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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220870/long-term-use-of-ceftriaxone-sodium-induced-changes-in-gut-microbiota-and-immune-system
#1
Yanjie Guo, Xuefei Yang, Yane Qi, Shu Wen, Yinhui Liu, Shaoying Tang, Rongsheng Huang, Li Tang
Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities. Previous studies have all focused on the effects of short term use of antibiotics. Here, we focus on the effects of long term use of antibiotic on gut microbiota and immunity. BALB/c mice received saline or different doses of ceftriaxone sodium (100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) via daily gavage for 150 days. Alterations of fecal microbiota, small intestine histopathology, body weight, spleen index, serum IgG, mucus SIgA, IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were evaluated...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#2
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220041/butyrate-restores-hfd-induced-adaptations-in-brain-function-and-metabolism-in-mid-adult-obese-mice
#3
I A C Arnoldussen, M Wiesmann, C E Pelgrim, E M Wielemaker, W van Duyvenvoorde, P A Santos, L Verschuren, B J F Keijser, A Heerschap, R Kleemann, P Y Wielinga, A J Kiliaan
OBJECTIVE: Midlife obesity affects cognition and increases risk of developing dementia. Recent data suggest that intake of the short chain fatty acid butyrate could improve memory function, and may protect against diet-induced obesity by reducing bodyweight and adiposity. SUBJECTS: We examined the impact of a high fat diet (HFD) followed by intervention with 5% (w/w) dietary butyrate, on metabolism, microbiota, brain function and structure in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mouse model in mid- and late life...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219800/variations-in-gut-microbiota-and-fecal-metabolic-phenotype-associated-with-depression-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-and-lc-ms-based-metabolomics
#4
Meng Yu, Hongmei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Yang Zhao, Maohua Yang, Zhongmei Zou
As a prevalent, life-threatening and highly recurrent psychiatric illness, depression is characterized by a wide range of pathological changes; however, its etiology remains incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence supports that gut microbiota affects not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function and behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To assess the impact of gut microbiota on fecal metabolic phenotype in depressive conditions, an integrated approach of 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) based metabolomics was performed in chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rat model...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217763/impact-of-tigecycline-versus-other-antibiotics-on-the-fecal-metabolome-and-on-colonization-resistance-to-clostridium-difficile-in-mice
#5
Robin L P Jump, David Kraft, Kelly Hurless, Alex Polinkovsky, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: The glycylcycline antibiotic tigecycline may have a relatively low propensity to promote Clostridium difficile infection in part because it causes less disruption of the indigenous intestinal microbiota than other broad-spectrum antibiotics. We used a mouse model to compare the effects of tigecycline versus other commonly used antibiotics on colonization resistance to C. difficile and on the metabolic functions of the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: To assess in vivo colonization resistance to C...
January 18, 2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215985/detection-of-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-genes-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-autistic-children
#6
Sydney M Finegold, Paula H Summanen, Julia Downes, Karen Corbett, Tomoe Komoriya
We studied stool specimens from 33 autistic children aged 2-9 years with gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and 13 control children without autism and without GI symptoms. We performed quantitative comparison of all Clostridium species and Clostridium perfringens strains from the fecal microbiota by conventional, selective anaerobic culture methods. We isolated C. perfringens strains and performed PCR analysis for the main C. perfringens toxin genes, alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and C. perfringens enterotoxin gene...
February 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#7
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198673/diversity-and-enterotype-in-gut-bacterial-community-of-adults-in-taiwan
#9
Chao Liang, Han-Chi Tseng, Hui-Mei Chen, Wei-Chi Wang, Chih-Min Chiu, Jen-Yun Chang, Kuan-Yi Lu, Shun-Long Weng, Tzu-Hao Chang, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chen-Tsung Weng, Hwei-Ming Wang, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal microbiota, particularly gut microbiota, is associated with human health. The biodiversity of gut microbiota is affected by ethnicities and environmental factors such as dietary habits or medicine intake, and three enterotypes of the human gut microbiome were announced in 2011. These enterotypes are not significantly correlated with gender, age, or body weight but are influenced by long-term dietary habits. However, to date, only two enterotypes (predominantly consisting of Bacteroides and Prevotella) have shown these characteristics in previous research; the third enterotype remains ambiguous...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198087/meta-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-urbanized-and-pre-agricultural-populations
#10
REVIEW
Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Metagenomic studies of the human gut microbiome have only recently begun to explore the differences in taxonomic composition between subjects from diverse geographical origins. Here, we compared taxonomy, resistome and functional metabolic properties of publicly available shotgun datasets of human fecal samples collected from different geographical regions (Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania). Such datasets encompassed gut microbiota information corresponding to 13 developed/industrialized societies, as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer, pre-agricultural communities (Tanzanian and Peruvian individuals)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197578/chemical-characterization-of-the-glycated-myofibrillar-proteins-from-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-and-their-impacts-on-the-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro-fermentation
#11
Kaining Han, Ye Yao, Shiyuan Dong, Sun Jin, Hang Xiao, Haohao Wu, Mingyong Zeng
In this study, the chemical characterization of glycoconjugates of myofibrillar proteins from grass carp conjugated with glucose via Maillard reaction for up to 24 h of dry-heating was investigated, and their impacts on the microbial community in vitro human fecal fermentation were firstly evaluated by high-throughput sequencing technologies. The glycation greatly increased the furosine levels in glycoconjugates, which reached the maximum level (2.87 ± 0.08 mg per 100 mg protein) for 9 h of heating, and resulted in the structural changes of myofibrillar proteins based on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis...
February 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196965/genomic-microdiversity-of-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-underlying-differential-strain-level-responses-to-dietary-carbohydrate-intervention
#12
Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Huan Wu, Ruirui Wang, Jian Shen, Linghua Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiaojun Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196533/assessment-of-complementary-feeding-of-canadian-infants-effects-on-microbiome-oxidative-stress-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Wafaa Qasem, Meghan B Azad, Zakir Hossain, Elnaz Azad, Sarah Jorgensen, Sandra Castillo San Juan, Chenxi Cai, Ehsan Khafipour, Trust Beta, L Jackson Roberts, James Friel
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months followed by introduction of iron-rich complementary foods (CFs). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different iron-rich CFs on infant gut inflammation and microbiota. METHODS: Eighty-seven exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive one of the following as their first CF: iron-fortified cereal (Cer), iron-fortified cereal with fruit (Cer + Fr), or meat (M)...
February 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196423/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-is-there-a-role-in-the-eradication-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-intestinal-carriage
#14
Ana Ponte, Rolando Pinho, Margarida Mota
The authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman with four hospitalizations due to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) non responsive to vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Furthermore, intestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) was identified after a positive stool culture in a screening routinely performed in our center in patients recently hospitalized.
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#15
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195066/successful-therapy-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#16
P C Konturek, J Koziel, W Dieterich, D Haziri, S Wirtz, I Glowczyk, K Konturek, M F Neurath, Y Zopf
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea and represents an important burden for healthcare worldwide. Symptoms of severe CDI include watery, foul-smelling diarrhea, peripheral leucocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), acute renal failure, hypotension and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent studies indicate that the main cause of CDI is dysbiosis, an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. The restoration of a healthy gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) recently became more popular...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194448/divergent-relationships-between-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-following-distinct-antibiotic-induced-disruptions
#17
Jocelyn M Choo, Tokuwa Kanno, Nur Masirah Mohd Zain, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Julie E Keeble, Kenneth D Bruce, A James Mason, Geraint B Rogers
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in regulating many aspects of host physiology, and its disruption through antibiotic exposure has been implicated in the development of a range of serious pathologies. The complex metabolic relationships that exist between members of the intestinal microbiota and the potential redundancy in functional pathways mean that an integrative analysis of changes in both structure and function are needed to understand the impact of antibiotic exposure. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to characterize the effects of two clinically important antibiotic treatments, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin-imipenem, on the intestinal microbiomes of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194144/trophic-interactions-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii-during-l-fucose-and-fucosyllactose-degradation
#18
Clarissa Schwab, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Vera Bunesova, Van Thanh Pham, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christophe Lacroix
Fucosyllactoses (2'- or 3'-FL) account for up to 20% of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Infant bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, utilize the lactose moiety to form lactate and acetate, and metabolize L-fucose to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Eubacterium hallii is a common member of the adult gut microbiota that can produce butyrate from lactate and acetate, and convert 1,2-PD to propionate. Recently, a Swiss cohort study identified E. hallii as one of the first butyrate producers in the infant gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#19
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187526/secondary-bile-acid-induced-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis
#20
Hailong Cao, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Baoru Deng, Sinan Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shan Wang, Shenhui Luo, Weiqiang Wang, Yanrong Qi, Jianxin Gao, Xiaocang Cao, Fang Yan, Bangmao Wang
The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, is associated with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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