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Fecal microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791992/role-of-the-duodenum-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia-a-paradigm-shift
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and post-infectious gastroenteritis in FD has been reported and confirmed...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791473/the-fecal-bacterial-microbiota-of-bats-slovenia
#2
Modest Vengust, Tea Knapic, J Scott Weese
METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 92 bats in Slovenia, consisting of 12 different species, and the bacterial microbiota was assessed via next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region. RESULTS: Sequences were assigned to 28 different phyla, but only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria accounted for ≥1% of sequences. One phylum (Proteobacteria), one class (Gammaproteobacteria), three orders (Pseudomonadales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales), four families (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Carnobacteriaceae), and five genera (Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Carnobacterium, an unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter) accounted for 50% of sequences...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790949/fecal-microbiota-composition-changes-after-a-body-weight-loss-diet-in-beagle-dogs
#3
A Salas, I Jeusette, I Castillo, C L Manuelian, C Lionnet, N Iraculis, N Sanchez, S Fernández, L L Vilaseca, C Torre
In developed countries, dogs and cats frequently suffer from obesity. Recently, gut microbiota composition in humans has been related to obesity and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition, and gut microbiota composition in obese Beagle dogs after a 17-week body weight (BW) loss program. A total of six neutered adult Beagle dogs with an average initial BW of 16.34 ± 1.52 kg and BCS of 7.8 ± 0.1 points (9-point scale) were restrictedly fed with a hypocaloric, low-fat and high-fiber dry-type diet...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790376/plateau-hypoxia-attenuates-the-metabolic-activity-of-intestinal-flora-to-enhance-the-bioavailability-of-nifedipine
#4
Juanhong Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Yuemei Sun, Rong Wang, Junmin Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788410/differentiation-between-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-based-on-fecal-scent-proof-of-principle-study
#5
Sofie Bosch, Nora van Gaal, Roy P Zuurbier, James A Covington, Alfian N Wicaksono, Maarten H Biezeveld, Marc A Benninga, Chris J Mulder, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Background: The diagnostic work-up of pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain-not otherwise specified (FAP-NOS) commonly includes invasive tests for discrimination from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As this carries a high burden on patients, an ongoing need exists for development of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for IBS and FAP-NOS. Several studies have shown microbiota alterations in IBS/FAP, which are considered to be reflected by fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787870/oral-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-and-serum-metabolism
#6
Juan Liu, Shijun Yue, Zhirui Yan, Wuwen Feng, Xintong Meng, Aiting Wang, Cheng Peng, Changyun Wang, Dan Yan
Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity, the safe and effective treatment of obesity would be beneficial. Here, we examined whether oral hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active compound from the dried florets of Carthamus tinctorius L., can reduce high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 J mice. Our results showed that the average body weight of HF group treated by HSYA was significantly lower than that of the HF group (P < 0.01). HSYA also reduced fat accumulation, ameliorated insulin resistance, restored glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, enhanced intestinal integrity, and increased short-chain fatty acids ((SCFAs)) production in HF diet-fed mice...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784074/effects-of-fenbendazole-impregnated-feed-and-topical-moxidectin-during-quarantine-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Scott W Korte, Craig L Franklin, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Aaron C Ericsson
To protect the biosecurity of research rodent colonies, research institutions frequently require a quarantine period for live animals transferred into their facilities. Quarantine practices often include antibiotic and antiparasitic treatment with drugs such as fenbendazole and macrolide lactones. The influence of these compounds on the resident gut microbiota of mice is unknown, and any effects might subsequently affect model reproducibility. To test the influence of standard quarantine procedures on the composition of the microbiota, C57BL/6 mice, purchased from 2 different commercial suppliers, were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 12) by vendor and treated with fenbendazole-supplemented feed, topical moxidectin, both treatments, or no treatment (control), according to our institution's standard treatment regimen and duration...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782468/potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-als-pathogenesis-and-possible-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#8
Letizia Mazzini, Luca Mogna, Fabiola De Marchi, Angela Amoruso, Marco Pane, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Francesca Gaggìa, Ausiliatrice Lucenti, Enrica Bersano, Roberto Cantello, Diana Di Gioia, Giovanni Mogna
BACKGROUND: Recent preclinical studies suggest that dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract may play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis through a modification of the gut microbiota brain axis. Our study is the first focused on microbiota analysis in ALS patients. AIM: Our aim was to study the main human gut microbial groups and the overall microbial diversity in ALS and healthy subjects. Moreover we have examined the influence of a treatment with a specific bacteriotherapy composed of Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius) acting on the gastrointestinal barrier...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#9
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780597/outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-results-from-a-prospective-study-with-long-term-follow-up
#10
Chao Ding, Wenting Fan, Lili Gu, Hongliang Tian, Xiaolong Ge, Jianfeng Gong, Yongzhan Nie, Ning Li
Background and aim: Gut microbiota may contribute to regulate colonic motility, which is involved in the etiology of constipation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been demonstrated to restore intestinal homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of FMT for the treatment of slow transit constipation (STC). Methods: Fifty-two patients with STC received standardized FMT and were followed up for 6 months...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#11
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777439/fecal-and-mucosa-associated-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773467/human-microbiome-restoration-and-safety
#13
REVIEW
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Charles Nkufi Tango, Byong H Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh
The human gut microbiome consists of many bacteria which are in symbiotic relationship with human beings. The gut microbial metabolism, as well as the microbial-host co-metabolism, has been found to greatly influence health and disease. Factors such as diet, antibiotic use and lifestyle have been associated with alterations in the gut microbial community and may result in several pathological conditions. For this reason, several strategies including fecal microbiota transplant and probiotic administration have been applied and proven to be feasible and effective in restoring the gut microbiota in humans...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771345/sucrose-metabolism-alters-lactobacillus-plantarum-survival-and-interactions-with-the-microbiota-in-the-digestive-tract
#14
Xiaochen Yin, Dustin D Heeney, Yanin Tab Srisengfa, Shin-Yu Chen, Carolyn M Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated whether sucrose metabolism by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum influences the intestinal survival and microbial responses to this organism when administered to mice fed a sucrose-rich, Western diet. A L. plantarum mutant unable to metabolize sucrose was constructed by deleting scrB, coding for beta-fructofuranosidase, in a rifampicin-resistant strain of L. plantarum NCIMB8826. The ScrB deficient mutant survived in 8-fold higher numbers compared to the wild-type strain when measured 24 h after administration on two consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771163/review-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-as-a-treatment-option-in-ibd
#15
Kavitha Sivananthan, Andreas Munk Petersen
CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles...
May 17, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770190/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-dissolved-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-on-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#16
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuko Hirai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yuji Naito
Increasing evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen-dissolved alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) has various physiological activities such as antioxidative activity. Gut microbiota are deeply associated with our health through a symbiotic relationship. Recent reports have described that most gastrointestinal microbial species encode the genetic capacity to metabolize molecular hydrogen, meaning that molecular hydrogen might affect the gut microbial composition. Nevertheless, AEW effects on gut microbiota remain unknown...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#17
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761927/on-the-potential-role-of-intestinal-microbial-community-in-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#18
REVIEW
Ashraf Mohamadkhani
The chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most potent risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association of intestinal microbiota alteration with progressive liver disease has been investigated in recent studies. Overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria of gram-negative species and, in particular, a significant increase in the fecal count of Escherichia coli (E. coli) are characterized in the presence of HCC. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota related to the presence of HCC in HBV-carrier patients...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760423/simultaneous-amelioratation-of-colitis-and-liver-injury-in-mice-by-bifidobacterium-longum-lc67-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lc27
#19
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Jeon-Kyung Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Disturbances in the gut microbiota composition are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine and the liver. In a preliminary study, Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 could inhibit Escherichia coli growth and lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation linked to gut inflammation. Here, we investigated their effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and liver damage in mice. First, oral administration of LC27 or LC67 (1 × 109 CFU/mouse) inhibited TNBS-induced colon shortening [F(5,30) = 100...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758946/gut-microbiome-is-altered-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Zhen-Qian Zhuang, Lin-Lin Shen, Wei-Wei Li, Xue Fu, Fan Zeng, Li Gui, Yang Lü, Min Cai, Chi Zhu, Yin-Ling Tan, Peng Zheng, Hui-Yun Li, Jie Zhu, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xian-Le Bu, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies suggest that gut microbiota is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression. However, whether the composition and diversity of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we collected fecal samples from 43 AD patients and 43 age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the microbiota composition in feces...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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