Read by QxMD icon Read

Mechanical axis

Joyce Pham, Gordon J Miller
Using density functional theory, the crystal structure variation of AAuAl (A = Ca, Sc, and Ti) from orthorhombic Co2 Si-type to distorted hexagonal Fe2 P-type and then Ni2 In-type structures is shown to correlate with their electronic structures and valence electron counts, sizes of the active metals A, and site preferences for Au and Al atoms, which are arranged to maximize Au-Al nearest neighbor contacts. An evaluation of chemical pressure imposed by the varying A metals using total energy vs volume calculations indicates that larger unit cell volumes favor the orthorhombic structure, whereas smaller volumes favor the hexagonal structures...
March 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Naoya Ishibashi, Tatsuaki Watanabe, Masahiko Kanehira, Yui Watanabe, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Hirotsugu Notsuda, Masafumi Noda, Akira Sakurada, Shinya Ohkouchi, Takashi Kondo, Yoshinori Okada
PURPOSE: Using a rat model of allograft lung transplantation, we investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as prophylactic and therapeutic agents against the acute rejection of lung grafts. METHODS: Lung grafts were harvested from donor rats and transplanted orthotopically into major histocompatibility complex-mismatched rats. MSCs were administered to the recipients once (on day 0) or twice (on days 0 and 3) after transplantation. The grade of acute rejection was evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically 6 days after transplantation...
March 15, 2018: Surgery Today
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Min Huang, Li Zhu, Jacqueline S Garcia, Michael X Li, Andrew J Gentles, Beverly S Mitchell
We have recently reported that activation of Brd4 is associated with the presence of autophagy in NPMc+ and MLL AML cells. In order to determine the mechanisms underlying this relationship, we have examined the role of Brd4 in regulating the expression of several genes that are central to the process of autophagy. We found that Brd4 binds to the promoters of ATG 3, 7 and CEBPβ, and expression of these genes is markedly reduced by inhibitors of Brd4, as well as by Brd4-shRNA and depletion of CEBPβ. Inhibitors of Brd4 also dramatically suppress the transcription of Keap1, thereby increasing the expression of anti-oxidant genes through the Nrf2 pathway and reducing the cytotoxicity induced by Brd4 inhibitors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Mariana Fortunata Donadon, Rocio Martin-Santos, Flávia de Lima Osório
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences may affect hormonal systems mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the oxytocinergic system. This effect is the result of long-term impairments in hypothalamic structures and negative feedback mechanisms within the HPA axis, structures that mediate the response to stress. This deregulation reduces the production and release of cortisol and oxytocin (OXT), which may alter stress responses and lead to increased vulnerability to impairments from stressful experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Liping Qian, Yibo Zuo, Wenjun Deng, Ying Miao, Jin Liu, Yukang Yuan, Tingting Guo, Liting Zhang, Jun Jin, Jun Wang, Hui Zheng
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are widely used for antiviral immunotherapy in clinic. Therefore, identification of the regulators of IFN-I antiviral activity is important for developing novel targets for IFN-based antiviral therapy. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is critical for cellular inflammatory responses. However, the roles of MCPIP1 in interferons (IFNs)-mediated antiviral immunity are unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that MCPIP1 is an important positive regulator of IFNs antiviral activity...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maioli E, Daveri E, Maellaro E, Ietta F, Cresti L, Valacchi G
In the past few years, we focused the interest on rottlerin, an old/new natural substance that, over the time, has revealed a number of cellular and molecular targets, all potentially implicated in the fight against cancer. Past and recent literature well demonstrated that rottlerin is an inhibitor of enzymes, transcription factors and signaling molecules that control cancer cell life and death. Although the rottlerin anticancer activity has been mainly ascribed to apoptosis and/or autophagy induction, recent findings unveiled the existence of additional mechanisms of toxicity...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
M Di Sanzo, R Chirillo, I Aversa, F Biamonte, G Santamaria, E D Giovannone, M C Faniello, G Cuda, F Costanzo
PURPOSE: The heavy subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin (FHC) is essential for the intracellular iron metabolism and, at the same time, it represents a central hub of iron-independent pathways, such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, p53 regulation, chemokine signalling, stem cell expansion, miRNAs expression. In this work we have explored the ability of FHC to modulate gene expression in K562 cells, through the up-regulation of the lncRNA H19 and its cognate miR-675. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted silencing of FHC was performed by lentiviral-driven shRNA strategy...
March 12, 2018: Gene
Patrizia Limonta, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Roberta Moretti, Monica Marzagalli, Fabrizio Fontana, Roberto Maggi
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is recognized as the central regulator of the functions of the pituitary-gonadal axis. The increasing knowledge on the mechanisms controlling the development and the function of GnRH-producing neurons is leading to a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for hypogonadotropic hypogonadisms and for alterations of the puberty onset. During female life span, the function of the GnRH pulse generator may be affected by a number of inputs from other neuronal systems, offering alternative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xiaotong Lu, Linhu Ye, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of bioactive coumarin compounds isolated from licorice, an edible and medicinal plant widely used for treating various diseases including liver diseases. The purpose of the present study is to examine the possibility of GCM as a sensitizer to improve the efficacy of BH3 mimetic ABT-737 against liver cancer. Three liver cancer cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7 and SMMC-7721) were used to evaluate the in vitro combinatory effect of ABT-737/GCM. HepG2 xenograft model was employed to assess the in vivo efficacy of ABT-737/GCM combination...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Hongbo Xie, Hucheng Pan, Yuping Ren, Liqing Wang, Yufeng He, Xixi Qi, Gaowu Qin
All of the AB_{2} Laves phases discovered so far satisfy the general crystalline structure characteristic of translational symmetry; however, we report here a new structured Laves phase directly precipitated in an aged Mg-In-Ca alloy by using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nanoprecipitate is determined to be a (Mg,In)_{2}Ca phase, which has a C14 Laves structure (hcp, space group: P6_{3}/mmc, a=6.25  Å, c=10.31  Å) but without any translational symmetry on the (0001)_{p} basal plane...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E Gershnabel, I Sh Averbukh
We study interaction of generic asymmetric molecules with laser fields having twisted polarization, using a pair of strong time-delayed short laser pulses with crossed linear polarizations as an example. We show that such an excitation not only provides unidirectional rotation of the most polarizable molecular axis, but also induces a directed torque along this axis, which results in a transient orientation of the molecules. The asymmetric molecules are chiral in nature and different molecular enantiomers experience the orienting action in opposite directions causing out-of-phase oscillations of their dipole moments...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shusuke Kasamatsu, Osamu Sugino
We report first-principles simulation of polarization mechanisms in hydroxyapatite to explain the underlying mechanism behind the reported ion conductivities and polarization under electrical poling at elevated temperatures. It is found that ion conduction occurs mainly in the column of OH- ions along the c-axis through a combination of the flipping of OH- ions, exchange of proton vacancies between OH- ions, and the hopping of the OH- vacancy. The calculated activation energies are consistent with those found in conductivity measurements and thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Antoneicka L Harris, Samantha E Lee, Louis K Dawson, Laura A Marlow, Brandy H Edenfield, William F Durham, Thomas J Flotte, Michael Thompson, Daniel L Small, Aidan J Synnott, Svetomir N Markovic, John A Copland
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse models were used to discover new therapies for naïve and drug resistant BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma. Tumor histology, oncogenic protein expression, and antitumor activity were comparable between patient and PDTX-matched models thereby validating PDTXs as predictive preclinical models of therapeutic response in patients. PDTX models responsive and non-responsive to BRAF/MEK standard of care (SOC) therapy were used to identify efficacious combination therapies. One such combination includes a CDK4/6 inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Marta Stolarczyk, Bob J Scholte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) share molecular mechanisms that cause the pathological symptoms they have in common. Here, we review evidence suggesting that hyperactivity of the EGFR/ADAM17 axis plays a role in the development of chronic lung disease in both CF and COPD. The ubiquitous transmembrane protease A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) forms a functional unit with the EGF receptor (EGFR), in a feedback loop interaction labeled the ADAM17/EGFR axis. In airway epithelial cells, ADAM17 sheds multiple soluble signaling proteins by proteolysis, including EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG), and proinflammatory mediators such as the interleukin 6 coreceptor (IL-6R)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Jingping Zhang, Jingjing Huang, Kasimujiang Aximujiang, Chenbo Xu, Abulaiti Ahemaiti, Guixia Wu, Li Zhong, Kurexi Yunusi
Stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine, behavioral, and immunological functions. So far, the molecular mechanisms of response to stressors still remain elusive. In the current study, after 10 days of repeated chronic stress (hot-dry environment and electric foot-shock), a murine model of combined-stress (CS) was created in the SPF Wistar rats. Meanwhile, we established an ulcerative-colitis (UC) rat model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol enema according to previous studies...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Wang, Jing-Jing Li, Li-Yu Guo, Peipei Li, Zhiqiang Zhao, Haisheng Zhou, Li-Jun Di
Glucose and Glutamine are two essential ingredients for cell growth. However, it remains open for investigation whether there is a general mechanism that coordinates the consumption of glucose and glutamine in cancer cells. Glutamine is mainly metabolized through the glutaminolysis pathway and our previous report indicated that CtBP increases GDH activity and promotes glutaminolysis through repressing the expression of SIRT4, a well-known mitochondrion-located factor that inhibits glutaminolysis pathway. CtBP is known to be a sensor of intracellular metabolic status; we thus hypothesized that a consensus CtBP-SIRT4-GDH axis may mediate the crosstalk between glycolysis and glutaminolysis...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Xin Xue, Xingxing Chen, Weili Fan, Guan Wang, Liang Zhang, Zongfeng Chen, Peng Liu, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) facilitates neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation into neuronal linage. However, the effect of HMGB1 on NSCs migration is still elusive. The present study is to investigate the corelation between HMGB1 and NSCs migration and the potential mechanism. The results indicated that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 promoted NSCs proliferation using CCK8 assays. Moreover, data showed that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 facilitated NSCs migration via filopodia formation using phase-contrast and transwell assays...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoxing Kou, Xingtian Xu, Chider Chen, Maria Laura Sanmillan, Tao Cai, Yanheng Zhou, Claudio Giraudo, Anh Le, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of secreting exosomes, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether MSCs use a specific exocytotic fusion mechanism to secrete exosomes and cytokines. We show that Fas binds with Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (Fap-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to activate a common soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion mechanism to release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in MSCs...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"