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Fecal microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087885/absence-of-intestinal-microbiota-increases-%C3%A3-cyclodextrin-stimulated-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#1
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
SCOPE: Non-digestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics for perceived health benefits, among these modulating lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The present study characterized the impact of dietary ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD, 10%, w/w), a cyclic oligosaccharide, on sterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in conventional and also germ-free mice to establish dependency on metabolism by intestinal bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In conventional ßCD-fed C57BL/6J wild-type mice plasma cholesterol decreased significantly (-40%, p<0...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086815/antibiotics-induced-depletion-of-mice-microbiota-induces-changes-in-host-serotonin-biosynthesis-and-intestinal-motility
#2
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Wei Zhao, Lizhi Xu, Hongliang Tian, Jianfeng Gong, Minsheng Zhu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. METHODS: After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079055/intestinal-microbiota-as-a-tetrahydrobiopterin-exogenous-source-in-hph-1-mice
#3
Jaques Belik, Yulia Shifrin, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Jingyi Pan, Michelle C Daigneault, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of a number of regulatory enzymes. Although there are no known BH4 exogenous sources, the tissue content of this biopterin increases with age in GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia-1 (hph-1) mice. Since certain bacteria are known to generate BH4, we hypothesize that generation of this biopterin by the intestinal microbiota contributes to its tissue increase in hph-1 adult mice. The goal of this study was to comparatively evaluate hph-1 mice and wild-type C57Bl/6 controls for the presence of intestinal BH4-producing bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077694/laboratory-testing-of-donors-and-stool-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection
#4
Michael H Woodworth, Emma M Neish, Nancy S Miller, Tanvi Dhere, Eileen M Burd, Cynthia Carpentieri, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Colleen S Kraft
Fecal microbiota transplantation is an efficacious and inexpensive therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile, yet its safety is thought to depend on appropriate fecal donor screening. FDA guidance for regulation of this procedure is in flux but screening and manufacture of fecal material from asymptomatic donors presents many challenges to clinical laboratories. This minireview summarizes FDA regulatory changes, principles of donor selection and recommended laboratory screening for fecal microbiota transplantation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077203/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-older-adults-systematic-review-of-efforts-to-reduce-occurrence-and-improve-outcomes
#5
Leisa L Marshall, Samuel Peasah, Gregg A Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Provide a systematic review of the primary literature on efforts to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurrence and improve outcomes in older adults. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for research studies using search terms CDI, CDI prevention, reduction, control, management, geriatric, elderly, adults 65 years of age and older. The MeSH categories Aged and Aged, 80 and older, were used...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#6
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070463/impact-of-birth-weight-and-postnatal-diet-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-young-adult-guinea-pigs
#7
Kait Al, Ousseynou Sarr, Kristyn Dunlop, Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid, Jeremy Burton, Timothy R H Regnault
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068341/exploring-the-efficacy-of-pooled-stools-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-microbiota-associated-chronic-diseases
#8
Abbas Kazerouni, Lawrence M Wein
Fecal microbiota transplantation is being assessed as a treatment for chronic microbiota-related diseases such as ulcerative colitis. Results from an initial randomized trial suggest that remission rates depend on unobservable features of the fecal donors and observable features of the patients. We use mathematical modeling to assess the efficacy of pooling stools from different donors during multiple rounds of treatment. In the model, there are two types of patients and two types of donors, where the patient type is observable and the donor type (effective or not effective) is not observable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062491/reverse-cholesterol-transport-is-increased-in-germ-free-mice
#9
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiota is emerging as a clinically relevant modulator of atherosclerotic risk. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is an atheroprotective metabolic pathway. How the microbiota impacts RCT has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize cholesterol metabolism and RCT in germ-free mice compared with conventional mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In chow-fed germ-free mice, plasma cholesterol was unchanged, whereas liver cholesterol content was higher (1...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062199/micrornas-and-the-metabolic-hallmarks-of-aging
#10
Berta Victoria, Yury O Nunez Lopez, Michal M Masternak
Aging, the natural process of growing older, is characterized by a progressive deterioration of physiological homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. Metabolically, the aging process is characterized by extensive changes in body composition, multi-tissue/multi-organ insulin resistance, and physiological declines in multiple signaling pathways including growth hormone, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, and sex steroids regulation. With this review, we intend to consolidate published information about microRNAs that regulate critical metabolic processes relevant to aging...
January 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061434/systematic-evaluation-of-supervised-classifiers-for-fecal-microbiota-based-prediction-of-colorectal-cancer
#11
Luoyan Ai, Haiying Tian, Zhaofei Chen, Huimin Chen, Jie Xu, Jing-Yuan Fang
Predicting colorectal cancer (CRC) based on fecal microbiota presents a promising method for non-invasive screening of CRC, but the optimization of classification models remains an unaddressed question. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different supervised machine-learning models in predicting CRC in two independent eastern and western populations. The structures of intestinal microflora in feces in Chinese population (N = 141) were determined by 454 FLX pyrosequencing, and different supervised classifiers were employed to predict CRC based on fecal microbiota operational taxonomic unit (OTUs)...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060858/fermented-papaya-preparation-restores-age-related-reductions-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-cytolytic-activity-in-tube-fed-patients
#12
Yuhzo Fujita, Haruo Tsuno, Jiro Nakayama
Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059923/rationale-for-investigating-stool-metabolites-and-microbiota-in-women-with-fecal-incontinence
#13
Lily A Arya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#14
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052282/changes-in-intestinal-motility-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-rat-stress-model
#15
Takaaki Murakami, Kazuhiro Kamada, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuki Higashimura, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes chronic abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. The etiology involves complicated interactions among visceral hypersensitivity, disorders related to bowel movements, and stress. Changes in the microbiota affect the IBS pathophysiology. We investigated changes in colorectal motility, structure, and microbiota in response to stress due to maternal separation (MS) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration in rats. SUMMARY: Neonatal rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050036/irritable-bowel-syndrome-like-symptoms-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-possible-donor-dependent-complication
#16
Bianca W Chang, Ali Rezaie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049922/comparison-of-fecal-microbiota-of-three-captive-carnivore-species-inhabiting-korea
#17
Choa An, Yumiko Okamoto, Siyu Xu, Kyung Yeon Eo, Junpei Kimura, Naomichi Yamamoto
This study aimed at characterizing fecal microbiota of three captive carnivore species of leopard cats Prionailurus bengalensis, Eurasian otters Lutra lutra and raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides. We used DNA barcoding sequencing to analyze 16S rRNA genes of uncultured bacteria in the feces collected in the Seoul Zoo. The sequencing analyses revealed that: 1) Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum for all three animals; 2) bacterial genus-rank compositions were distinct across species of the animals; and 3) bacterial community memberships were different across species of the studied animals...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#18
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042242/perceptions-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-factors-that-predict-acceptance
#19
Leslie Park, Anjali Mone, Jennifer C Price, Demetrios Tzimas, Jacqueline Hirsh, Michael A Poles, Lisa Malter, Lea Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection, some patients are reluctant to accept this therapy. Our study examined attitudes towards FMT and factors that contribute to patients' acceptance of this treatment. METHODS: We distributed patient surveys at a Veterans Affairs hospital, a public hospital, and an academic faculty practice. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, adjusting for factors associated with FMT acceptance on univariate analysis and prior experience with C...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#20
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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