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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454270/fosb-transcription-factor-regulates-cox-2-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-without-affecting-pge2-expression
#1
Diana Lizeth Cervantes-Madrid, Sabah Nagi, Annika Asting Gustafsson
The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content have been associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a strong correlation between COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in tissues from CRC patients, suggesting an important role for COX-2 on the regulation of PGE2 production. Previous studies by the present authors, where CRC patients were divided into high- or low-COX-2 expressing tumors, displayed important differences in the expression levels of several transcription factors involved in carcinogenesis...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454080/relevance-of-ccl3-ccr5-axis-in-oral-carcinogenesis
#2
Janine Mayra da Silva, Tálita Pollyanna Moreira Dos Santos, Lays Martin Sobral, Celso Martins Queiroz-Junior, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Amanda E I Proudfoot, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Aline Carvalho Batista, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Andréia Machado Leopoldino, Remo Castro Russo, Tarcília Aparecida Silva
The chemokine CCL3 is a chemotactic cytokine crucial for inflammatory cell recruitment in homeostatic and pathological conditions. CCL3 might stimulate cancer progression by promoting leukocyte accumulation, angiogenesis and tumour growth. The expression of CCL3 and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 was demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but their role was not defined. Here, the functions of CCL3 were assessed using a model of chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448528/minimally-invasive-estimation-of-ventricular-dead-space-volume-through-use-of-frank-starling-curves
#3
Shaun Davidson, Chris Pretty, Antoine Pironet, Thomas Desaive, Nathalie Janssen, Bernard Lambermont, Philippe Morimont, J Geoffrey Chase
This paper develops a means of more easily and less invasively estimating ventricular dead space volume (Vd), an important, but difficult to measure physiological parameter. Vd represents a subject and condition dependent portion of measured ventricular volume that is not actively participating in ventricular function. It is employed in models based on the time varying elastance concept, which see widespread use in haemodynamic studies, and may have direct diagnostic use. The proposed method involves linear extrapolation of a Frank-Starling curve (stroke volume vs end-diastolic volume) and its end-systolic equivalent (stroke volume vs end-systolic volume), developed across normal clinical procedures such as recruitment manoeuvres, to their point of intersection with the y-axis (where stroke volume is 0) to determine Vd...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#4
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448444/role-of-the-vanins-myeloperoxidase-axis-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Mariani, Luca Roncucci
The presence of chronic inflammation in the colonic mucosa leads to an increased risk of cancer. Among proteins involved in the regulation of mucosal inflammation and that may contribute both to structural damage of the intestinal mucosa and to intestinal carcinogenesis, there are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and vanins. The infiltration of colonic mucosa by neutrophils may promote carcinogenesis through MPO, a key enzyme contained in the lysosomes of neutrophils that regulates local inflammation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutagenic species...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448277/long-term-consequences-of-obesity-on-female-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-offspring
#6
Suchitra Chandrasekaran, Genevieve Neal-Perry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Indeed, beyond the immediate postpartum period, obese women maintain a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease...
April 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448053/automated-contraction-analysis-of-human-engineered-heart-tissue-for-cardiac-drug-safety-screening
#7
Ingra Mannhardt, Umber Saleem, Anika Benzin, Thomas Schulze, Birgit Klampe, Thomas Eschenhagen, Arne Hansen
Cardiac tissue engineering describes techniques to constitute three dimensional force-generating engineered tissues. For the implementation of these procedures in basic research and preclinical drug development, it is important to develop protocols for automated generation and analysis under standardized conditions. Here, we present a technique to generate engineered heart tissue (EHT) from cardiomyocytes of different species (rat, mouse, human). The technique relies on the assembly of a fibrin-gel containing dissociated cardiomyocytes between elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) posts in a 24-well format...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447612/distinct-molecular-cues-ensure-a-robust-microtubule-dependent-nuclear-positioning-in-the-drosophila-oocyte
#8
Nicolas Tissot, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Fred Bernard, Kevin Legent, Floris Bosveld, Charlotte Martin, Orestis Faklaris, Yohanns Bellaïche, Maïté Coppey, Antoine Guichet
Controlling nucleus localization is crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In the Drosophila oocyte, nuclear asymmetric positioning is essential for the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) network that controls the polarized transport of axis determinants. A combination of quantitative three-dimensional live imaging and laser ablation-mediated force analysis reveal that nuclear positioning is ensured with an unexpected level of robustness. We show that the nucleus is pushed to the oocyte antero-dorsal cortex by MTs and that its migration can proceed through distinct tracks...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#9
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445733/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-immunity-in-the-brain-determines-fly-lifespan-in-healthy-aging-and-age-related-neurodegeneration
#10
Ilias Kounatidis, Stanislava Chtarbanova, Yang Cao, Margaret Hayne, Dhruv Jayanth, Barry Ganetzky, Petros Ligoxygakis
During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that "age well" from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444662/early-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-and-obesity-resistance-differentially-regulated-by-high-fat-diet
#11
Jingyu Sun, Tao Huang, Zhengtang Qi, Songhui You, Jingmei Dong, Chen Zhang, Lili Qin, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
The mechanism for different susceptibilities to obesity after short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding is largely unknown. Given the close association between obesity occurrence and mitochondrial dysfunction, the early events in skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations between HFD-induced obesity (DIO) and HFD-induced obesity resistant (DIO-R) lean phenotype under excess nutritional environment were explored.ICR/JCL male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, as follows: low-fat diet (LFD) and HFD groups...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444132/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-enos-regulates-myocardial-survival-after-an-ischaemic-insult-role-of-pyk2
#12
Sofia-Iris Bibli, Zongmin Zhou, Sven Zukunft, Beate Fisslthaler, Ioanna Andreadou, Csaba Szabo, Peter Brouckaert, Ingrid Fleming, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Aims: Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is known to play a cardioprotective protective. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating eNOS activity during ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are incompletely understood. eNOS is a substrate for several kinases that positively or negatively affect its enzymatic activity. Herein, we sought to correlate eNOS phosphorylation status with cardiomyocyte survival and we investigated the contribution of the proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2)/eNOS axis to the regulation of myocardial infarct size in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443874/inertial-migration-and-axial-control-of-deformable-capsules
#13
Christian Schaaf, Holger Stark
The mechanical deformability of single cells is an important indicator for various diseases such as cancer, blood diseases and inflammation. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow to separate such cells from healthy cells using hydrodynamic forces. We perform hydrodynamic simulations based on the lattice-Boltzmann method and study the behavior of an elastic capsule in a microfluidic channel flow in the inertial regime. While inertial lift forces drive the capsule away from the channel center, its deformability favors migration in the opposite direction...
April 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443855/dielectric-functions-and-critical-points-of-crystalline-ws2-ultrathin-films-with-tunable-thickness
#14
Da-Hai Li, Hua Zheng, Zi-Yi Wang, Rong-Jun Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yu-Xiang Zheng, Song-You Wang, David Wei Zhang, Liang-Yao Chen
Centimeter-scale WS2 ultrathin films were synthesized on sapphire substrates, and they showed highly oriented crystallographic growth along the c axis. Afterwards, the as-grown samples were systematically characterized using various detection methods. Reliable values of the roughness layer thickness and the film thickness were extracted using both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and identified using Raman spectroscopy as well. The expansion and tensile strain along the [001] direction were discovered using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements...
April 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443825/anomalous-magnetotransport-behaviors-in-ptse2-microflakes
#15
Zhaoguo Li, Jicheng Zhang, Yong Zeng, Lingbiao Meng, Minjie Zhou, Weidong Wu
Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, and further theoretically identified as a candidate of the type-II Dirac semimetals. The electrical transport study of PtSe2 microflakes could offers the great opportunities not only for fundamental physics but also for future electronic applications. Here, we report the anomalous magnetotransport properties of PtSe2 microflakes. The one finding is the anisotropic magnetoresistance of PtSe2 microflakes can be normalized by introducing a 3D scaling factor ε_θ=(cos^2 θ+γ^(-2) sin^2 θ)^(1⁄2), where θ is the magnetic field angle with respect to the c axis of the crystal and γ is the mass anisotropic constant of electrons...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442776/mir-301b-mir-130b-ppar%C3%AE-axis-underlies-the-adipogenic-capacity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-different-tissue-origins
#16
Lulu Liu, Haihui Liu, Mingtai Chen, Saisai Ren, Panpan Cheng, Hao Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in regenerative medicine and cellular therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory function. The applicability of MSCs also depends on their cellular sources and in vivo functions. Here in this study, we systematically compared the morphologic characteristics, immunophenotypes and the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from umbilical cord (UC), adipose tissue (Ad) and bone marrow (BM). We found that the three tissues-derived MSCs displayed decreased adipogenic capacity in the order: Ad-MSC > BM-MSC > UC-MSC, and no morphologic and immunophenotypic differences were observed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442712/cardioprotective-effects-of-cu-ii-atsm-in-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-cardiomyocytes-mediated-by-nrf2-and-dj-1
#17
Salil Srivastava, Philip J Blower, Aisah A Aubdool, Robert C Hider, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C Siow
Cu((II))ATSM was developed as a hypoxia sensitive positron emission tomography agent. Recent reports have highlighted the neuroprotective properties of Cu((II))ATSM, yet there are no reports that it confers cardioprotection. We demonstrate that Cu((II))ATSM activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and cardiac myocytes (HCM), leading to upregulation of antioxidant defense enzymes. Oral delivery of Cu((II))ATSM in mice induced expression of the Nrf2-regulated enzymes in the heart and aorta...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442574/the-r753q-polymorphism-in-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-attenuates-innate-immune-responses-to-mycobacteria-and-impairs-myd88-adapter-recruitment-to-tlr2
#18
Goutham Pattabiraman, Rahul Panchal, Andrei E Medvedev
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 plays a critical role in host defenses against mycobacterial infections. The Arg753Gln (R753Q) TLR2 polymorphism has been associated with increased incidence of tuberculosis and infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria in human populations, but the mechanisms by which this polymorphism affects TLR2 signaling are unclear. In this study, we determined the impact of the R753Q TLR2 polymorphism on macrophage sensing of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Upon infection with M. smegmatis, macrophages from knock-in (KI) mice harboring R753Q TLR2 expressed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to cells from wild-type (WT) mice but both R753Q TLR2 and WT mice exhibited comparable bacterial burdens...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440439/microrna-26a-inhibits-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-regulating-dnmt3b-meg3-axis
#19
Yarui Li, Mudan Ren, Yan Zhao, Xinlan Lu, Mengyao Wang, Junbi Hu, Guifang Lu, Shuixiang He
miR-26a is known to play an important oncosuppressive role in HCC. However, its regulatory role and relationship with other non-coding RNAs is less clear. In the present study, we report that the expression levels of miR-26a and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) were frequently downregulated in HCC tissues compared to matched non-malignant tissues. In addition, the expression levels of miR-26a and MEG3 were negatively correlated with the tumor sizes and TNM clinical stage in HCC patients...
April 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440279/the-geometric-phase-of-zn-and-t-symmetric-nanomagnets-as-a-classification-toolkit
#20
M Prada
We derive the general form of the non-trivial geometric phase resulting from the unique combination of point group and time reversal symmetries. This phase arises e.g. when a magnetic adatom is adsorbed on a non-magnetic Cn crystal surface, where n denotes the fold of the principal axis. The energetic ordering and the relevant quantum numbers of the eigenstates are entirely determined by this quantity. Moreover, this phase allows to conveniently predict the protection mechanism of any prepared state, shedding light onto a large number of experiments and allowing a classification scheme...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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