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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#1
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792935/lp533401-restores-bone-health-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats-by-a-decrease-of-gut-derived-serotonin-and-regulation-of-serum-phosphate-through-the-inhibition-of-phosphate-co-transporters-expression-in-the-kidneys
#2
Dariusz Pawlak, Beata Znorko, Bartlomiej Kalaska, Tomasz Domaniewski, Radosław Zawadzki, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Urszula Łebkowska, Piotr Grabowski, Krystyna Pawlak
LP533401 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase-1, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of gut-derived serotonin (GDS). Recently, we showed that increased GDS in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected bone strength and metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with LP533401 could reverse CKD-induced bone loss in uremia. Sixteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were randomized into untreated (CKD), treated with vehicle (VEH) and LP533401 at a dose of 30 or 100 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks...
May 21, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792897/mathematical-modeling-and-numerical-simulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-orientation-system
#3
Bashar Ibrahim
The mitotic spindle orientation and position is crucial for the fidelity of chromosome segregation during asymmetric cell division to generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. This mechanism is best understood in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, named the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). The SPOC inhibits cells from exiting mitosis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented along the mother-daughter polarity axis. Despite many experimental studies, the mechanisms underlying SPOC regulation remains elusive and unexplored theoretically...
May 21, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792166/the-pdgfr%C3%AE-erk1-2-pathway-regulates-cdcp1-expression-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Luca Forte, Federica Turdo, Cristina Ghirelli, Piera Aiello, Patrizia Casalini, Marilena Valeria Iorio, Elvira D'Ippolito, Patrizia Gasparini, Roberto Agresti, Beatrice Belmonte, Gabriella Sozzi, Lucia Sfondrini, Elda Tagliabue, Manuela Campiglio, Francesca Bianchi
BACKGROUND: CDCP1, a transmembrane protein with tumor pro-metastatic activity, was recently identified as a prognostic marker in TNBC, the most aggressive breast cancer subtype still lacking an effective molecular targeted therapy. The mechanisms driving CDCP1 over-expression are not fully understood, although several stimuli derived from tumor microenvironment, such as factors present in Wound Healing Fluids (WHFs), reportedly increase CDCP1 levels. METHODS: The expression of CDCP1, PDGFRβ and ERK1/2cell was tested by Western blot after stimulation of MDA-MB-231 cells with PDGF-BB and, similarly, in presence or not of ERK1/2 inhibitor in a panel of TNBC cell lines...
May 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791402/determination-of-the-damage-growth-threshold-of-multilayer-dielectric-gratings-by-picosecond-laser-pulses-based-on-saturation-damage-size-analysis
#5
Yanfei Hao, Mingying Sun, Zhaoyang Jiao, Yajing Guo, Xue Pan, Xiangyang Pang, Jianqiang Zhu
We propose two efficient methods of determining damage growth threshold (DGT) based on the saturation damage size analysis (SDSA) for multilayer dielectric gratings by picosecond pulsed lasers. The damage size at laser fluences above DGT increases with the shot number and finally saturates due to the Gaussian focal spot. The DGT is extracted by mapping the boundary of a saturation damage site obtained at single fluence to the beam profile, which is called the monofluence SDSA method. Meanwhile, the saturation damage size decreases when reducing laser fluence...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791029/development-of-a-3d-ultrasound-guidance-system-for-permanent-breast-seed-implantation
#6
Justin Michael, Daniel Morton, Deidre Batchelar, Michelle Hilts, Juanita Crook, Aaron Fenster
PURPOSE: Permanent breast seed implantation (PBSI) is a promising radiotherapy technique for early-stage breast cancer, completed in a single visit by permanently implanting 103 Pd seeds using needles inserted through a template and guided by 2D ultrasound (US). However, operator dependence has been highlighted as a limitation of this procedure. Consequently, we propose and have developed an intraoperative guidance system using 3D US and an instrumented mechanical arm to provide intraoperative 3D imaging and needle template tracking...
May 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#7
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790671/upregulation-of-mir-374a-promotes-tumor-metastasis-and-progression-by-downregulating-lactb-and-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-breast-cancer
#8
Jun Zhang, Yuting He, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Guangying Cui, Weiwei Wang, Xiaojian Zhang, Yonggang Luo, Juan Li, Fang Ren, Zhigang Ren, Ranran Sun
Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among female worldwide. Recent studies have revealed that LACTB was frequently repressed and functioned as a bona fide new tumor suppressor in a series of cancers, including BRCA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LACTB dysregulation in BRCA have not been reported. In the present study, we find that LACTB is repressed in BRCA and associated with poor prognosis by BRCA tissue microarray (TMA) analysis. Moreover, we confirm that LACTB is a direct target of miR-374a, which is significantly overexpressed and associated with malignancies in BRCA...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789904/revision-knee-arthroplasty-with-rotating-hinge-systems-in-patients-with-gross-ligament-instability
#9
Sebastian P Boelch, Joerg Arnholdt, Boris M Holzapfel, Axel Jakuscheit, Maximilian Rudert, Maik Hoberg
PURPOSE: The clinical and radiographic outcomes after revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for instability with two rotating hinge knee prostheses were compared. METHODS: Fifty-one patients revised for TKA instability were prospectively randomized to either the Link Endo-Model (N = 26) or the EnduRo (N = 25). Clinical and radiographic outcome scores were compared pre-operatively and at 12 months' follow-up. Failure mechanisms were recorded. RESULTS: Age, BMI, operation, and tourniquet-time did not differ significantly between groups...
May 22, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789714/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-promotes-renal-cell-carcinoma-progression-via-regulating-lncrna-hotair-mir-138-200c-204-217-associated-cerna-network
#10
Jie Ding, Chiuan-Ren Yeh, Yin Sun, Changyi Lin, Joshua Chou, Zhenyu Ou, Chawnshang Chang, Jun Qi, Shuyuan Yeh
Recent studies indicated that the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) could affect the progression of prostate and bladder tumors, however, its roles in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC), remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide clinical evidence that ERβ expression is correlated in a negative manner with the overall survival/disease-free survival in RCC patients. Mechanism dissection revealed that targeting ERβ with ERβ-shRNA and stimulating the transactivation of ERβ with 17β-estradiol or environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, all resulted in altering the lncRNA HOTAIR expression...
May 23, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789601/hmga1-exacerbates-tumor-growth-through-regulating-the-cell-cycle-and-accelerates-migration-invasion-via-targeting-mir-221-222-in-cervical-cancer
#11
Fangfang Fu, Tian Wang, Zhangying Wu, Yourong Feng, Wenwen Wang, Su Zhou, Xiangyi Ma, Shixuan Wang
High-mobility group AT-hook1 (HMGA1, formerly HMG-I/Y), an architectural transcription factor, participates in a number of tumor biological processes. However, its effect on cervical cancer remains largely indistinct. In this study, we found that HMGA1 was generally overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues and was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Via exogenously increasing or decreasing the expression of HMGA1, we showed that HMGA1 affected the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells in vitro...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789536/long-noncoding-rna-gastric-cancer-related-lncrna1-mediates-gastric-malignancy-through-mirna-885-3p-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4
#12
Zhijuan Lin, Zhixia Zhou, Hang Guo, Yuqi He, Xin Pang, Xumei Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiang Ao, Peifeng Li, Jianxun Wang
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancy and the third leading cancer-related death in China. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous tumors, including GC, however, the mechanism of many functional lncRNAs is still unclear. In this study, we identified the abundantly expressed lncRNA, RP11-290F20.3, in GC cells and patient tumor tissues. We named this lncRNA as GC-related lncRNA1 (GCRL1), which could regulate gastric cell proliferation and metastasis, both in vitro and in vivo...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789323/the-emerging-connections-between-igf1-the-intestinal-microbiome-lactobacillus-strains-and-bone-growth
#13
REVIEW
Pierre Poinsot, Martin Schwarzer, Noël Peretti, François Leulier
In most animal species, postnatal growth is controlled by conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. In mammals, juvenile growth is characterized by a longitudinal bone growth resulting from the ossification of the growth plate. This ossification is under IGF1 influence through endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Moreover, the nutritional status has been largely described as an important factor influencing the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. It is now well established that the gut microbiota modulates the nutrient availability of its host...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788550/usp22-acts-as-an-oncoprotein-to-maintain-glioma-malignancy-through-deubiquitinating-bmi1-for-stabilization
#14
Guan-Zhong Qiu, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Yue Ma, Xing-Chun Gao, Zhen Wang, Ming-Zhu Jin, Wei Sun, Yong-Xiang Zou, Jing Lin, Hua-Lin Fu, Wei-Lin Jin
USP22 is a member of "death-from-cancer" signature, which plays a key role in cancer progression. Although previous evidence has shown that USP22 is overexpressed and correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. The effect and mechanism of USP22 in glioma malignancy especially cancer stemness remain elusive. Here, we find USP22 is more enriched in stem-like tumorspheres than differentiated glioma cells. USP22 knockdown inhibits cancer stemness in glioma cell lines. With a cell-penetrating TAT-tag protein, BMI1, a robust glioma stem-cell marker, is found to mediate the effect of USP22 on glioma stemness...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786648/utilizing-optimized-tools-to-investigate-ptm-crosstalk-identifying-potential-ptm-crosstalk-of-acetylated-mitochondrial-proteins
#15
Henrick Horita, Andy Law, Kim Middleton
Post-translational modification (PTM) crosstalk is recognized as a major cell-regulatory mechanism, and studies of several proteins have validated the premise that PTMs work in concert. Previous work by our group investigated the potential PTM crosstalk on proteins in the EGFR-Ras-c-Fos axis by utilizing a comprehensive set of PTM reagents termed Signal-Seeker toolkits. In this study, these tools were used to investigate the potential PTM crosstalk that occurs in acetylated mitochondrial proteins in response to a mitochondrial stress-inducing agent hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)...
May 22, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786111/high-glucose-suppresses-the-viability-and-proliferation-of-htr%C3%A2-8-svneo-cells-through-regulation-of-the-mir%C3%A2-137-prkaa1-il%C3%A2-6-axis
#16
Hai-Yan Peng, Ming-Qing Li, Hua-Ping Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the high glucose (HG)‑associated regulation of HTR‑8/SVneo cell viability and proliferation during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and to verify the association of microRNA (miR)‑137, protein kinase AMP‑activated catalytic subunit α1 (PRKAA1) and interlukin‑6 (IL‑6). miR‑137‑overexpressing and negative control HTR‑8/SVneo cells were established by lentiviral vector infection. Cell Counting Kit‑8 and colony formation assays were used to analyze the viability and proliferation of HTR‑8/SVneo cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785642/differential-binding-of-active-and-inactive-integrin-to-talin
#17
Dongchuan Wang, Qiang Guo, Ailin Wei, Ang Li
Bi-directional signaling of integrins plays an important role in platelet and leukocyte function. Talin plays a key role in integrin bi-directional signaling and its binding to integrin is highly regulated. The precise regulation of the recruitment and binding of talin to integrin is still being elucidated. In particular, the recruitment of talin to integrin is controlled by the RAP-1 and RIAM/lamellipodin signaling axis and the affinity between talin and integrin is regulated by the conformation or protease cleavage of talin...
May 21, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785244/more-than-just-an-immunosuppressant-the-emerging-role-of-fty720-as-a-novel-inducer-of-ros-and-apoptosis
#18
REVIEW
Teruaki Takasaki, Kanako Hagihara, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura
Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720) is a first-in-class of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved to treat multiple sclerosis by its phosphorylated form (FTY720-P). Recently, a novel role of FTY720 as a potential anticancer drug has emerged. One of the anticancer mechanisms of FTY720 involves the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, which is largely independent of its property as an S1P modulator. ROS have been considered as a double-edged sword in tumor initiation/progression...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785076/role-of-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-axis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Lucia Pacifico, Gian Marco Andreoli, Miriam D'Avanzo, Delia De Mitri, Pasquale Pierimarchi
Concomitantly with the increase in the prevalences of overweight/obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has worldwide become the main cause of chronic liver disease in both adults and children. Patients with fatty liver display features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), like insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recently, epidemiological studies have linked obesity, MetS, and NAFLD to decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, highlighting an intricate interplay among bone, adipose tissue, and liver...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784820/efficient-collective-swimming-by-harnessing-vortices-through-deep-reinforcement-learning
#20
Siddhartha Verma, Guido Novati, Petros Koumoutsakos
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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