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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329871/variations-in-social-network-type-membership-among-older-african-americans-caribbean-blacks-and-non-hispanic-whites
#1
Ann W Nguyen
Objectives: This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Method: Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329668/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-us-adults
#2
Derek Y Hsu
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening disorders. The incidences, mortality and cost of SJS and TEN in US adults are not well-characterized. We analyzed data from the 2009-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the US. SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were identified by a validated algorithm using ICD-9- CM codes. The mean incidences of SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were 9.3, 1.6, and 1.9 per million people per year, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329646/gaps-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-skin-cancer-in-people-of-color
#3
Ajay Kailas
People of color are at significantly higher risk in mortality from skin cancers, such as melanoma, than Caucasians. Around 4,500,000 people of color are affected by skin cancer The five-year survival rates from melanoma are 81.1% for Hispanics, 80.2% for Asians, 72.2% for African- Americans, and 89.6% for Caucasians. For this reason, it is important to ensure the scientific literature reflects the most up to date recommendations and treatment for blacks regarding skin cancer. Therefore the authors conducted a "gap analysis" on the current treatment of skin cancer in people of color...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325044/predictors-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substance-pfas-plasma-concentrations-in-6-10-year-old-american-children
#4
Maria H Harris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Ana Maria Mora, Thomas F Webster, Emily Oken, Sharon K Sagiv
Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva pre-birth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324031/sex-steroid-hormones-and-fracture-in-a-multi-ethnic-cohort-of-women-the-women-s-health-initiative-study-whi
#5
Jane A Cauley, Michelle E Danielson, Guru Rajesh Jammy, Doug C Bauer, Rebecca Jackson, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Rowan T Chlebowski, Kristine E Ensrud, Robert Boudreau
CONTEXT: We hypothesize that endogenous sex steroids are associated with fracture risk independent of race/ethnicity. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a nested case-control study within the prospective Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Incident non-spine fractures were identified in 381 Black, 192 Hispanic, 112 Asian, and 46 Native American women over an average of 8.6 years. A random sample of 400 White women who experienced an incident fracture was chosen...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323928/physical-activity-vitamin-d-and-incident-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-whites-and-blacks-the-aric-study
#6
Kathleen Chin, Di Zhao, Martin Tibuakuu, Seth S Martin, Chiadi E Ndumele, Roberta Florido, B Gwen Windham, Eliseo Guallar, Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos
Context: Physical activity (PA) is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Both are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but their joint association with ASCVD risk is unknown. Objective: To examine the dose-response between PA and 25(OH)D, and to assess effect modification of 25(OH)D and PA with ASCVD risk. Design: Cross-sectional and prospective study using Poisson and linear regression. Setting: Community-dwelling Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323477/-the-service-i-rendered-was-just-as-true-african-american-soldiers-and-veterans-as-activist-patients
#7
Jessica L Adler
In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321149/family-and-friendship-networks-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-among-african-americans-and-black-caribbeans
#8
Joseph A Himle, Robert Joseph Taylor, Ann W Nguyen, Monnica T Williams, Karen D Lincoln, Harry Owen Taylor, Linda M Chatters
Although there is a large literature on the influence of social support on mental health there is limited research on social support and OCD. This is especially the case for African Americans and Black Caribbeans. This study examines the relationship between family and friendship networks and the prevalence of OCD. The analysis is based on the National Survey of American Life a nationally representative sample of African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Variables included frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions (conflict, criticisms) with family members...
March 2017: Behavior Therapist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319485/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-not-the-same-old-song
#9
Raymond K Hsu, Neil R Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review recent updates on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent analyses from the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey describe the temporal trend in CKD prevalence in US adults. The overall prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m increased from 4.8% in 1988-1994 to 6.9% in 2003-2004, but has since stabilized at 6.4-6.9% up to 2011-2012. Prevalence of CKD stages 1-4 has also stabilized at ∼14% of adults since 2003-2004...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#10
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318381/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus-of-the-central-appalachians-usa
#11
John J Cox, Sean M Murphy, Ben C Augustine, Joseph M Guthrie, John T Hast, Sutton C Maehr, Joseph McDermott
We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316911/electronic-media-time-and-sedentary-behaviors-in-children-findings-from-the-built-environment-and-active-play-study-in-the-washington-dc-area
#12
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, Brandon Knight, Brian E Saelens
An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP) Study was to examine whether home built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographics predicted children's sedentary behavior (SB). In 2014, BEAP Study questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children (7-12 years) within the Washington DC area. SB-Duration (hours/day) and SB-Frequency (days/week) were assessed by two questions with multiple subparts relating to SB activity type (e.g. car riding) and SB companionship (e...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302596/estimating-accuracy-at-exercise-intensities-a-comparative-study-of-self-monitoring-heart-rate-and-physical-activity-wearable-devices
#13
Erin E Dooley, Natalie M Golaszewski, John B Bartholomew
BACKGROUND: Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. METHODS: A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225...
March 16, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302356/correlates-of-county-level-nonviral-sexually-transmitted-infection-hot-spots-in-the-us-application-of-hot-spot-analysis-and-spatial-logistic-regression
#14
Brian A Chang, William S Pearson, Kwame Owusu-Edusei
PURPOSE: We used a combination of hot spot analysis (HSA) and spatial regression to examine county-level hot spot correlates for the most commonly reported nonviral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the 48 contiguous states in the United States (US). METHODS: We obtained reported county-level total case rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis in all counties in the 48 contiguous states from national surveillance data and computed temporally smoothed rates using 2008-2012 data...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301233/identification-of-type-a-influenza-viruses-from-wild-birds-on-the-delmarva-peninsula-2007-10
#15
Lauren A Preskenis, Brian S Ladman, Jack Gelb
Wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (Delmarva) Peninsula region within the Atlantic Flyway were sampled as part of the Early Detection of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza (AI) in Wild Migratory Birds program. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state wildlife agencies submitted 7858 samples for AI virus (AIV) testing by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) to the University of Delaware Poultry Health System from April 2007 to March 2011. Virus isolation attempts were performed on samples with matrix gene cycle threshold (Ct) values ≤33...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300445/botanicals-with-dermatologic-properties-derived-from-first-nations-healing
#16
Sophia Colantonio, Jason K Rivers
INTRODUCTION: First Nations people have a long history of working with medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases. The purpose was to assess the dermatologic therapeutic potential of western red cedar, white spruce, birch, balsam poplar, and black spruce. METHODS: Based on expert recommendations, 5 trees were selected that were used in First Nations medicine for cutaneous healing and have potential and/or current application to dermatology today. We searched several databases up to June 12, 2014...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300324/risk-of-stress-fracture-varies-by-race-ethnic-origin-in-a-cohort-study-of-1-3-million-u-s-army-soldiers
#17
Lakmini Bulathsinhala, Julie M Hughes, Craig J McKinnon, Joseph R Kardouni, Katelyn I Guerriere, Kristin L Popp, Ronald W Matheny, Mary L Bouxsein
Stress fractures (SF) are common and costly injuries in military personnel. Risk for SF has been shown to vary with race/ethnicity. Previous studies report increased SF risk in White and Hispanic Soldiers compared to Black soldiers. However, these studies did not account for the large ethnic diversity in the U.S. Military. PURPOSE: We aimed to identify differences in SF risk among racial/ethnic groups within the U.S. Army. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database from 2001 until 2011...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291093/racial-and-ethnic-variation-in-pediatric-cardiac-extracorporeal-life-support-survival
#18
Titus Chan, Jane Di Gennaro, Reid W D Farris, Monique Radman, David Michael McMullan
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested an association between nonwhite race and poor outcomes in small subsets of cardiac surgery patients who require extracorporeal life support. This study aims to examine the association of race/ethnicity with mortality in pediatric patients who receive extracorporeal life support for cardiac support. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of registry data. SETTING: Prospectively collected multi-institutional registry data...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290965/sickle-cell-trait-prevalence-among-u-s-military-service-members-1992-2012
#19
David W Niebuhr, Ligong Chen, Stephanie Shao, Jonathan Goldsmith, Celia Byrne, Darrell E Singer
BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of sickle cell trait (SCT) prevalence in the U.S. military across services and over time are lacking. METHODS: SCT prevalence by service, race/ethnicity, and gender in 5-year time intervals was estimated using demographic, ambulatory, and hospital SCT encounter (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification 282.5) data for active duty, enlisted between 1992 and 2012 and limited SCT laboratory results...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290003/demographics-patterns-of-care-and-survival-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#20
Emily V Dressler, Therese A Dolecek, Meng Liu, John L Villano
We evaluated the American College of Surgeon's National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to describe current hospital-based epidemiologic frequency, survival, and patterns of care of pediatric medulloblastoma. We analyzed NCDB 1998-2011 data on medulloblastoma for children ages 0-19 years using logistic and poisson regression, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and Cox proportional hazards models. 3647 cases of medulloblastoma in those aged 0-19 years were identified. Chemotherapy was received by 79 and 74% received radiation, with 65% receiving both therapies...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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