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Fecal microbiota

Mingfei Zeng, Huachuan Cao
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dale N Gerding, Ciaran P Kelly, Galia Rahav, Christine Lee, Erik R Dubberke, Princy N Kumar, Bruce Yacyshyn, Dina Kao, Karen Eves, Misoo C Ellison, Mary E Hanson, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr
Background: Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B indicated to prevent CDI recurrence (rCDI) in adults at high risk for rCDI. This post-hoc analysis of pooled MODIFY I/II data assessed bezlotoxumab efficacy in participants with characteristics associated with increased risk for rCDI. Methods: The analysis population was the modified Intent-to-Treat population who received bezlotoxumab or placebo (n=1554) by risk factors for rCDI that were prespecified in the statistical analysis plan: age ≥65 years, history of CDI, compromised immunity, severe CDI, and ribotype 027/078/244...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention. METHODS: We investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Rene Y Choi, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are many shared clinical manifestations between IBD and spondyloarthritis (SpA), of which the most common are peripheral arthritis and uveitis. Clinical overlap along with similar genetics between these diseases suggests a possible shared pathogenetic mechanism, which might center on the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we discuss the available evidence that SpA is a microbiome-driven disease and indicate how SpA-associated uveitis could be tied to gut dysbiosis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Jairo Perez-Sanz, Kyle K Payne, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J Allegrezza, Ricardo A Chaurio, Carmen Anadon, Joseph Calmette, Subir Biswas, Jessica A Mine, Tara Lee Costich, Logan Nickels, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Melanie R Rutkowski, Jose R Conejo-Garcia
Due to their cytotoxic activities, many anticancer drugs cause extensive damage to the intestinal mucosa and have antibiotic activities. Here, we show that cisplatin induces significant changes in the repertoire of intestinal commensal bacteria that exacerbate mucosal damage. Restoration of the microbiota through fecal-pellet gavage drives healing of cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. Bacterial translocation to the blood stream is correspondingly abrogated, resulting in a significant reduction in systemic inflammation, as evidenced by decreased serum IL-6 and reduced mobilization of granulocytes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matthew K Doherty, Tao Ding, Charlie Koumpouras, Shannon E Telesco, Calixte Monast, Anuk Das, Carrie Brodmerkel, Patrick D Schloss
The fecal microbiota is a rich source of biomarkers that have previously been shown to be predictive of numerous disease states. Less well studied is the effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the microbiota and its role in response to therapy. This study explored associations between the fecal microbiota and therapeutic response of Crohn's disease (CD) patients treated with ustekinumab (UST; Stelara) in the phase 2 CERTIFI study. Using stool samples collected over the course of 22 weeks, the composition of these subjects' fecal bacterial communities was characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Chuyan Long, Yan Yu, Bota Cui, Sabreen Abdul Rahman Jagessar, Jie Zhang, Guozhong Ji, Guangming Huang, Faming Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and value of a quick technique for transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) through mid-gut. METHODS: A prospective interventional study was performed in a single center. A TET tube was inserted into mid-gut through the nasal orifice and fixed on the pylorus wall by one tiny titanium endoscopic clip under anesthesia. The feasibility, safety, success rate, and satisfaction with TET placement were evaluated for enteral nutrition or fecal microbiota transplantation...
March 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Diego Moreno-Pérez, Carlo Bressa, María Bailén, Safa Hamed-Bousdar, Fernando Naclerio, Manuel Carmona, Margarita Pérez, Rocío González-Soltero, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Claudia Carabaña, Mar Larrosa
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( n = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( n = 12) for 10 weeks...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Shoji Tsuji, Chikushi Suruda, Masaki Hashiyada, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Atsushi Akane, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND: While the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [INS]; characterized by repeated relapses and comorbid allergic conditions) remains unknown, recent evidence suggests that dysfunction in regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays an important role in the development of INS as well as allergic diseases. We hypothesized that dysbiosis involving decreased butyric acid-producing gut microbiota leads to defective induction and differentiation of peripherally induced Tregs, resulting in INS relapse...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Williams Turpin, Larbi Bedrani, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Wei Xu, Mark S Silverberg, Michelle I Smith, David S Guttman, Anne Griffiths, Paul Moayyedi, Remo Panaccione, Hien Huynh, Hillary Steinhart, Guy Aumais, Konstantin Shestopaloff, Levinus A Dieleman, Dan Turner, Andrew D Paterson, Kenneth Croitoru
Heritability analysis of the microbiota has demonstrated the importance of host genotype in defining the human microbiota. The alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase 2 encoded by FUT2 is involved in the formation of the H antigen and the SNP, rs601338 is associated with ABO histo-blood group antigen secretion in the intestinal mucosa. Previous studies have provided non replicated results for the association of this polymorphism with the composition and inferred function of intestinal microbiota. We aimed to assess this relationship in a large cohort of 1,190 healthy individuals...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
Zhaohua Shen, Changxin Zhu, Yongsheng Quan, Jinming Yang, Wei Yuan, Zhenyu Yang, Shuai Wu, Weiwei Luo, Bei Tan, Xiaoyan Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of Roseburia intestinalis (R.intestinalis) in Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: 16S-rRNA genome sequencing technique is used to detect the characteristics of intestinal microbiota in untreated CD patients and healthy controls. Then we investigate the effects of R.intestinalis on disease activity index (DAI) score, intestinal pathology, the differentiation of Treg cells and the expressions of TSLP, TGF-β, IL-10 by using TNBS colitis models...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Megan A S Penno, Katrina M Ngui, Nadim J Ajami, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Stephen A Wilcox, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, John M Wentworth, Simon C Barry, Cheryl Y Brown, Jennifer J Couper, Joseph F Petrosino, Anthony T Papenfuss, Leonard C Harrison
To optimise fecal sampling for reproducible analysis of the gut microbiome, we compared different methods of sample collection and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes at two centers. Samples collected from six individuals on three consecutive days were placed in commercial collection tubes (OMNIgeneGut OMR-200) or in sterile screw-top tubes in a home fridge or home freezer for 6-24 h, before transfer and storage at -80 °C. Replicate samples were shipped to centers in Australia and the USA for DNA extraction and sequencing by their respective PCR protocols, and analysed with the same bioinformatic pipeline...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Youngji Cho, Galeb Abu-Ali, Hiroki Tashiro, David I Kasahara, Traci A Brown, Jeffrey D Brand, Joel A Mathews, Curtis Huttenhower, Stephanie A Shore
Previous reports demonstrate that the microbiome impacts allergic airway responses, including airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. Here we examined the role of the microbiome in pulmonary responses to a non-allergic asthma trigger, ozone. We depleted the microbiota of conventional mice with either a single antibiotic (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, or vancomycin) or a cocktail of all four antibiotics given via the drinking water. Mice were then exposed to room air or ozone. In air-exposed mice, airway responsiveness was not different in antibiotic- versus control water-treated mice...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Laura-Isobel McCall, Anupriya Tripathi, Fernando Vargas, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Góra Bartłomiej, Gofron Zygmunt, Grosiak Magdalena, Aptekorz Małgorzata, Kazek Beata, Kocelak Piotr, Radosz-Komoniewska Halina, Chudek Jerzy, Martirosian Gayane
Infectious factors are taken into consideration in pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD patients often suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The intestinal microbiota of autistic patients significantly differs from that in healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the profile of toxins produced by C. perfringens strains isolated from feces of children with ASD, with healthy individuals and obese subjects. This study included 111 strains of C. perfringens: 49 isolates from 29 children with ASD, 30 - from 17 healthy individuals and 32 - from 24 young obese subjects...
March 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Xingcui Wang, Lei Zhang, Ying Wang, Xuemei Liu, Hongxia Zhang, Yi Liu, Nan Shen, Junjie Yang, Zhongtao Gai
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the intestinal microbiota have been associated with the development of allergic diseases, such as asthma and food allergies. However, there is no report detailing the role of microbiota alterations in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) development. METHOD: A total of 85 children with HSP and 70 healthy children were recruited for this study. Intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Fecal microbial diversity and composition were compared...
March 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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