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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208064/mitochondrial-genes-are-altered-in-blood-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Katie Lunnon, Aoife Keohane, Ruth Pidsley, Stephen Newhouse, Joanna Riddoch-Contreras, Elisabeth B Thubron, Matthew Devall, Hikka Soininen, Iwona Kłoszewska, Patrizia Mecocci, Magda Tsolaki, Bruno Vellas, Leonard Schalkwyk, Richard Dobson, Afshan N Malik, John Powell, Simon Lovestone, Angela Hodges
Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease in the brain and blood, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are unknown. Here we have replicated our previous findings demonstrating reduced expression of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits and subunits required for the translation of mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes in blood from people with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Interestingly this was accompanied by increased expression of some mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes, namely those residing closest to the transcription start site of the polycistronic heavy chain mitochondrial transcript (MT-ND1, MT-ND2, MT-ATP6, MT-CO1, MT-CO2, MT-C03) and MT-ND6 transcribed from the light chain...
January 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177040/clinical-pathological-and-molecular-evaluations-and-ct-scan-screening-of-coenurosis-coenurus-cerebralis-in-sheep-and-calves
#2
Abdullah Gazioglu, Sami Simsek, Omer Kizil, Ali Osman Ceribasi, Harun Kaya Kesik, Haroon Ahmed
The aims of this study were to diagnose coenurosis by means of computerized tomography (CT) scan imaging and molecular characterization of the CO1 gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sheep and calves were necropsied, and CT scans on the cephalic region were performed on the animals. Sections of brain tissue infected with parasites were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Material collected from brain cysts was fixed in 70% ethanol. PCR amplification was carried out using the CO1 mitochondrial gene...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126462/exploring-genetic-variation-in-haplotypes-of-the-filariasis-vector-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae-through-dna-barcoding
#3
Chithravel Vadivalagan, Pushparaj Karthika, Kadarkarai Murugan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Paola Del Serrone, Giovanni Benelli
Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions...
January 23, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116960/proposed-synonymy-for-micropogonias-altipinnis-g%C3%A3-nther-1864-micropogonias-ectenes-jordan-gilbert-1882-and-micropogonias-megalops-gilbert-1890
#4
Geremías Sánchez-Pinedo, Noé Díaz-Viloria, José L Ortiz-Galindo, Nelson Ferreira-Fontoura, Ricardo Perez-Enriquez, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, José De La Cruz-Agüero
Within the Sciaenidae family, the genus Micropogonias is composed of three recognized species along the Pacific coast of Mexico: Micropogonias altipinnis, M. ectenes, and M. megalops. These species exhibit overlapping diagnostic characters, which make species identification difficult. This study ties morphological differences (meristic, morphometry of body, and otolith) with DNA sequences (CO1 and 16S fractions of mtDNA and 28S of nDNA) among Micropogonias species in the Pacific. Meristic analysis showed a latitudinal variation among the three species in the number of rays, the number of gill rakers, and length of the longest spine of the dorsal fin...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096620/epidural-analgesia-in-cattle-buffalo-and-camels
#5
REVIEW
Zuhair Bani Ismail
Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058653/achievement-of-diverse-domain-structures-in-soft-magnetic-thin-film-through-adjusting-intrinsic-magnetocrystalline-anisotropy
#6
Juanying Jiao, Tao Wang, Tianyong Ma, Ying Wang, Fashen Li
Oriented soft magnetic hcp-Co1 - x Ir x films with a fixed thickness of 120 nm were fabricated. All prepared films exhibit soft magnetic properties but various magnetocrystalline anisotropies with the variation of Ir content. The measured data shows that diverse domain structures including the Néel wall, Bloch wall, and stripe domains present in a fixed film thickness. It is singular for the single-layer soft magnetic film to possess diverse domains in a fixed thickness. This phenomenon was explained by introducing intrinsic magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy into soft magnetic films rather than the structural parameters of the film, inner stress, and microstructure effect...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028141/first-records-of-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-a-known-vector-of-bluetongue-virus-in-southern-ontario
#7
A Jewiss-Gaines, L Barelli, F F Hunter
Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) were collected on sheep farms in southern Ontario to establish whether Culicoides spp pose a threat to the livestock industry. Specimens were collected in modified CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, returned to the laboratory, freeze-killed, and identified to species under a microscope. In addition to Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), we found that Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones occurred on a number of farms over a 2-yr period. These records represent a significant departure from C...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012955/exploring-the-shell-based-taxonomy-of-the-sri-lankan-land-snail-corilla-h-and-a-adams-1855-pulmonata-corillidae-using-mitochondrial-dna
#8
D C Raheem, K Breugelmans, C M Wade, F C Naggs, T Backeljau
The land-snail genus Corilla is endemic to Sri Lanka and India's Western Ghats. The ten extant Sri Lankan species belong to two distinct shell forms that are associated respectively with lowland and montane rainforest. We here present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis for Corilla. Our dataset includes nine nominal Sri Lankan species and is based on three mitochondrial genes (CO1, ND1 and 16S). Although the deeper nodes in the trees are not fully resolved, the results do suggest speciation in Corilla has involved repeated, ecologically-driven convergence in shell form...
December 22, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011185/novel-rickettsia-and-emergent-tick-borne-pathogens-a-molecular-survey-of-ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-in-shimba-hills-national-reserve-kenya
#9
Micky M Mwamuye, Edward Kariuki, David Omondi, James Kabii, David Odongo, Daniel Masiga, Jandouwe Villinger
Ticks are important vectors of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, the majority of which originate from wildlife. In recent times, this has become a global public health concern that necessitates surveillance of both known and unknown tick-borne pathogens likely to be future disease threats, as well as their tick vectors. We carried out a survey of the diversity of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Kenya's Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR), an area with intensified human-livestock-wildlife interactions, where we collected 4297 questing ticks (209 adult ticks, 586 nymphs and 3502 larvae)...
September 5, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002977/prenatal-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-leads-to-increased-mitochondrial-dna-content-in-umbilical-cord-serum-associated-to-reduced-gestational-age
#10
Francesca Pirini, Lynn R Goldman, Ethan Soudry, Rolf U Halden, Frank Witter, David Sidransky, Rafael Guerrero-Preston
We investigated if prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke lead to changes in mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNA) in cord serum and adversely affect newborns' health. Umbilical cord serum cotinine levels were used to determine in utero exposure to smoking. Cord serum mtDNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the genes coding for cytochrome c oxidase1 (MT-CO1) and cytochrome c oxidase2 (MT-CO2). Log transformed levels of mtDNA coding for MT-CO1 and MT-CO2 were significantly higher among infants of active smokers with higher serum level of cotinine (p < 0...
February 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991489/rapid-dissemination-of-taxonomic-discoveries-based-on-dna-barcoding-and-morphology
#11
Xiaowei Cao, Jie Liu, Jian Chen, Guo Zheng, Matjaž Kuntner, Ingi Agnarsson
The taxonomic impediment is characterized by dwindling classical taxonomic expertise, and slow pace of revisionary work, thus more rapid taxonomic assessments are needed. Here we pair rapid DNA barcoding methods with swift assessment of morphology in an effort to gauge diversity, establish species limits, and rapidly disseminate taxonomic information prior to completion of formal taxonomic revisions. We focus on a poorly studied, but diverse spider genus, Pseudopoda, from East Asia. We augmented the standard barcoding locus (COI) with nuclear DNA sequence data (ITS2) and analyzed congruence among datasets and species delimitation methods for a total of 572 individuals representing 23 described species and many potentially new species...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989758/low-level-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-reduces-oocyte-developmental-competence-in-association-with-impaired-gene-expression
#12
D Kalo, Z Roth
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), are reproductive toxicants. However, disruptive effects of MEHP at low concentrations on the oocyte and developing blastocyst are unknown. Previously, we detected low levels of MEHP in follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows associated with reduced estradiol levels. Moreover, the MEHP concentrations found were similar to those reported for follicular fluid aspirated from women who have undergone IVF cycles...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957492/effect-of-dynamic-interaction-between-microrna-and-transcription-factor-on-gene-expression
#13
Qi Zhao, Hongsheng Liu, Chenggui Yao, Jianwei Shuai, Xiaoqiang Sun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs which participate in diverse biological processes in animals and plants. They are known to join together with transcription factors and downstream gene, forming a complex and highly interconnected regulatory network. To recognize a few overrepresented motifs which are expected to perform important elementary regulatory functions, we constructed a computational model of miRNA-mediated feedforward loops (FFLs) in which a transcription factor (TF) regulates miRNA and targets gene...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919931/low-mt-co1-in-monocytes-and-microvesicles-is-associated-with-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Katarzyna Bloch, Pieter Baatsen, Peter Sinnaeve, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase (COX) IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Impaired COX gene expression is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but whether it is directly related to the incidence of cardiovascular events is unknown. We investigated whether COX gene expression in monocytes is predictive for cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients. To avoid monocyte isolation from fresh blood, we then aimed to validate our findings in monocyte-derived microvesicles isolated from plasma...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888418/suppression-of-mtor-signaling-pathway-promotes-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation-into-osteoblast-in-degenerative-scoliosis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#15
Yu Wang, Xiao-Dong Yi, Chun-De Li
To investigate the role of mTOR signaling pathway in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into osteoblast in degenerative scoliosis (DS). The rat model of DS was established. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and divided into the normal control group, the positive control group (normal rats injected with rapamycin), the negative control group (DS rats injected with PBS) and the experiment group (DS rats injected with rapamycin). H&E staining was performed to observe the osteogenesis of scoliosis...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871204/dna-barcoding-of-a-colonial-ascidian-lissoclinum-fragile-van-name-1902
#16
Jaffarali H Abdul, Soban Akram, Kaleem M L Arshan
Ascidians (tunicates) are marine benthic organisms possessing various pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, antimicrobial, etc. They also play a key role as model organisms to study various neurobehavioral disorders. Ascidian diversity is reportedly less in India due to lack of taxonomists as well as the limitations in morphology based taxonomy. Molecular taxonomy, comprising the sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (barcode region) otherwise known as DNA barcoding reduces these bottlenecks...
November 22, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868209/determination-of-lithium-and-transition-metals-in-li1-ni1-3-co1-3-mn1-3-o2-ncm-cathode-material-for-lithium-ion-batteries-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#17
Britta Vortmann-Westhoven, Constantin Lürenbaum, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
In this work, we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 material were separated by CE and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the RSDs and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with ICP-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
November 21, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862438/effects-of-metal-blending-in-random-bimetallic-single-chain-magnets-synergetic-antagonistic-or-innocent
#18
Yan-Qin Wang, Qi Yue, En-Qing Gao
A family of isomorphous three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks based on bimetallic (FeCo, FeNi, and CoNi) chains with random metal sites have been prepared and magnetically characterized. The solid-solution-type bimetallic materials inherit intrachain ferromagnetic interactions and single-chain-magnet (SCM) behaviors from the homometallic parent materials. Interestingly, different composition dependence of magnetic behaviors has been found. The Fe(II)1-x Ni(II)x series (0≤x≤1) show an innocent composition dependence, where the blocking temperature of slow relaxation decreases monotonically as Fe(II) is replaced by less anisotropic Ni(II) ...
November 15, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714453/life-cycle-and-biology-of-tristriata-anatis-digenea-notocotylidae-morphological-and-molecular-approaches
#19
Anna Gonchar, Kirill V Galaktionov
Notocotylids are common digeneans parasitising birds and mammals. They have a two-host life cycle with cercariae encysting in the open. Particular life cycles remain unknown for majority of notocotylid species, including a common parasite of sea ducks Tristriata anatis. Here we resolve the life cycle of T. anatis by means of D2 LSU, ITS1 and CO1 DNA sequence analysis, showing that the first intermediate hosts for this species are periwinkles Littorina spp. Morphological descriptions of rediae and cercariae are provided for the first time, and we also supplement the existing morphological data on adults...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707419/molecular-characterization-and-detection-of-variants-of-taenia-multiceps-in-sheep-in-turkey
#20
Betul Sonmez, Ergun Koroglu, Sami Simsek
Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals...
February 2017: Parasitology
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