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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340879/diethylstilbestrol-arrested-spermatogenesis-and-somatic-growth-in-the-juveniles-of-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-a-fish-with-sexual-dimorphic-growth
#2
Zhi-Hao Liu, Qi-Liang Chen, Qiang Chen, Fang Li, Ying-Wen Li
In fish, spermatogenesis and somatic growth are mainly regulated by hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic (HPS) axes, respectively. Xenoestrogens have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in some fishes, and arrest somatic growth in some others, whereas, whether xenoestrogens are capable of disrupting spermatogenesis and somatic growth simultaneously in fish that exhibits sexual dimorphic growth is little known, and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, male juveniles of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which exhibits a sexual dimorphic growth that favors males, were exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 28 days...
January 16, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340607/collection-efficiency-and-acceptance-maps-of-electron-detectors-for-understanding-signal-detection-on-modern-scanning-electron-microscopy
#3
Toshihide Agemura, Takashi Sekiguchi
Collection efficiency and acceptance maps of typical detectors in modern scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) were investigated. Secondary and backscattered electron trajectories from a specimen to through-the-lens and under-the-lens detectors placed on an electron optical axis and an Everhart-Thornley detector mounted on a specimen chamber were simulated three-dimensionally. The acceptance maps were drawn as the relationship between the energy and angle of collected electrons under different working distances...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339095/patterning-the-gastrointestinal-epithelium-to-confer-regional-specific-functions
#4
REVIEW
Cayla A Thompson, Ann DeLaForest, Michele A Battle
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in simplest terms, can be described as an epithelial-lined muscular tube extending along the cephalocaudal axis from the oral cavity to the anus. Although the general architecture of the GI tract organs is conserved from end to end, the presence of different epithelial tissue structures and unique epithelial cell types within each organ enables each to perform the distinct digestive functions required for efficient nutrient assimilation. Spatiotemporal regulation of signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors controls GI epithelial morphogenesis during development to confer essential regional-specific epithelial structures and functions...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339024/nrf2-are-pathway-attenuates-oxidative-and-apoptotic-response-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-by-activating-erk1-2-elk1-p70s6k-p90rsk-signaling-axis
#5
Nazir M Khan, Imran Ahmad, Tariq M Haqqi
Nrf2, a redox regulated transcription factor, has recently been shown to play a role in cartilage integrity but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease in which focal degradation of cartilage occurs. Here, we studied whether Nrf2 exerts chondroprotective effects by suppressing the oxidative stress and apoptosis in IL-1β stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Expression of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1, NQO1 and SOD2 was significantly high in OA cartilage compared to normal cartilage and was also higher in damaged area compared to smooth area of OA cartilage of the same patient...
January 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338974/usefulness-of-the-grand-piano-sign-for-determining-femoral-rotational-alignment-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Takaaki Ohmori, Tamon Kabata, Yoshitomo Kajino, Tadashi Taga, Daisuke Inoue, Takashi Yamamoto, Tomoharu Takagi, Junya Yoshitani, Takuro Ueno, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: The "grand-piano sign" is a well-known indicator of proper rotational femoral alignment. We investigated changes in the shape of the femoral anterior cutting plane by changing the rotational alignment, anterior portion depth, and cutting plane flexion angle. METHODS: We simulated various cutting planes after cutting the anterior portion of the femur next to the distal femoral osteotomy in 50 patients with varus knee and also a femoral anterior osteotomy with four degree (S group) and seven degree (T group) flexion angles regarding the mechanical axis...
January 12, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338847/evaluation-and-validation-of-musculoskeletal-force-feasible-set-indices-application-to-manual-wheelchair-propulsion
#7
Vincent Hernandez, Philippe Gorce, Nasser Rezzoug
The aim of this work was to assess handrim wheelchair propulsion effectiveness, related to the applied forces on the handrim, through the force feasible set. For a given posture of the upper-limb, it represents the set of isometric forces that can be applied on the handrim in any direction. The force feasible set was predicted from a musculoskeletal model of the upper-limb and trunk (10 degrees of freedom and 56 muscles). The aim of the first part of the study was to compare the force feasible set prediction and the force currently applied on the handrim...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338754/molecular-and-functional-signatures-in-a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-assessed-by-quantitative-proteomics
#8
Dong Kyu Kim, Joonho Park, Dohyun Han, Jinhee Yang, Ahbin Kim, Jongmin Woo, Youngsoo Kim, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. To understand the pathological mechanisms underlying AD, developing animal models that completely encompass the main features of AD pathologies is indispensable. Although mouse models that display pathological hallmarks of AD (amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, or both) have been developed and investigated, a systematic approach for understanding the molecular characteristics of AD mouse models is lacking...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337308/rage-binds-preamyloid-iapp-intermediates-and-mediates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proteotoxicity
#9
Andisheh Abedini, Ping Cao, Annette Plesner, Jinghua Zhang, Meilun He, Julia Derk, Sachi A Patil, Rosa Rosario, Jacqueline Lonier, Fei Song, Hyunwook Koh, Huilin Li, Daniel P Raleigh, Ann Marie Schmidt
Islet amyloidosis is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in pancreatic islets, resulting in β cell toxicity, which exacerbates type 2 diabetes and islet transplant failure. It is not fully clear how IAPP induces cellular stress or how IAPP-induced toxicity can be prevented or treated. We recently defined the properties of toxic IAPP species. Here, we have identified a receptor-mediated mechanism of islet amyloidosis-induced proteotoxicity. In human diabetic pancreas and in cellular and mouse models of islet amyloidosis, increased expression of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) correlated with human IAPP-induced (h-IAPP-induced) β cell and islet inflammation, toxicity, and apoptosis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337109/molecular-mechanisms-of-lncrna-smarcc2-mir-551b-3p-tmprss4-axis-in-gastric-cancer
#10
Hao Yuan, Zhaofeng Chen, Suyang Bai, Hui Wei, Yuping Wang, Rui Ji, Qinghong Guo, Qiang Li, Yuwei Ye, Jing Wu, Yongning Zhou, Liang Qiao
Decreased expression of miR-551b-3p has been identified in gastric cancer tissues but its biological role and underlying mechanism in this malignancy is poorly understood. In this study, we show that the expression of miR-551b-3p negatively correlates with the depth of tumour invasion and lymphatic metastasis, but it positively correlates with tumour differentiation and the patient survival. MiR-551b-3p negatively affects the proliferation, mobility and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. LncRNA SMARCC2 inhibits the expression of miR-551b-3p through binding to its mRNA response elements in gastric cancer cells...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337000/mechanical-forces-program-the-orientation-of-cell-division-during-airway-tube-morphogenesis
#11
Zan Tang, Yucheng Hu, Zheng Wang, Kewu Jiang, Cheng Zhan, Wallace F Marshall, Nan Tang
Oriented cell division plays a key role in controlling organogenesis. The mechanisms for regulating division orientation at the whole-organ level are only starting to become understood. By combining 3D time-lapse imaging, mouse genetics, and mathematical modeling, we find that global orientation of cell division is the result of a combination of two types of spindles with distinct spindle dynamic behaviors in the developing airway epithelium. Fixed spindles follow the classic long-axis rule and establish their division orientation before metaphase...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336616/study-of-the-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kb-ligand-system-association-with-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#12
Rania M Gamal, Walid M Gamal, Abeer M Ghandour, Hanan Sayed M Abozaid, Mona Embarek Mohamed, Yasser Emad, Ahmed Abdel Galeel
OBJECTIVE: we aimed to study systemic sclerosis patients in order to assess osteoprotegerin/Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (OPG/RANKL) system and find the relation of these biomarkers with the clinical features of the disease, the carotid intima thickness, markers of inflammation, lipid profile, and other laboratory characteristics. METHODS: both the level of (RANKL), (OPG) in sera of participants, in 30 (SSc) patients and the atherosclerotic changes affecting the common carotid artery were measured and, were compared to 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
January 16, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334840/transcallosal-conduction-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia
#13
Tayfun Kasikci, Semai Bek, Guray Koc, Mehmet Yucel, Yasar Kutukcu, Zeki Odabasi
OBJECTIVES: Detecting whether a possible disequilibrium between the excitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric interactions in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) exists. METHODS: This study assessed measures of motor threshold, motor evoked potential latency, the cortical silent period, the ipsilateral silent period and the transcallosal conduction time (TCT) in PKD patients. Data were compared between the clinically affected hemisphere (aH) and the fellow hemisphere (fH)...
January 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333794/ablation-induced-change-in-the-course-of-fascicular-tachycardia
#14
Avishag Laish-Farkash, Avi Sabbag, Michael Glikson, Aharon Glick, Vladimir Khalameizer, Amos Katz, Yoav Michowitz
BACKGROUND: Multiform fascicular tachycardia (FT) was recently described as a ventricular tachycardia (VT) that has a reentrant mechanism using multiple fascicular branches and produces alternate fascicular VT forms. Ablating the respective fascicle may cause a change in the reentrant circuit resulting in a change in morphology. Ablation of the septal fascicle is crucial for successful treatment. OBJECTIVES: To describe four cases of FT in which ablation induced a change in QRS morphologies and aggravated clinical course...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331937/quasi-static-tensile-properties-of-the-cranial-cruciate-ligament-crcl-in-adult-cattle-towards-the-design-of-a-prosthetic-crcl
#15
Lucien Diotalevi, Yvan Petit, Vladimir Brailovski, Sylvain Nichols, Emma Marchionatti, Éric Wagnac
Mechanical properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle are not well documented and protocols used in the literature focus on testing a full femur-CrCL-tibia complex rather than an isolated CrCL. The aim of this study was to assess a wider range of tensile properties of the CrCL along its anatomic axis with experimental measurements of the global elongation, displacement and strain fields, in order to provide guidelines for the design of CrCL prosthetic surrogates. Fourteen bovine CrCL were harvested from seven mature cows (5...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#16
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#17
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331479/molecular-characterization-and-expression-of-piwil1-and-piwil2-during-gonadal-development-and-treatment-with-hcg-and-lhrh-a2-in-odontobutis-potamophila
#18
Cheng Zhao, Wenxu Zhu, Shaowu Yin, Quanquan Cao, Hongye Zhang, Xin Wen, Guosong Zhang, Wanli Xie, Shuqiao Chen
Piwi proteins play an important regulatory role in germ cell division during gametogenesis and gonad development. In order to understand the function of Piwi genes in the reproductive process of the dark sleeper, we identified and characterized Piwil1 and Piwil2 from gonad tissue. The tissue distribution demonstrated that Piwils were highly expressed in the gonad of the dark sleeper. During gonad development, higher expression was observed in stage I of both the testes and ovaries than in subsequent stages at mRNA and protein levels...
January 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331341/effects-of-the-gut-liver-axis-on-ischemia-mediated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-in-the-mouse-liver
#19
Lorenzo A Orci, Stéphanie Lacotte, Vaihere Delaune, Florence Slits, Graziano Oldani, Vladimir Lazarevic, Carlo Rossetti, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Philippe Morel, Christian Toso
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is growing evidence that liver graft ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric congestion due to portal blood flow interruption induces endotoxin-mediated Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4) engagement, resulting in elevated liver cancer burden. We also assessed the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in this context. METHODS: C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to standardized models of liver I/R injury and RIPC, by occluding hepatic and femoral blood vessels...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330298/stemness-is-enhanced-in-gastric-cancer-by-a-set-pp2a-e2f1-axis
#20
Shuhei Enjoji, Ryotaro Yabe, Shunya Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Masashi Sakurai, Yusuke Sakai, Hiroko Takenouchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Michael P Vitek, Tetsuya Matsuura, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuya Usui, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemotherapies against gastric cancer often fail, with cancer recurrence due potentially to the persistence of cancer stem cells. This unique subpopulation of cells in tumors possess the ability to self-renew and de-differentiate. These cancer stem cells are critical for initiation, maintenance, metastasis, and relapse of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms supporting cancer stemness remain largely unknown...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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