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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644379/physical-forces-may-cause-the-hoxd-gene-cluster-elongation
#1
Spyros Papageorgiou
Hox gene collinearity was discovered be Edward B. Lewis in 1978. It consists of the Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 ordering of the Hox genes in the chromosome from the telomeric to the centromeric side of the chromosome. Surprisingly, the spatial activation of the Hox genes in the ontogenetic units of the embryo follows the same ordering along the anterior-posterior embryonic axis. The chromosome microscale differs from the embryo macroscale by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The traditional biomolecular mechanisms are not adequate to comprise phenomena at so divergent spatial domains...
June 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#2
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643132/integrated-inflammatory-stress-itis-model
#3
Elisabeth O Bangsgaard, Poul G Hjorth, Mette S Olufsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Johnny T Ottesen
During the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in the coupling between the acute inflammatory response and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The inflammatory response is activated acutely by pathogen- or damage-related molecular patterns, whereas the HPA axis maintains a long-term level of the stress hormone cortisol which is also anti-inflammatory. A new integrated model of the interaction between these two subsystems of the inflammatory system is proposed and coined the integrated inflammatory stress (ITIS) model...
June 22, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642671/subchondral-raft-construction-with-locking-plates-for-the-treatment-of-schatzker-type-ii-fractures
#4
Cemil Kayali, Caner Citak, Taskin Altay, Zafer Kement
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and radiological results of Schatzker type II fractures treated via subchondral raft screws combined with locking plates. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals were enrolled in this study between 2010 and 2014. The depressed joint line was elevated and the defect was filled with allograft. Next, two or three subchondral screws were placed in combination with a locking plate. At the last follow-up, clinical and radiological data were recorded...
May 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642619/understanding-the-unusual-response-to-high-pressure-in-kbe2bo3f2
#5
D H Yu, M Avdeev, D H Sun, L Q Huston, Thomas B Shiell, Q B Sun, T Lu, Q Gu, H Liu, J E Bradby, N Yie, Y Liu, J Y Wang, G J McIntyre
Strong anisotropic compression with pressure on the remarkable non-linear optical material KBe2BO3F2 has been observed with the linear compression coefficient along the c axis found to be about 40 times larger than that along the a axis. An unusual non-monotonic pressure response was observed for the a lattice parameter. The derived bulk modulus of 31 ± 1 GPa indicates that KBe2BO3F2 is a very soft oxide material yet with stable structure up to 45 GPa. A combination of high-pressure synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, high-pressure Raman spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory calculations points to the mechanism for the unusual pressure response being due to the competition between the K-F bond length and K-F-K bond angle and the coupling between the stretching and twisting vibration modes...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642310/metabolomics-analysis-identifies-sex-associated-metabotypes-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-autotaxin-lysopa-axis-in%C3%A2-copd
#6
Shama Naz, Johan Kolmert, Mingxing Yang, Stacey N Reinke, Muhammad Anas Kamleh, Stuart Snowden, Tina Heyder, Bettina Levänen, David J Erle, C Magnus Sköld, Åsa M Wheelock, Craig E Wheelock
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex dependency of circulating metabolic profiles in COPD.Serum from healthy never-smokers (healthy), smokers with normal lung function (smokers), and smokers with COPD (COPD; Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I-II/A-B) from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort (n=116) was analysed using our nontargeted liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics platform...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#7
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642156/tgf%C3%AE-smad-microrna-486-3p-signaling-axis-mediates-keratin-17-expression-and-keratinocyte-hyperproliferation-in-psoriasis
#8
Man Jiang, Zhongbin Sun, Erle Dang, Bing Li, Hui Fang, Junqin Li, Lin Gao, Kaiming Zhang, Gang Wang
Keratin 17 (K17) is strongly expressed in psoriatic lesions but not healthy skin, and plays a crucial role in disease pathogenesis. The mechanism of aberrant K17 expression in psoriasis has not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression. Psoriasis exhibits a specific miRNA expression profile distinct from that of healthy skin. In this study, we showed that miR-486-3p was markedly reduced in psoriatic epidermis and negatively correlated with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641973/changes-in-hip-knee-and-ankle-coronal-alignments-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-with-transverse-femoral-shortening-osteotomy-for-unilateral-crowe-type-iv-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#9
Abdulhamit Misir, Turan B Kizkapan, Kadir I Yildiz, Mehmet A Kaygusuz, Yakup Alpay, Atakan Ezici
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in lower extremity coronal alignment in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent total hip arthroplasty with transverse femoral shortening osteotomy. METHODS: We reviewed the preoperative and 1-year postoperative full-length lower extremity radiographs of 25 patients. Femoral offset (FO), mechanical hip-knee-ankle angle, anatomical axis, mechanical axis deviation (MAD), mechanical lateral proximal femoral angle, anatomical medial proximal femoral angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, anatomical lateral distal femoral angle, knee joint line congruency angle, mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, mechanical lateral distal tibial angle, ankle joint line orientation angle, tibial plafond talus angle, extremity length, and pelvic obliquity were measured on both the operative and nonoperative sides...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641771/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-it-related-to-cytokines-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#10
Aylin Akcali, Fatma Zengin, Sefika Nur Aksoy, Orhan Zengin
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) that diminishes the quality of life of patients, but its exact mechanism remains poorly understood. There is not a generally adopted scale to determine MS fatigue. Studies that investigated physiopathology of fatigue symptom have shown dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we aimed to compare the results obtained with two separate scales, namely the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Neurological Fatigue Index-Multiple Sclerosis (NFI-MS), and assess the relationship between fatigue and serum IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-35, IL-2, IL-10, ACTH, cortisol, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH and CLIP (Corticotropinlike intermediate lobe peptide) in MS patients categorized as fatigued and non-fatigued on the basis of FSS scores...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641656/-effect-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-leukemic-cells-and-its-mechanism
#11
Ming-Ying Li, Chun-Ting Zhao, Bo-Li Cui, Shao-Ling Wu, Xiao-Dan Liu, Zhan Su, Tian-Lan Li, Ling-Jie Sun, Wei Wang, Xiao-Yan Ju
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(HUCMSC) on the leukemic cell line HL-60 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat as well as the role of CXCL12/CXCR4. METHODS: HL-60 cells and Jurkat cells were co-cultured with human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (HUCMSC), and the model was treated with G-CSF, AMD3100 and their combination. The cell viability and cell cycle were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the apoptosis and the cell-cycle analysis were assessed by flow cytometry with the Annexin V/PI double staining...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641630/-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-mediated-drug-resistance-can-be-reversed-by-ibrutinib-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#12
Yuan-Yuan Hu, Shan-Dong Tao, Jing-Jing Ma, Li-Tao Zhou, Yue Chen, Liang Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Ibrutinib on the chemoresistance mediated by SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in ALL cells. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of cell line and expression of surface membrane CXCR4, Western blot was used to determine the expression level of CXCR4, ERK and Bcl-xL proteins, qPCR was used to assay the mRNA level of CXCR4. RESULTS: Ibrutinib enhanced the apoptosis induced by adriamycin(ADR) (17.100±4...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641158/determinants-of-cortisol-during-pregnancy-the-abcd-cohort
#13
Laura S Bleker, Tessa J Roseboom, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susanne R de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#14
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640252/long-non-coding-rna-atb-promotes-malignancy-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-regulating-mir-200b-kindlin-2-axis
#15
Zhongwen Li, Xiaoliang Wu, Ling Gu, Qi Shen, Wen Luo, Chuangzhong Deng, Qianghua Zhou, Xinru Chen, Yanjie Li, ZuanFu Lim, Xing Wang, Jiahong Wang, Xianzi Yang
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death, especially in China. In addition, the prognosis of late stage patients is extremely poor. However, the biological significance of the long non-coding RNA lnc-ATB and its potential role in ESCC remain to be documented. In this study, we investigated the role of lnc-ATB and the underlying mechanism promoting its oncogenic activity in ESCC. Expression of lnc-ATB was higher in ESCC tissues and cell lines than that in normal counterparts...
June 22, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#16
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638990/pharmacological-intervention-of-mkl-srf-signaling-by-ccg-1423-impedes-endothelial-cell-migration-and-angiogenesis
#17
David Gau, William Veon, Teresa L Capasso, Ralph Bottcher, Sanjeev Shroff, Beth L Roman, Partha Roy
De novo synthesis of cytoskeleton-regulatory proteins triggered by the megakaryoblastic leukemia (MKL)/serum response factor (SRF) transcriptional system in response to pro-angiogenic growth factors lies at the heart of endothelial cell (EC) migration (a critical element of angiogenesis) and neovascularization. This study explores whether pharmacological intervention of MKL/SRF signaling axis by CCG-1423 is able to suppress angiogenesis. Our studies show that CCG-1423 inhibits migration and cord morphogenesis of EC in vitro and sprouting angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, suggesting CCG-1423 could be a novel anti-angiogenic agent...
June 21, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638891/effect-of-astragaloside-on-vitamin-d-receptor-expression-after-endothelin-1-induced-cardiomyocyte-injury
#18
Chen Yunzhi, Chen Jiaxu, Gao Jie, Chai Yihui, Li Wen, Qin Zhong
BACKGROUND: Astragaloside, which is one of the main components of Astragalus membranaceus, has been widely used in the treatment of congestive heart failure in China, and it can protect cardiomyocytes. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the influence of astragaloside on rat cardiomyocytes stimulated with endothelin-1 (ET-1), and explored the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ET-1 was used to stimulate primary rat cardiomyocytes and establish a cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638865/some-engineering-properties-of-shelled-and-kernel-tea-camellia-sinensis-seeds
#19
Ebubekir Altuntas, Merve Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Camellia sinensis is the source of tea leaves and it is an economic crop now grown around the World. Tea seed oil has been used for cooking in China and other Asian countries for more than a thousand years. Tea is the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It is mainly produced in Asia, central Africa, and exported throughout the World. Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture force of shelled and kernel tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds were determined in this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637794/a-trpv1-to-secretagogin-regulatory-axis-controls-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-by-modulating-protein-turnover
#20
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Fatima Girach, Edit Szodorai, Petter Storm, Åsa Segerstolpe, Giuseppe Tortoriello, Robert Schnell, Jan Mulder, Roman A Romanov, Erzsébet Borók, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Gábor Szabó, Rickard Sandberg, Stefan Kubicek, Gert Lubec, Tomas Hökfelt, Ludwig Wagner, Leif Groop, Tibor Harkany
Ca(2+)-sensor proteins are generally implicated in insulin release through SNARE interactions. Here, secretagogin, whose expression in human pancreatic islets correlates with their insulin content and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, is shown to orchestrate an unexpectedly distinct mechanism. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals retained expression of the TRP family members in β-cells from diabetic donors. Amongst these, pharmacological probing identifies Ca(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels (TRPV1) as potent inducers of secretagogin expression through recruitment of Sp1 transcription factors...
June 21, 2017: EMBO Journal
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