic agents, ephrin A2 degradation, anti-interleukin 13, and histamine blockers)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wai Li Lim, Helen M Collins, Rohan R Singh, Natalie Aj Kibble, Kuok Yap, Jillian Taylor, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited use of these varieties. To overcome this, we have sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fibre component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily found in starchy endosperm cell walls...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
Percy Pacora, Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Adi L Tarca, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Sonia S Hassan
INTRODUCTION: A bioassay based on the detection of beta-glucan, a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, has been successfully used to diagnose fungal infections in a variety of biological fluids but not yet in the amniotic fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of a beta-glucan bioassay in the detection of Candida species in the amniotic fluid of women who either did or did not have an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in place during an episode of spontaneous preterm parturition...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Kazuo Sakurai
A β-1,3-d-glucan called Schizophyllan (SPG) can form a novel complex with homo oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) via the combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Dectin-1 is a major receptor involved in the recognition of β-1,3-d-glucans and expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and a subset of T cells. Therefore, the SPG/ODN complex can be used as APCs cell-specific delivery of functional ODNs including unmethylated CpG sequences (CpG-ODNs)...
January 2, 2018: Vaccine
Mette S Mikkelsen, Morten G Jensen, Tina S Nielsen
There is an unmet need for appealing and functional barley β-glucan (BG) food matrices that can provide sufficient and active BG doses to consumers. We investigated how molecular mass and oligomer structure important for BG food and health properties affected plasma lipids and gut parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Following 3 weeks on a high-cholestrol diet, rats were given a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either cellulose (control) or purified barley BGs with low (100 or 150 kDa; glucagel or lowBG, respectively) or medium (530 kDa; mediumBG) molecular masses varying in cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl oligomer ratio for 4 weeks...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
Brian K McFarlin, Adam S Venable, Katie C Carpenter, Andrea L Henning, Stephan Ogenstad
Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Baker's yeast beta glucan (BYBG) has been previously demonstrated to be an effective countermeasure in athletes, but its effectiveness in individuals of average fitness under similar physical stress is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10 days of oral supplementation with BYBG could modify previously observed suppression of monocytes, T cells, circulating and whole blood LPS-stimulated cytokines due to strenuous exercise...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohammed M Hashim, Ryan J Arsenault, James A Byrd, Michael H Kogut, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Christopher A Bailey
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 (day old) chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; 8 replicates/treatment). A basal starter diet was divided into 5 batches to create 6 dietary treatments; non-challenge (NCh-C) and challenge (Ch-C) controls, semi-purified YCW containing cytosol contents (SPYCW; 250 mg/kg), purified YCW (PYCW; 250 mg/kg), 50% purified beta-glucan (BG; 130 mg/kg), and 99...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Sophia Bao Xian Ng, Phuong T M Nguyen, Bhesh Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash
Effects of adding four functional ingredients: inulin, pectin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and beta glucan on physical, rheology, tribology and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt were studied. Three levels of each ingredient were chosen: inulin (7%, 8% and 9%), pectin (0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%), GOS (9.1%, 11.3% and 13.6%), and beta glucan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). Among the investigated ingredients, inulin and GOS appeared to be preferable choices due to their ability to both reduce syneresis and slightly increase sample lubrication while maintaining texture, rheology and sensory characteristics of skim yoghurt...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be an anti-diabetic agent. In the work described herein, further study on the effect of orally administered BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
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