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Fecal microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348587/comparative-analyses-of-fecal-microbiota-in-chinese-isolated-yao-population-minority-zhuang-and-rural-han-by-16srna-sequencing
#1
Ming Liao, Yuanliang Xie, Yan Mao, Zheng Lu, Aihua Tan, Chunlei Wu, Zhifu Zhang, Yang Chen, Tianyu Li, Yu Ye, Ziting Yao, Yonghua Jiang, Hongzhe Li, Xiaoming Li, Xiaobo Yang, Qiuyan Wang, Zengnan Mo
The gut microbiome in humans is associated with geography, diet, lifestyles and so on, but its relationship with some isolated populations is not clear. We used the 16sRNA technique to sequence the fecal microbiome in the Chinese isolated Yao population and compared it with the major minority Zhuang and the major ethnic Han populations living in the same rural area. Information about diet frequency and health status and routine serum measurements were collected. The unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis showed significant structural differences in fecal microbiota among the three ethnic groups...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#2
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343312/fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-decolonization-administered-during-septic-shock
#3
Srinivasa Nithin Gopalsamy, Amy Sherman, Michael H Woodworth, Joseph D Lutgring, Colleen S Kraft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343276/the-antihyperlipidemic-effects-of-fullerenol-nanoparticles-via-adjusting-the-gut-microbiota-in-vivo
#4
Juan Li, Runhong Lei, Xin Li, Fengxia Xiong, Quanyang Zhang, Yue Zhou, Shengmei Yang, Yanan Chang, Kui Chen, Weihong Gu, Chongming Wu, Gengmei Xing
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles (NPs) administered orally will meet the gut microbiota, but their impacts on microbiota homeostasis and the consequent physiological relevance remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the modulatory effects and the consequent pharmacological outputs of two orally administered fullerenols NPs (Fol1 C60(OH)7(O)8 and Fol113 C60(OH)11(O)6) on gut microbiota. RESULTS: Administration of Fol1 and Fol113 NPs for 4 weeks largely shifted the overall structure of gut microbiota in mice...
January 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340896/analysis-of-fecal-microbiota-in-patients-with-functional-constipation-undergoing-treatment-with-synbiotics
#5
Lin Sheng Huang, Cheng Kong, Ren Yuan Gao, Xuebing Yan, Hong Jing Yu, Bin Wen, Qi Zhu, Tong Yi Shen, Zhen Liang Sun, Huan Long Qin
This study was performed to identify changes to microbial composition after treatment with synbiotics in patients with functional constipation and to define the key microbiota in the pathogenesis of functional constipation. Fecal samples from 53 patients diagnosed with chronic functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After treatment with synbiotics for 1 month, fecal samples were collected from 36 patients; after a total of 3 months, fecal samples were collected from 15 patients...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339259/perturbations-of-the-gut-microbiome-genes-in-infants-with-atopic-dermatitis-according-to-feeding-type
#6
Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Eun Lee, Kangjin Kim, Sungho Won, Dong In Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Sheen, Kangmo Ahn, Bong-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape the development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of the gut microbiome in atopic dermatitis, the metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types. METHODS: The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6-month-old) by pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with atopic dermatitis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338886/overweight-and-obesity-status-in-pregnant-women-are-related-to-intestinal-microbiota-and-serum-metabolic-and-inflammatory-profiles
#7
Noora Houttu, Kati Mokkala, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity may predispose women to clinical complications during their pregnancy. We hypothesize that a higher degree of overweight status is related to a range of aberrations in biomarkers already in early pregnancy. Our objective was to investigate whether intestinal microbiota, serum metabolic and inflammatory profiles differ in relation to the degree of overweight status in pregnant women. METHODS: This study investigated 52 overweight and 47 obese pregnant women in early pregnancy...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337072/valorization-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-to-prebiotic-oligosaccharide-production-xylanase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-in-vitro-evaluation-with-probiotic-strains-and-in-a-batch-human-fecal-fermentation-model
#8
Mursalin Sajib, Peter Falck, Roya R R Sardari, Sindhu Mathew, Carl Grey, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336930/exploring-ways-to-improve-cdi-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
T Galpérine, B Guery
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacillus recognized as an evolving international health problem. Metronidazole and vancomycin were - until recently - the only drugs available to treat C. difficile infection (CDI). Better knowledge of the pathophysiology and the development of new drugs completely modified the management of initial episodes and recurrences of CDI. Fidaxomicin significantly reduced recurrences compared with vancomycin. New drugs are also currently evaluated (cadazolid, surotomycin, ridinilazole, rifaximin)...
January 11, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336929/economic-burden-and-cost-effective-management-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#10
REVIEW
S M Heimann, M R Cruz Aguilar, S Mellinghof, M J G T Vehreschild
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. We performed a literature review of the overall economic burden of initial and recurrent CDI as well as of the cost-effectiveness of the various treatment strategies applied in these settings. Even though analysis of health economic data is complicated by the limited comparability of results, our review identified several internationally consistent results. Authors from different countries have shown that recurrent CDI disproportionally contributes to the overall economic burden of CDI and therefore offers considerable saving potential...
January 11, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328543/the-sarda-sheep-host-fecal-proteome
#11
Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Maria Filippa Addis, Daniela Pagnozzi, Sergio Uzzau
We recently reported the first characterization of the sheep fecal microbiota, obtained by using a multi-meta-omic approach. Here, the mass spectra generated by single-run LC/high-resolution MS in the context of that study were reanalyzed using a host-specific database, in order to gain insights for the first time into the host fecal proteome of healthy Sarda sheep. On the whole, 5349 non-redundant tryptic peptide sequences were identified, belonging to 1046 different proteins. The "core" fecal proteome (common to all animals) comprised 431 proteins, mainly related to biological processes as immune response and proteolysis...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326224/draft-genome-sequence-of-megamonas-funiformis-strain-marseille-p3344-isolated-from-a-human-fecal-microbiota
#12
Mossaab Maaloum, Awa Diop, Sokhna Ndongo, Thi-Tien Nguyen, Frederic Cadoret, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
In this article, we present the draft genome sequence of Megamonas funiformis strain Marseille-P3344, isolated from a human fecal sample. The genome described here is composed of 2,464,704 nucleotides, with 2,230 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325007/rifampicin-treatment-of-blattella-germanica-evidences-a-fecal-transmission-route-of-their-gut-microbiota
#13
Tania Rosas, Carlos García-Ferris, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Pablo Llop, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which enables them to accomplish functions that they cannot perform alone. In the German cockroach Blattella germanica, the obligate endosymbiont Blattabacterium coexists with a rich gut microbiota. The transmission of Blattabacterium is vertical but little is known about how the gut microbiota colonizes newborn individuals. In this study, we treated B. germanica populations with rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, during two generations and analyzed gut bacterial composition and the Blattabacterium load in control and rifampicin-treated populations...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#14
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323259/impacts-of-feeding-preweaned-calves-milk-containing-drug-residues-on-the-functional-profile-of-the-fecal-microbiota
#15
Richard Van Vleck Pereira, Laura M Carroll, Svetlana Lima, Carla Foditsch, Julie D Siler, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho, Lorin D Warnick
Feeding drug residue-containing milk to calves is common worldwide and no information is currently available on the impact on the functional profile of the fecal microbiota. Our objective was to characterize the functional profile of the fecal microbiota of preweaned dairy calves fed raw milk with residual concentrations of antimicrobials commonly found in waste milk from birth to weaning. Calves were assigned to a controlled feeding trial being fed milk with no drug residues or milk with antibiotic residues...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318631/early-life-gut-microbiome-and-egg-allergy
#16
Mina Fazlollahi, Yoojin Chun, Alexander Grishin, Robert A Wood, A Wesley Burks, Peter Dawson, Stacie M Jones, Donald Y M Leung, Hugh A Sampson, Scott H Sicherer, Supinda Bunyavanich
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. METHODS: We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316256/immunosuppressive-effect-of-the-gut-microbiome-altered-by-high-dose-tacrolimus-in-mice
#17
Z Zhang, L Liu, H Tang, W Jiao, S Zeng, Y Xu, Q Zhang, Z Sun, A Mukherjee, X Zhang, X Hu
The alterations induced in gut microbiota by tacrolimus may affect immune function and organ transplantation. Mice were treated with a high-dose of tacrolimus for 14 days. The fecal microbiota were analyzed by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA genes, and the effect on metabolism was predicted using the sequence data. The subgroups of T cells in the serum, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and draining lymph nodes were determined by flow cytometry. Tacrolimus treatment significantly altered the relative abundance of Allobaculum, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus and CD4+ CD25hi FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells in the colonic mucosa and the circulation...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313897/influence-of-fruit-and-invertebrate-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-wild-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#18
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311457/-intestinal-microbiota-in-migrating-barn-swallows-around-osaka
#19
Takehiko Kenzaka, Kenji Kataoka, Takashi Fujimitsu, Katsuji Tani
 Migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. The populations of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) migrate from Southeast Asia to the Japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to Southeast Asia during autumn. This migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. However, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the barn swallow...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#20
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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