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detective medicine

Gael Sentís, Emilio Bagan, John Calsamiglia, Giulio Chiribella, Ramon Muñoz-Tapia
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Vineeta Gupta, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Sanjay Khattri
BACKGROUND: Various uses of metals in industries, including the domestic sphere, agriculture, medicine, and technology, have led to their wide distribution in the environment. These result in raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Because of their high degree of toxicity, Cd, Cr, and Pb are some of the priority metals that are of public health significance. The levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni were measured in Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 40 patients and 40 healthy controls, and stored at -80 °C until assayed...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Ingela Lanekoff
Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Alistair E W Johnson, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Shamim Nemati, Katherine E Niehaus, David A Clifton, Gari D Clifford
Clinical data management systems typically provide caregiver teams with useful information, derived from large, sometimes highly heterogeneous, data sources that are often changing dynamically. Over the last decade there has been a significant surge in interest in using these data sources, from simply re-using the standard clinical databases for event prediction or decision support, to including dynamic and patient-specific information into clinical monitoring and prediction problems. However, in most cases, commercial clinical databases have been designed to document clinical activity for reporting, liability and billing reasons, rather than for developing new algorithms...
February 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE
Chao Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Guang Yang, Yan Jin, Libing Liu, Yuyang Zhao, Luqi Huang
Inaccurate labeling of materials used in herbal products may compromise the therapeutic efficacy and may pose a threat to medicinal safety. In this paper, a rapid (within 3 h), sensitive and visual colorimetric method for identifying substitutions in terminal market products was developed using cationic conjugated polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (CCP-based FRET). Chinese medicinal materials with similar morphology and chemical composition were clearly distinguished by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ni Lin, Tiantian Liu, Lin Lin, Sheng Lin, Qingce Zang, Jiuming He, Zeper Abliz, Chao Li, Aiping Wang, Hongtao Jin
The standard of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) existed in dextrose injection as an inevitable by-product during high-temperature setrilization has been included in pharmacopoeias considering its hazardous effects on human health. We found that the concentrations of 5-HMF in some traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) far exceeded its limit in dextrose injection. Besides, we detected 5, 5'-Oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural) (OMBF) in those TCMIs containing high concentrations of 5-HMF. We investigated the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of 5-HMF and OMBF at three dose levels using the reporter antigen popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA), which allows the straightforward examination and mechanistic study of immunotoxicity of low molecular weight compounds...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Rujuta Katkar, Douglas D Steffy, Marcel Noujeim, S Thomas Deahl, Hassem Geha
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milliamperage, number of basis images, and export slice thickness on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and confidence in detecting mandibular canal. STUDY DESIGN: Two phantoms were used. Each phantom consisted of a dry mandible with an epoxy resin bone tissue substitute block and a water-equivalent block, submerged in water. Each mandible was scanned with a Morita 3D Accuitomo cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) machine (Morita, Kyoto, Japan)...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jihe Li, Dongxia Tong, Juan Liu, Fuyang Chen, Yongbin Shen
Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of oroxylin A on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. In this study, the ability of oroxylin A to protect against CS-induced lung inflammation was detected in vivo and in vitro. Oroxylin A was administered intraperitoneally to mice 2h prior CS exposure every day for five consecutive days. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and RAW264...
October 17, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Duk Hwan Kim, Soo Jung Park, Jae Hee Cheon, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Sung Pil Hong
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether a pre-training program influences the entire learning process and overall proficiency of colonoscopy during fellowship. METHODS: From March 2011 to February 2013, a total of 28 first-year gastrointestinal fellows were trained in colonoscopy at a single tertiary center. Before entering their fellowship training, all fellows were board certified in internal medicine, but had no experience performing a full colonoscopy...
2016: PloS One
Jin Sun Lee, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, John W Park
Recent technological advancements in rare cell analysis have facilitated the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast and other types of cancers. Numerous clinical studies involving the enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer patients have unequivocally demonstrated the prognostic value of these cells. Evidence from recent molecular studies indicates that CTCs may be potential surrogate markers for systemic disease. As such, real-time assessment of therapeutic biomarkers in breast CTCs, such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may have a tremendous impact in guiding-targeted cancer therapy...
October 19, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Outi Laatikainen, Sami Sneck, Risto Bloigu, Minna Lahtinen, Timo Lauri, Miia Turpeinen
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jie Zhang, Jiao Peng, Xiaoyong Chen, Yajun Gong, Lesheng Wan, Fei Gao, Suran Gan, Feng Wei, Shuangcheng Ma, Jiachun Chen, Jing Nie
Snake bile, a precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used as the major ingredient of some Chinese patent drugs, such as Shedan Chuanbei powder and Shedan Chenpi powder for hundred years. However, there is still requirement for the comprehensive and definite composition of bile acids in snake bile. In order to rapidly identify the bile acids constituents in snake bile to avoid the adulteration, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) has been applied to conduct a qualitative analysis on snake bile acids...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Michela Malvisi, Fiorentina Palazzo, Nicola Morandi, Barbara Lazzari, John L Williams, Giulio Pagnacco, Giulietta Minozzi
Paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which is endemic worldwide. In dairy herds, it is responsible for huge economic losses. However, current diagnostic methods do not detect subclinical infection making control of the disease difficult. The identification of MAP infected animals during the sub-clinical phase of infection would play a key role in preventing the dissemination of the pathogen and in reducing transmission...
2016: PloS One
Grace Yim, Wenliang Wang, Maulik N Thaker, Stephanie Tan, Gerard D Wright
Modification of natural product backbones is a proven strategy for the development of clinically useful antibiotics. Such modifications have traditionally been achieved through medicinal chemistry strategies or via in vitro enzymatic activities. In an orthogonal approach, engineering of biosynthetic pathways using synthetic biology techniques can generate chemical diversity. Here we report the use of a minimal teicoplanin class glycopeptide antibiotic (GPA) scaffold expressed in a production-optimized Streptomyces coelicolor strain to expand GPA chemical diversity...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Lingyan Tao, Qing Zhang, Yongjiang Wu, Xuesong Liu
In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Heidi Stoll, Heidrun Steinle, Katharina Stang, Silju Kunnakattu, Lutz Scheideler, Bernd Neumann, Julia Kurz, Ilka Degenkolbe, Nadja Perle, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Meltem Avci-Adali
Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of biomaterials codetermine the success of tissue engineering applications. DNA, the natural component of our cells, is an auspicious biomaterial for the generation of designable scaffolds with tailorable characteristics. In this study, a combination of rolling circle amplification and multiprimed chain amplification is used to generate hydrogels at centimeter scale consisting solely of DNA. Using an in vitro rotation model and fresh human blood, the reaction of the hemostatic system on DNA hydrogels is analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Vojtěch Ledvina, Eva Janečková, Eva Matalová, Karel Klepárník
Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Narayan Dolai, Aminul Islam, Pallab Kanti Haldar
OBJECTIVE: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as "Kadam" in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
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