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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678466/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-oral-probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Na Li, Bin Zheng, Hong-Fu Cai, Yan-Hui Chen, Ming-Qi Qiu, Mao-Bai Liu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalized children and adolescents has been increasing year-on-year. Paediatric CDAD represents a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Probiotics are live organisms thought to improve the microbial balance of the host, counteract disturbances in intestinal flora, and reduce the risk of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. AIM: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the economy of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in children and adolescents receiving antibiotics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615987/mutacin-1140-lantibiotic-variants-are-efficacious-against-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Johan A Kers, Robert E Sharp, Anthony W Defusco, Jae H Park, Jin Xu, Mark E Pulse, William J Weiss, Martin Handfield
Lantibiotics offer an untapped pipeline for the development of novel antibiotics to treat serious Gram-positive (+) infections including Clostridium difficile . Mutacin 1140 (MU1140) is a lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus mutans and acts via a novel mechanism of action, which may limit the development of resistance. This study sought to identify a lead compound for the treatment of C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). Compounds were selected from a saturation mutagenesis library of 418 single amino acid variants of MU1140...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593183/evaluation-of-antigen-positive-toxin-negative-enzyme-immunoassay-results-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Yukinobu Akamatsu, Shota Morishita, Ryo Okamoto, Kensaku Okada, Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Naomi Miyake, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Masaki Nakamoto, Hisashi Shimohiro, Miyako Takata, Akira Yamasaki, Naoto Burioka, Eiji Shimizu
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a challenging nosocomial infectious disease. C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete assay is widely used to detect glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B of C. difficile simultaneously. However, the interpretation of GDH positive/toxin negative results is problematic. We performed a retrospective study of patients with GDH positive/toxin negative results to determine the probability of detecting toxigenic C. difficile and its risk factors. Between April 2012 and March 2017, we investigated cultures of fecal specimens followed by toxin detection tests...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513244/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-gastroenterology-ward-retrospective-analysis
#4
Kinga Podlaszewska, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Anita Gąsiorowska
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile associated colitis became over last years a worldwide medical issue. It involves patients of the Polish hospitals too. The aim of the study was the analysis of CDAD incidence and the course of infection in Gastroenterology Ward of Regional Specialist Hospital of Zgierz, 2012-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the medical documentation of 79 patients with CDAD was performed. Demographic and epidemiological data and the clinical course of infection were analyzed...
February 28, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512244/comparison-of-outcomes-with-vancomycin-or-metronidazole-for-mild-to-moderate-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-among-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Cynthia T Nguyen, Julius Li, Stephanie Anders, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Catherine Staffeld-Coit, Jonathan Hand
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), while metronidazole is recommended as an alternative when oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin are unavailable. However, data are lacking among the solid organ transplant (SOT) population. METHODS: This single center, retrospective cohort study evaluated adult SOT recipients with mild-to-moderate CDAD. Analysis 1 evaluated patients receiving initial therapy with metronidazole vs oral vancomycin for at least 72 hours...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383665/cellular-uptake-and-mode-of-action-of-clostridium-difficile-toxins
#6
Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Holger Barth, Nigel Minton, Klaus Aktories
Research on the human gut pathogen Clostridium difficile and its toxins has gained much attention, particularly as a consequence of the increasing threat to human health presented by emerging hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) are the two major virulence determinants of C. difficile. Both are single-chain proteins with a similar multidomain architecture. Certain hypervirulent C. difficile strains also produce a third toxin, namely binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase). As C. difficile toxins are the causative agents of C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358002/the-effect-of-a-natural-food-based-tube-feeding-in-minimizing-diarrhea-in-critically-ill-neurological-patients
#7
Simone B Schmidt, Willibald Kulig, Ralph Winter, Antje S Vasold, Anette E Knoll, Jens D Rollnik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diarrhea has negative consequences for patients, health care staff and health care costs when neurological patients are fed enterally over long periods. We examined the effect of tube feeding with natural foods in reducing the number of fluid stool evacuations and diarrhea in critically ill neurological patients. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, open-label and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at facilities in Germany specializing in early rehabilitation after neurological damage...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245331/when-omeprazole-met-with-asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-a-postoperative-colon-cancer-patient-a-case-report
#8
Boyu Li, Huachong Ma, Zhenjun Wang, Lihong Liu
RATIONALE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, C. difficile. Asymptomatic C. difficile colonization is the stage in absence of symptoms, with a prevalence of 1.4% to 21% on hospital admission. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) was implicated as a novel potential contributor to CDI. PPIs injection could make asymptomatic C. difficile colonization progress to C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). PATIENT CONCERNS: A postoperative colon cancer patient, who had been taking omeprazole for 4 years after operation, got asymptomatic C...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207702/nagging-presence-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-north-india
#9
Rama Chaudhry, Nidhi Sharma, Nitin Gupta, Kamla Kant, Tej Bahadur, Trupti M Shende, Lalit Kumar, Sushil K Kabra
Introduction: Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhoea (CDAD) is a significant cause of morbidity in hospitalised patients worldwide. The data on clinical epidemiology of this disease in Indian subcontinent is scarce. Aim: To evaluate the risk factors and clinical course of patients with CDAD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was planned at our tertiary care centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, whereby, all patients who had nosocomial diarrhea between 2010 and 2014 were included in the study...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195778/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-in-adult-inpatients-in-a-university-hospital-in-china
#10
Chenjie Tang, Yang Li, Chengcheng Liu, Pengfei Sun, Xu Huang, Wenying Xia, Huimin Qian, Lunbiao Cui, Genyan Liu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is an important disease with rising incidence and mortality in western countries. However, studies about CDAD in China are limited. The aims of this study are to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of CDAD in a university hospital located in Eastern China. METHODS: Diarrhea samples of all adult inpatients were collected for C difficile culture prospectively from August 2013-April 2014. Suspected colonies were identified by biochemical identification cards...
March 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170868/levofloxacin-for-febrile-neutropenia-prophylaxis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-associated-with-reduction-in-hospital-admissions
#11
Samantha S F Lee, Adrienne E Fulford, Maureen A Quinn, Jamie Seabrook, Irina Rajakumar
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic oral levofloxacin in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after receiving consolidation chemotherapy to prevent febrile neutropenia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 50 AML patients who were prescribed levofloxacin and 50 AML patients who were not prescribed levofloxacin post-consolidation chemotherapy between June 2006 and August 2013 at a tertiary academic medical center...
November 23, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#12
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile -associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#13
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044643/fidaxomicin-versus-vancomycin-as-a-first-line-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-in-specific-patient-populations-a-pharmacoeconomic-evaluation
#14
Kelly R Reveles, Jennifer L Backo, Frank A Corvino, Marko Zivkovic, Kelly C Broderick
OBJECTIVES: The reduction in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) with fidaxomicin therapy may reduce hospital readmissions and lead to lower overall CDAD costs. However, studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin as first-line therapy from the U.S. hospital perspective are lacking. This study evaluated the costs associated with utilizing fidaxomicin or vancomycin as a first-line therapy for CDAD in specific patient populations from a U.S. hospital perspective...
December 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991144/colon-sparing-surgery-for-clostridium-difficile
#15
David N Naumann, Aneel Bhangu, Douglas M Bowley
There has been recent evidence from a large multi-center study sponsored by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma that colon-sparing surgery reduces mortality for patients with severe Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) when compared to total colectomy. Amoebic colitis shares many pathologic and clinical features to CDAD, such as worsening diarrhoea, patchy colonic ulceration and necrosis, toxic megacolon, pseudomembranous colitis, perforation, and death. However, published research regarding amoebic colitis is sparse...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966486/use-of-culture-and-elisa-based-toxin-assay-for-detecting-clostridium-difficile-a-neglected-pathogen-a-single-center-study-from-a-tertiary-care-setting
#16
Sujata Lall, Gita Nataraj, Preeti Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-bearing anaerobic bacillus increasingly associated with both community- and hospital-acquired colitis and diarrhea. It is the most common identifiable bacterial cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and one of the most common anaerobic infections. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection includes detection of toxin A/B in stool specimens by direct enzyme immunoassay, culture of pathogen from the stool specimens using a selective agar Cycloserine-Cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), tissue culture assay, and detection of glutamate dehydrogenase an enzyme produced by C...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827811/long-term-taxonomic-and-functional-divergence-from-donor-bacterial-strains-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-immunocompromised-patients
#17
Eli L Moss, Shannon B Falconer, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Mingjie Wang, Hannah Systrom, Jasmin Mahabamunuge, David A Relman, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Ami S Bhatt
Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory or recurrent CDAD and, despite safety concerns, has recently been offered to immunocompromised patients. We investigated the genomics of bacterial composition following FMT in immunocompromised patients over a 1-year period. Metagenomic, strain and gene-level bacterial dynamics were characterized in two CDAD-affected hematopoietic stem cell (HCT) recipients following FMT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814204/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-em-clostridium-difficile-em-associated-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#18
REVIEW
Paul Moayyedi, Yuhong Yuan, Harith Baharith, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a useful approach for treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have recently evaluated its effectiveness, but systematic reviews have focused on evidence from case series. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of FMT for treating CDAD. STUDY DESIGN: We included RCTs that primarily recruited adults with CDAD and compared the effectiveness of FMT with that of placebo, antibiotic therapy, or autologous stool transplantation, or compared different preparations or modes of delivery of FMT...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774865/shifts-in-antimicrobial-consumption-and-infection-rates-before-and-during-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage
#19
S Travis King, Katie E Barber, Jason J Parham, Kayla R Stover
OBJECTIVES: Anti-infective shortages represent a growing threat to optimum management of infected patients and alter the institutional selective pressure against hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact of a shortage of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) on overall antibacterial use and HAI rates at an academic institution. METHODS: Antimicrobial use and infection data were extracted from TheraDoc Clinical Surveillance Software (Premier, Inc...
December 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764868/modeling-new-immunoregulatory-therapeutics-as-antimicrobial-alternatives-for-treating-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Vida Abedi, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Caroline Stewart, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
The current treatment paradigm in Clostridium difficile infection is the administration of antibiotics contributing to the high rates of recurrent infections. Recent alternative strategies, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and anti-toxin antibodies, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD). However, barriers exist for either treatment or other novel treatments to displace antibiotics as the standard of care. To aid in the comparison of these and future treatments in CDAD, we developed an in silico pipeline to predict clinical efficacy with nonclinical results...
May 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
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