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Black American

Benjamin W Fisher, Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
Although school security measures have become a common fixture in public schools across the United States, research on the relationship between security and adolescent victimization is mixed, with very few studies examining trends in adolescent victimization across time. Using two waves of data from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (N = 7659; 50.6% female; 56.7% White, 13.3% Black, 13.5% Hispanic, 11.3% Asian American, 5.4% other race), results from a series of multi-level models demonstrate that adolescents in schools with more security measures report higher odds of being threatened with harm, and no difference in odds of being in a physical altercation or having something stolen over time...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Titilola Falasinnu, Yashaar Chaichian, Michelle B Bass, Julia F Simard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluated gender and race/ethnic representation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: Whites comprise 33% of prevalent SLE cases and comprised 51% of RCT enrollees. Blacks encompass 43% of prevalent SLE cases, but only represented 14% of RCT enrollees. Hispanics comprise 16% of prevalent SLE cases and 21% of RCT enrollees, while Asians comprise 13% of prevalent SLE cases and 10% of RCT enrollees...
March 17, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Whitney E Zahnd, Amanda J Fogleman, Wiley D Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Despite having lower overall incidence rates, rural populations tend to have higher cancer mortality rates. Rural populations often have higher rates of cancers with primary and secondary prevention modalities. However, there is limited research on rural-urban differences in incidence by stage. Therefore, the objective was to assess rural-urban differences in cancer rates by stage. METHODS: The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries public use data set (2009-2013) was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates and rate ratios (rural versus urban) for all stageable cancers, tobacco-associated cancers, human papillomavirus-associated cancers, and individual cancers with screening modalities...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Maya Balakrishnan, Rollin George, Ashish Sharma, David Y Graham, Hoda M Malaty
BACKGROUND: The USA has among the lowest gastric cancer incidence rates worldwide. AIM: To investigate whether increasing immigration from high cancer incidence countries has altered the GC incidence in a large US metropolitan area. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study among an underprivileged, multiethnic population in Texas. Gastric cancer cases diagnosed during 2005-2015 were identified using the cancer registry of the public medical care system for Harris County...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Yuen Mi Cheon, Sara Douglass Bayless, Yijie Wang, Tiffany Yip
Ethnic/racial self-labeling represents one's knowledge of and preference for ethnic/racial group membership, which is related to, but distinguishable from, ethnic/racial identity. This study examined the development of ethnic/racial self-labeling over time by including the concept of elaboration among a diverse sample of 297 adolescents (Time 1 mean age 14.75, 67% female, 37.4% Asian or Asian American, 10.4% Black, African American, or West Indian, 23.2% Hispanic or Latinx, 24.2% White, 4.4% other). Growth mixture modeling revealed two distinct patterns-low and high self-labeling elaboration from freshman to sophomore year of high school...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Keith C Norris, Susanne B Nicholas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Susan Bodnar
When Donald Trump became president of the United States, I discovered that my clients who identified as Black saw me as a White clinician. With that came a host of nefarious attributions. To preserve therapeutic efficacy, and the genuine relationships with people about whom I cared, I had to distinguish myself from the president; thus, I learned not only how it feels to be seen through the bias of skin color but what I needed to do to identify as a person rather than a White person. "Welcome to my world," said one African American client...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Andreas Stang, Jürgen C Becker, Paul Nghiem, Jacques Ferlay
AIM: The aim of this article was to provide worldwide, population-based incidence rates for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: We included 11,576 cases from 20 countries for time trend analyses (1990-2007) and 11,028 cases (2.5 billion person-years) from 21 countries for the period 2003-2007 extracted from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. We computed age-standardised incidence rates (World Standard population) per million person years and sex ratios of these rates...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Carole Fakhry, Martin Krapcho, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) is well established. However, up-to-date incidence estimates and trends for head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) overall, including major anatomic sites, and nonoropharyngeal (non-OP) HNSCCs by sex, race, and age in the United States are not well described. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of incident HNSCCs during 1992 through 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was performed to evaluate the incidence of HNSCCs overall, OPSCC, and non-OP HNSCC (those of the larynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and nasal cavity)...
March 13, 2018: Cancer
Kristine S Alexander, Neil A Zakai, Steven D Lidofsky, Peter W Callas, Suzanne E Judd, Russell P Tracy, Mary Cushman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its relationship with ischemic stroke. METHODS: In the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of 30,239 American black and white adults, we assessed baseline NAFLD as fatty liver index (FLI) >60, and assessed liver biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and the AST/ALT ratio and risk of incident ischemic stroke over 5...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca Burch, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this targeted systematic review, we aimed to identify up-to-date prevalence estimates of migraine and severe headache in adults from population-based US government surveys. Our goal was to assess the stability of prevalence estimates over time, and to identify additional information pertinent to the burden and treatment of migraine and other severe headache conditions. METHODS: We searched for the most current publicly available summary statistics from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)...
March 12, 2018: Headache
Daniel Lin, Heather T Gold, David Schreiber, Lawrence P Leichman, Scott E Sherman, Daniel J Becker
BACKGROUND: Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included...
March 12, 2018: Cancer
Karen E Van Nuys, Zhiwen Xie, Bryan Tysinger, Mark A Hlatky, Dana P Goldman
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to illustrate the potential benefit of effective congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment in terms of improved health, greater social value, and reduced health disparities between black and white subpopulations. BACKGROUND: CHF affects 5.7 million Americans, costing $32 billion annually in treatment expenditures and lost productivity. CHF also contributes to health disparities between black and white Americans: black subjects develop CHF at a younger age and are more likely to be hospitalized and die of this disease...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Ryan C Shorey, Paula J Fite, Joseph R Cohen, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the stability of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration from adolescence to emerging adulthood among sexual minorities. METHODS: Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (N = 135; 71.1% female; mean age = 15.02, standard deviation=.77; 34.1% African-American/black, 26.7% white, 22.2% Hispanic) from southeast Texas were assessed annually for 6 years on their IPV perpetration...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Stacy Buckingham-Howes, Bridget Armstrong, Megan C Pejsa-Reitz, Yan Wang, Dawn O Witherspoon, Erin R Hager, Maureen M Black
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the mediating role of body dissatisfaction between Body Mass Index (BMI) and subsequent disordered eating (e.g. dieting and restricting/purging) among early adolescent African American girls. STUDY DESIGN: Participants included 701 African American girls in 6th and 7th grades in urban schools serving low-income communities, mean age 12.15 (SD = 0.72) years. Participants were assessed at baseline and approximately 6 months later...
February 28, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Daniel E Sonenshine
Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Keila M Maher, Kwadwo Owusu-Akyaw, Jingzhu Zhou, Mary Cooter, Allison K Ross, Robert K Lark, Brad M Taicher
INTRODUCTION: Surgical correction of pediatric scoliosis is associated with significant blood loss. Minimizing estimated blood loss and blood transfusion is beneficial as transfusions have been associated with increased morbidity, including risk of surgical site infections, longer hospitalizations, and increased cost. Although there is evidence that African-American or Black adults are more likely to require intraoperative blood transfusion compared with Caucasian or White adults, the reasons for this difference are unclear...
March 9, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Danxia Yu, Wei Zheng, Mattias Johansson, Qing Lan, Yikyung Park, Emily White, Charles E Matthews, Norie Sawada, Yu-Tang Gao, Kim Robien, Rashmi Sinha, Arnulf Langhammer, Rudolf Kaaks, Edward L Giovannucci, Linda M Liao, Yong-Bing Xiang, DeAnn Lazovich, Ulrike Peters, Xuehong Zhang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Walter C Willett, Shoichiro Tsugane, Yumie Takata, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, William Blot, Xiao-Ou Shu
Background: The obesity-lung cancer association remains controversial. Concerns over confounding by smoking and reverse causation persist. The influence of obesity type and effect modifications by race/ethnicity and tumor histology are largely unexplored. Methods: We examined associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with lung cancer risk among 1.6 million Americans, Europeans, and Asians. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ashraf Z Al-Hamdan, Pooja P Preetha, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, William L Crosson, Reem N Albashaireh
This ecological study aimed to assess the association between long-term exposures to outdoor environmental factors and mortality rate from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a diverse and spatially distributed population from 3,094 counties within the U.S. (n > 3,780,000 CVD deaths) using satellite-derived data of PM2.5 concentrations, sunlight, and maximum heat index. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether PM2.5 , sunlight and maximum heat index were related to the odds of the total CVD death rate based on gender, race, and age taking into consideration the confounding risk factors of diabetes, obesity, leisure- time physical inactivity, smoking and socioeconomic status...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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