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Sex transmitted disease

Francis M Jiggins
A common symbiont of insects, the bacterium Wolbachia has been implicated in phenomena as diverse as sex determination, pathogen defence and speciation and is being used in public health programs to prevent mosquitoes transmitting disease. Despite decades of research, we know remarkably little about how it exerts its effects.
October 19, 2016: BMC Biology
David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad E Nelson, Ram Rangsin
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand was first recognized in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. Soon thereafter, HIV infections were reported among female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Routine serological surveillance for HIV began in 1991 among young men who were conscripted annually into the Royal Thai Army (RTA). The data from these populations provided a national population-based sample to determine sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among sexually active young men...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Yingying Su, Guowei Ding, Kathleen H Reilly, Jessie L Norris, Huixin Liu, Zheng Li, Guixiang Wang, Ganggang Fang, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to loss to follow-up (LTFU) due to this population's high mobility and low willingness to self-identify as FSWs. LTFU in cohort studies is a critical problem and may lead to bias in estimation of incidence and exposure-outcome associations. The aim of this study was to analyze LTFU and HIV incidence and their associated factors in a 9-year longitudinal study of FSWs in Kaiyuan, Yunnan Province, China. METHODS: This analysis includes all HIV-1 seronegative FSWs who were recruited into a prospective study in Kaiyuan with at least one follow-up visit after enrollment from March 2006 to November 2013...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Peiwen Liu, Yunqiao Dong, Jinbao Gu, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Yang Wu, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic organisms, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) control the activities of mobile genetic elements and ensure genome maintenance. Recent evidence indicates that piRNAs are involved in multiple biological pathways, including transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, sex determination and even interactions between host and pathogens. Aedes albopictus is a major invasive species that transmits a number of viral diseases in humans. Ae. albopictus has the largest genome and the highest abundance of repetitive sequences when compared with members that belong to Culicidae with a published genome...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Liying Zhang, Iqbal H Shah, Xiaoming Li, Yuejiao Zhou, Chen Zhang, Lihong Zhang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Yan Cui, Jinping Xu
HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are increasingly used in China during routine medical care visits to health facilities. However, limited data are available regarding the association between the utilization of HTC services and condom use among low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) who are at high risk of HIV infection but are hard to reach. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 794 low-paid FSWs in a city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2011. Results showed that 71.7% of low-paid FSWs had utilized HTC services in the previous year and 65...
August 15, 2016: AIDS Care
Leonardo Josué Castro-Muñoz, César Antonio González-Díaz, Aide Muñoz-Escobar, Brisna Joana Tovar-Ayona, Luz María Aguilar-Anguiano, Rebeca Vargas-Olmos, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy
OBJETIVE: H. pylori infection is acquired early in life, but symptoms occur mainly in adults. The mode of transmission remains unclear, but several studies have demonstrated that the microorganism may be transmitted orally. H. pylori has been detected in the oral cavity of children, and some authors have studied infection prevalence due to the importance of the bacteria in gastric and extragastric pathology. In México, little is known about H. pylori prevalence in the oral cavity of asymptomatic children, so the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of H...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Mingyue Duan, Jinfeng Xiong, Dandan Lu, Guoxiu Wang, Hui Ai
Mosquito-transmitted diseases like malaria and dengue fever are global problem and an estimated 50-100 million of dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever cases are reported worldwide every year. The mermithid nematode Romanomermis wuchangensis has been successfully used as an ecosystem-friendly biocontrol agent for mosquito prevention in laboratory studies. However, this nematode can not undergo sex differentiation in vitro culture, which has seriously affected their application of biocontrol in the field. In this study, based on transcriptome sequencing analysis of R...
2016: PloS One
Anna L Hotton, Basmattee Boodram
Persons who inject drugs (PWID) may be at risk of acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from risky sexual practices and elevated disease prevalence within their drug injection and sexual networks. We conducted a personal (egocentric) network study of young PWID (aged 18-30) from the Chicago metropolitan area. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations evaluated associations between individual and network factors and sexual behaviors. Of 162 participants, 116 (71.6 %) were non-Hispanic White and 135 reported on 314 sexual network members...
September 16, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Stacey W Martin, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis...
September 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ling Xue, Carrie A Manore, Panpim Thongsripong, James M Hyman
We develop and analyse an ordinary differential equation model to investigate the transmission dynamics of releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to establish an endemic infection in a population of wild uninfected mosquitoes. Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic bacteria that can infect mosquitoes and reduce their ability to transmit some viral mosquito-transmitted diseases, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika. Although the bacterium is transmitted vertically from infected mothers to their offspring, it can be difficult to establish an endemic infection in a wild mosquito population...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Nicola Low, Shelagh Redmond, Anneli Uusküla, Jan van Bergen, Helen Ward, Berit Andersen, Hannelore Götz
BACKGROUND: Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Screening of sexually active young adults to detect and treat asymptomatic infections might reduce chlamydia transmission and prevent reproductive tract morbidity, particularly pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can cause tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of chlamydia screening versus standard care on chlamydia transmission and infection complications in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men...
September 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gloria Ruiz-Guzmán, José Ramos-Castañeda, Angélica Hernández-Quintero, Jorge Contreras-Garduño
Parasites can be transmitted either or both, vertically or horizontally, but the costs or benefits for the host due to infection have only been tested after horizontal transmission. Here as far as we know, is reported for the first time the survival, reproduction and infection of Aedes aegypti during vertical and horizontal transmission of Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). Females infected horizontally produced more eggs with a sex ratio skewed to males compared to uninfected controls. However, there was a not significant difference on the number of emerging adults or mothers survival...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Donald Gerke, Elizabeth L Budd, Kathryn Plax
OBJECTIVE: Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Christine M Khosropour, Julia C Dombrowksi, James P Hughes, Lisa E Manhart, Matthew R Golden
Enrolling large numbers of high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies is necessary for research with an HIV outcome, but the resources required for in-person recruitment can be prohibitive. New methods with which to efficiently recruit large samples of MSM are needed. At a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington, in 2013-2014, we used an existing clinical computer-assisted self-interview that collects patients' medical and sexual history data to recruit, screen, and enroll MSM into an HIV behavioral risk study and compared enrollees with men who declined to enroll...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Moosa Khosravani, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard, Mehdi Sharafi, Azam Rafat-Panah
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Alex de Voux, James B Kent, Kathryn Macomber, Karen Krzanowski, Dawn Jackson, Tayneata Starr, Sandra Johnson, Deborah Richmond, Lawrence R Crane, Jonathan Cohn, Christopher Finch, Jevon McFadden, Allan Pillay, Cheng Chen, Laurie Anderson, Ellen N Kersh
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with invasive Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3 (1). LGV is characterized by inguinal and/or femoral lymphadenopathy, typically following a transient, self-limited genital ulcer or papule that might go unnoticed. Rectal infection can result in proctocolitis that can present with mucoid and/or hemorrhagic rectal discharge, anal pain, constipation, fever, and tenesmus, and signs of granulomas and/or ulcerations on anoscopy (1,2)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
V Nollet, L Souply, B Rosolen, M Mohseni-Zadeh, M Martinot
Pasteurellosis is a frequent zoonosis mainly transmitted by cats and dogs. Invasive forms of pasteurellosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study aimed to highlight risk factors (RFs) for invasive pasteurellosis. We included patients with positive Pasteurella samples. The clinical forms were classified as invasive or local pasteurellosis. We evaluated 13 RFs: age, sex, alcohol use, tobacco use, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic inflammatory disease, chronic osteoarticular disease, immunosuppression, and progressive cancers...
August 18, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Sandra Brignol, Ligia Kerr, Leila Denise Amorim, Inês Dourado
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM); therefore, we investigated the sociodemographic, biological, and sexual behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection in the city of Salvador, Bahia. This study is part of the national survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among men who have sex with men in 10 Brazilian Cities, which is a cross-sectional survey whose participants were selected by means of the respondent-driven sampling...
April 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Valerie A Paz-Soldan, Josh Yukich, Amara Soonthorndhada, Maziel Giron, Charles S Apperson, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Coby Schal, Amy C Morrison, Joseph Keating, Dawn M Wesson
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap...
2016: PloS One
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