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Anna Gonchar, Kirill V Galaktionov
Notocotylids are common digeneans parasitising birds and mammals. They have a two-host life cycle with cercariae encysting in the open. Particular life cycles remain unknown for majority of notocotylid species, including a common parasite of sea ducks Tristriata anatis. Here we resolve the life cycle of T. anatis by means of D2 LSU, ITS1 and CO1 DNA sequence analysis, showing that the first intermediate hosts for this species are periwinkles Littorina spp. Morphological descriptions of rediae and cercariae are provided for the first time, and we also supplement the existing morphological data on adults...
October 7, 2016: Parasitology Research
Betul Sonmez, Ergun Koroglu, Sami Simsek
Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Jeffery R Hughey, Max H Hommersand, Paul W Gabrielson, Kathy Ann Miller, Timothy Fuller
Next generation sequence data were generated and used to assemble the complete plastomes of the holotype of Membranoptera weeksiae, the neotype (designated here) of M. tenuis, and a specimen examined by Kylin in making the new combination M. platyphylla. The three plastomes were similar in gene content and length and showed high gene synteny to Calliarthron, Grateloupia, Sporolithon, and Vertebrata. Sequence variation in the plastome coding regions were 0.89% between M. weeksiae and M. tenuis, 5.14% between M...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Jenna R McGugan, Gary D Byrd, Alexandre B Roland, Stephanie N Caty, Nisha Kabir, Elicio E Tapia, Sunia A Trauger, Luis A Coloma, Lauren A O'Connell
Our recent publication titled "Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog" aimed to describe how variation in diet contributes to population differences in toxin profiles of poison frogs. Some poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae) sequester alkaloid toxins from their arthropod diet, which is composed mainly of ants and mites. Our publication demonstrated that arthropods from the stomach contents of three different frog populations were diverse in both chemistry and species composition...
August 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Wayne P Maddison
The lyssomanine jumping spider genus Sumakuru gen. n. is here described for Sumakuru bigal sp. n., from the Bigal River Biological Reserve in Ecuador. Known from a single male, the embolus of the palp takes the form of a smoothly arching curve, and appears fully mobile, being connected to the tegulum by a thin sclerite and a twisted hematodocha. Data from four gene regions (28S, 16SND1, CO1, wingless) indicate that Sumakuru is the sister group to all other sampled lyssomanines, diverging deeply on the stem lineage of the clade of other known lyssomanines...
2016: ZooKeys
S Manjura Hoque, Yuegao Huang, Emiliano Cocco, Samuel Maritim, Alessandro D Santin, Erik M Shapiro, Daniel Coman, Fahmeed Hyder
Ferrite-based ferri/superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be rapidly heated by an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) to induce tissue necrosis of the adjacent microenvironment, but in addition provide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast utilizing enhanced water relaxivity. Here we characterized nanoensembles of Fe-Co mixed spinel ferrites (i.e. Fex Co1-x Fe2 O4 , where x ranges from 0.2 to 0.8) synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. With nanoensembles of increasing Co content the saturation magnetization improved, while lattice parameter remained relatively constant...
September 22, 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Areum Jun, Junyoung Kim, Jeeyoung Shin, Guntae Kim
Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Qi-Pin Qin, Jiao-Lan Qin, Ting Meng, Wan-Hua Lin, Chuan-Hui Zhang, Zu-Zhuang Wei, Jia-Nian Chen, Yan-Cheng Liu, Hong Liang, Zhen-Feng Chen
Two G-quadruplex ligands: [Co(H-L(a))2Cl2] (Co1) and [Co(L(b))2][CoCl4]⋅2H2O (Co2) have been synthesized and characterized. Two cobalt oxoisoaporphine complexes exhibited selective cytotoxicity to SK-OV-3/DDP cells than for HL-7702 cells. Cytotoxic mechanism studies indicated that both Co1 and Co2 were telomerase inhibitor targeting c-myc, telomere, and bcl-2 G4s, and triggering cell senescence and apoptosis, which caused S phase arrest. They also induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The better antitumor activity of Co2, which should be correlated with a moiety of 2-[5-(2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]pyridine in the L(b)...
August 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Md Razia Sultana, Pankaj K Bagul, Parameshwar B Katare, Soheb Anwar, Raju Padiya, Sanjay K Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. METHODS: Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl)...
August 30, 2016: Life Sciences
Renata Oliveira, Ewen W Sommerville, Kyle Thompson, Joana Nunes, Angela Pyle, Manuela Grazina, Patrick F Chinnery, Luísa Diogo, Paula Garcia, Robert W Taylor
Mitochondrial translation defects are important causes of early onset mitochondrial disease. Although the biochemical (combined respiratory chain deficiency) signature and neuroimaging are usually distinctive, they are not diagnostic as the genetic origin of mitochondrial translation defects is heterogeneous. We report a female child, born at term to non-consanguineous parents, who exhibited global hypotonia, failure to thrive, persistent and progressive hyperlactacidaemia with lactic acidosis, liver dysfunction and encephalopathy and died at the age of 5 months...
August 30, 2016: JIMD Reports
Rodney N Nagoshi, Todd M Gilligan, Julieta Brambila
The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New World, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is morphologically very similar, with the two species capable of producing fertile hybrids in the laboratory. The consequences of such hybridization in the field are uncertain, but could result in significant and unpredictable changes in the timing, range, and pesticide susceptibilities of Helicoverpa infestations...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jonathan A Coddington, Ingi Agnarsson, Ren-Chung Cheng, Klemen Čandek, Amy Driskell, Holger Frick, Matjaž Gregorič, Rok Kostanjšek, Christian Kropf, Matthew Kweskin, Tjaša Lokovšek, Miha Pipan, Nina Vidergar, Matjaž Kuntner
The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios "barcodes" (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists...
2016: PeerJ
Philippe Borsa, Kang-Ning Shen, Irma S Arlyza, Thierry B Hoareau
Previous investigations have uncovered divergent mitochondrial clades within the blue-spotted maskray, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle). The hypothesis that the blue-spotted maskray may consist of a complex of multiple cryptic species has been proposed, and four species have been recently described or resurrected. To test the multiple cryptic species hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and coalescence patterns of mitochondrial sequences in a sample of 127 new individuals from the Indian Ocean and the Coral Triangle region, sequenced at both the CO1 and cytochrome b loci...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Thomas G Rosser, Wes A Baumgartner, Neely R Alberson, Ethan T Woodyard, Stephen R Reichley, David J Wise, Linda M Pote, Matt J Griffin
In the southeastern USA, catfish aquaculture is burdened by predation from piscivorous birds and the digenetic trematodes they carry. In addition to cultured ictalurid fish, other forage or incidental fish species inhabit catfish production ponds. Of these, the inland silverside Menidia beryllina was recently found to harbor larval metacercariae of several trematode species. Three species of metacercariae were reported, two of which represent the first morphological descriptions of an Austrodiplostomum sp. and Bolbophorus sp...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Kun Feng, Jun Zhong, Binhua Zhao, Hui Zhang, Lai Xu, Xuhui Sun, Shuit-Tong Lee
Ammonia-borane (AB) is an excellent material for chemical storage of hydrogen. However, the practical utilization of AB for production of hydrogen is hindered by the need of expensive noble metal-based catalysts. Here, we report Cux Co1-x O nanoparticles (NPs) facilely deposited on graphene oxide (GO) as a low-cost and high-performance catalyst for the hydrolysis of AB. This hybrid catalyst exhibits an initial total turnover frequency (TOF) value of 70.0 (H2 ) mol/(Cat-metal) mol⋅min, which is the highest TOF ever reported for noble metal-free catalysts, and a good stability keeping 94 % activity after 5 cycles...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Ting Hui Ng, Siong Kiat Tan, Wing Hing Wong, Rudolf Meier, Sow-Yan Chan, Heok Hui Tan, Darren C J Yeo
The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e...
2016: PloS One
Peter R Last, Bernard Séret
An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa)...
2016: Zootaxa
Erifylli Roinioti, Aegli Papathanassopoulou, Ioanna Theodoropoulou, Sami Simsek, Georgios Theodoropoulos
Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Jaakko Lumme, Pasi Anttila, Päivi Rintamäki, Perttu Koski, Atso Romakkaniemi
The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the Tornio River in the Northern Baltic Sea basin accommodates a monogenean ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus salaris. The aim of the study was to understand the population structure of apparently co-adapted host-parasite system: no parasite-associated mortality has been reported. The parasite burden among salmon juveniles (parr) was monitored along 460km of the river in 2000-2009. Among the parr, 33.0% were infected (nfish=1913). The genetic structure of the parasite population was studied by sequencing an anonymous nuclear DNA marker (ADNAM1, three main genotypes) and mitochondrial CO1 (three clades, six haplotypes)...
August 6, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Martina Weiss, Florian Leese
BACKGROUND: The actual connectivity between populations of freshwater organisms is largely determined by species biology, but is also influenced by many area- and site-specific factors, such as water pollution and habitat fragmentation. Therefore, the prediction of effective gene flow, even for well-studied organisms, is difficult. The amphipod crustacean Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater ecosystems and contains many cryptic species. One of these species is the broadly distributed G...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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