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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550518/racial-ethnic-differences-in-perception-of-need-for-mental-health-treatment-in-a-us-national-sample
#1
Joshua Breslau, Matthew Cefalu, Eunice C Wong, M Audrey Burnam, Gerald P Hunter, Karen R Florez, Rebecca L Collins
PURPOSE: To resolve contradictory evidence regarding racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health treatment in the USA using a large and diverse epidemiologic sample. METHODS: Samples from 6 years of a repeated cross-sectional survey of the US civilian non-institutionalized population were combined (N = 232,723). Perceived need was compared across three non-Hispanic groups (whites, blacks and Asian-Americans) and two Hispanic groups (English interviewees and Spanish interviewees)...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544478/the-protective-role-of-physical-activity-on-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-effect-modification-by-race-ethnicity
#2
William R Boyer, James R Churilla, Samantha F Ehrlich, Scott E Crouter, Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, Eugene C Fitzhugh
BACKGROUND: It is well known physical activity (PA) plays a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the extent to which PA may impact T2D risk among different race-ethnic groups is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effect modification of race-ethnicity on PA and T2D. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched through June 2016. Study assessment for inclusion was conducted in three phases: 1) title review (N = 13,022), 2) abstract review (N = 2,200), and 3) full text review (N = 265)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543029/temporal-trends-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-a-modern-american-sample
#3
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542893/the-burden-of-rare-cancers-in-the-united-states
#4
Carol E DeSantis, Joan L Kramer, Ahmedin Jemal
There are limited published data on the burden of rare cancers in the United States. By using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the authors provide information on incidence rates, stage at diagnosis, and survival for more than 100 rare cancers (defined as an incidence of fewer than 6 cases per 100,000 individuals per year) in the United States. Overall, approximately 20% of patients with cancer in the United States are diagnosed with a rare cancer...
May 19, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542734/cost-related-medication-nonadherence-among-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#5
Sapna Kaul, Jaqueline C Avila, Hemalkumar B Mehta, Ana M Rodriguez, Yong-Fang Kuo, Anne C Kirchhoff
BACKGROUND: This study investigated cost-related medication nonadherence among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer and a comparison group in the United States. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2013 to 2015 National Health Interview Survey was performed. N=953 patients who were diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 15 and 39 years were identified, and a comparison group was created using propensity scores. Cost-related medication nonadherence was determined by individuals' report of skipping medication, taking less medication, or delaying filling medication to save money in the previous year...
May 23, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540287/it-s-a-process-reactions-to-hiv-diagnosis-and-engagement-in-hiv-care-among-high-risk-heterosexuals
#6
Alexandra H Kutnick, Marya Viorst Gwadz, Charles M Cleland, Noelle R Leonard, Robert Freeman, Amanda S Ritchie, Talaya McCright-Gill, Kathy Ha, Belkis Y Martinez
After HIV diagnosis, heterosexuals in high-poverty urban areas evidence delays in linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation compared to other groups. Yet barriers to/facilitators of HIV care among these high-risk heterosexuals are understudied. Under the theory of triadic influence, putative barriers to HIV care engagement include individual/attitudinal-level (e.g., fear, medical distrust), social-level (e.g., stigma), and structural-level influences (e.g., poor access). Participants were African-American/Black and Hispanic adults found newly diagnosed with HIV (N = 25) as part of a community-based HIV testing study with heterosexuals in a high-poverty, high-HIV-incidence urban area...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538508/central-nervous-system-disease-education-and-race-impact-radiation-refusal-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#7
Chirayu G Patel, Mark Stavas, Stephanie Perkins, Eric T Shinohara
To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538274/prevalence-of-pulmonary-embolism-among-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-discharges-a-decade-of-analysis-of-the-national-hospital-discharge-survey
#8
Srinadh Annangi, Tirumala Rao Dammalapati, Snigdha Nutalapati, Marshaleen N Henriques King
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life threatening preventable medical condition involving sudden occlusion of arteries within the lungs. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory disorder and therefore independently poses a risk of PE. We aimed to determine the association of SLE and PE using National Hospital Discharge Survey data, a national representative sample of hospital discharges throughout the United States. METHODS: Retrospective population-based analysis was done using National Hospital Discharge Survey data for the period 2001 to 2010...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537948/current-techniques-and-outcomes-in-hysteroscopic-sterilization-current-evidence-considerations-and-complications-with-hysteroscopic-sterilization-micro-inserts
#9
James Casey, Laura Cedo-Cintron, Jessica Pearce, Amanda Yunker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current data regarding effectiveness, complications, postoperative evaluation, and surgical interventions associated with Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. RECENT FINDINGS: Hysteroscopic sterilization is a commonly performed procedure that is offered as a well tolerated, effective, outpatient method of permanent sterilization. Over the past several years, concerns have been raised regarding correct placement and postoperative complications...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537845/high-rates-of-access-to-health-care-disclosure-of-sexuality-and-gender-identity-to-providers-among-house-and-ball-community-members-in-new-york-city
#10
Sean Cahill, Sarah Trieweiler, John Guidry, Nelisa Rash, Layla Stamper, Kerith Conron, Nicole Turcotte, Ilana Gratch, Paige Lowry
The House and Ball community is an important cultural manifestation of resiliency for Black and Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender women. Participants at the August, 2013 House of Latex Ball in New York City were surveyed about insurance coverage, health care access, experiences in health care, and housing instability. The sample (n = 367) was 58% Black/African American and 20% Hispanic/Latino, with a mean age of 31. Fifty-five percent were gay and bisexual men. While only 6% identified as transgender, nearly half were gender nonconforming...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535171/cumulative-lactation-and-onset-of-hypertension-in-african-american-women
#11
Ellen M Chetwynd, Alison M Stuebe, Lynn Rosenberg, Melissa Troester, Diane Rowley, Julie R Palmer
Hypertension affects nearly one of three women and contributes to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Breastfeeding leads to metabolic changes that could reduce risks of hypertension. Hypertension disproportionately affects black women, but rates of breastfeeding lag behind the general population. In the Black Women's Health Study (N = 59,001), we conducted a nested case control analysis using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the association between breastfeeding and incident hypertension at ages 40-65 using data collected from 1995 to 2011...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534304/an-american-crisis-the-lack-of-black-men-in-medicine
#12
Cato T Laurencin, Marsha Murray
The current state of diversity within the US medical workforce does not reflect representative numbers of the Black male population. Research data continues to reveal continuing trends in the areas of discrimination, incarceration, health disparities, and mortality with respect to Black males. The lack of increase in Black male medical school applications and matriculation contrasted by the continuing trends mentioned above illustrates that there is in fact an American crisis. We present here a call to arms, to address the need of African-American men in medicine...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534189/national-trends-in-bariatric-surgery-2012-2015-demographics-procedure-selection-readmissions-and-cost
#13
Scott Kizy, Cyrus Jahansouz, Michael C Downey, Nathanael Hevelone, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Daniel Leslie
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely accepted as the best treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have become the predominant bariatric procedures in the USA over the last several years, although the most recent trends in selection are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess selection trends, readmission rates, and cost of bariatric procedures in the USA from 2012 to 2015...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532892/a-decade-of-studying-implicit-racial-ethnic-bias-in-healthcare-providers-using-the-implicit-association-test
#14
Ivy W Maina, Tanisha D Belton, Sara Ginzberg, Ajit Singh, Tiffani J Johnson
Disparities in the care and outcomes of US racial/ethnic minorities are well documented. Research suggests that provider bias plays a role in these disparities. The implicit association test enables measurement of implicit bias via tests of automatic associations between concepts. Hundreds of studies have examined implicit bias in various settings, but relatively few have been conducted in healthcare. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the role of implicit bias in healthcare disparities...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531909/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-interval-colorectal-cancer-incidence-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Stacey A Fedewa, W Dana Flanders, Kevin C Ward, Chun Chieh Lin, Ahmedin Jemal, Ann Goding Sauer, Chyke A Doubeni, Michael Goodman
Background: Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for 3% to 8% of all cases of CRC in the United States. Data on interval CRC by race/ethnicity are scant. Objective: To examine whether risk for interval CRC among Medicare patients differs by race/ethnicity and whether this potential variation is accounted for by differences in the quality of colonoscopy, as measured by physicians' polyp detection rate (PDR). Design: Population-based cohort study...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530431/socioeconomic-status-and-parenting-during-adolescence-in-relation-to-ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-black-and-white-men
#16
Karen A Matthews, Jennifer M Boylan, Karen P Jakubowski, Jenny M Cundiff, Laisze Lee, Dustin A Pardini, J Richard Jennings
OBJECTIVE: American Heart Association (AHA) developed a new metric to evaluate ideal cardiovascular health based on optimal levels of 7 cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. We evaluated the relationships of parenting characteristics and academic achievement in adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in midlife men. METHOD: We measured cardiovascular risk factors in 171 Black and 136 White men and their ideal cardiovascular health score was constructed based on AHA guidelines...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529398/are-mothers-and-fathers-parenting-characteristics-associated-with-emerging-adults-academic-engagement
#17
Emily A Waterman, Eva S Lefkowitz
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers' and fathers' parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance...
June 2017: Journal of Family Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528463/facebook-advertising-to-recruit-young-urban-women-into-an-hiv-prevention-clinical-trial
#18
Rachel Jones, Lorraine J Lacroix, Eloni Porcher
Advertising via Facebook to elicit involvement in clinical trials has demonstrated promise in expanding geographic reach while maintaining confidentiality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Facebook advertising to reach at-risk, predominately African American or Black women in higher HIV prevalence communities for an HIV prevention clinical trial, and to compare baseline characteristics to those recruited on-the-ground. Maintaining confidentiality and the practical aspects of creating and posting ads on Facebook are described...
May 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527750/estimating-serum-concentrations-of-dioxin-like-compounds-in-the-u-s-population-effective-2005-2006-and-2007-2008-a-multiple-imputation-and-trending-approach-incorporating-nhanes-pooled-sample-data
#19
Anne Bichteler, Daniele S Wikoff, Francis Loko, Mark A Harris
Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are monitored in the U.S. population using data collected with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Until recently, participants' serum samples have been analyzed individually, and summary statistics defining reference ranges by age, gender, and race/ethnicity have served as the background by which other biomonitoring data can be evaluated. In the most recent NHANES DLC data, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008, participants' sera have been physically pooled prior to laboratory analysis, introducing major challenges to their utility as a reference population: variability among individuals and relations with covariates are lost, and individual design effects cannot be applied...
May 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527746/sugar-restriction-leads-to-increased-ad-libitum-sugar-intake-by-overweight-adolescents-in-an-experimental-test-meal-setting
#20
Gillian A O'Reilly, David S Black, Jimi Huh, Jaimie N Davis, Jennifer Unger, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. DESIGN: This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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